APPENDIX ESPIEGEL GROVE STATE PARK, THE HAYES HOME-STEAD, AND THE HAYES MEMORIAL LI-BRARY AND MUSEUMBY LUCY ELLIOT KEELER
Spiegel Grove, the beautiful twenty-five acre grove of native
American trees, is a portion of the historic site of the free city
of the neutral nation of the Eries, who three centuries ago built
two fortified towns on opposite sides of the Sandusky River.
The site of this free city, where later the Wyandots (or Hurons)
made a village, was on the great natural runway of the earliest
French explorers and missionaries and their Indian allies in
passing from the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes to the Ohio
and the Mississippi. This old French and Indian Trail was
along the westerly bank of the Sandusky-Scioto water course
from Lake Erie to the Ohio River. Both passed through the old
free city at the lower rapids of the Sandusky (now Fremont),
the trail extending for over half a mile through Spiegel Grove.
This trail was traversed by the early Frenchmen and by French
war parties with their Indian allies from Detroit, in their en-
deavor to expel the British from the Ohio country, and was the
common meeting-ground of the war parties and exploring parties
of both the French from Detroit and the British from Fort Pitt.
On the capture of Quebec in 1759 by the British, the French
surrendered all their territory in North America, and the British
sent out an expedition under Rogers to take over the French
forts. Old Fort Sandoske, originally built by British traders in
1745, but destroyed and rebuilt and destroyed again in the contest
between the French and the British, was rebuilt and left in com-
mand of Ensign Pauli. The great Ottawa chief Pontiac refused
(429)430 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
to be delivered to the British and organized his great conspiracy
which early in the spring of 1763 resulted in "nine of the British
forts yielding instantly, Detroit and Fort Pitt alone escaping cap-
ture. Sandoske was the first to fall." Captain Dalyell with 260
men, marching to the relief of Detroit during its siege by Pontiac,
came upon the ruins of old Fort Sandoske, on Marblehead
peninsula, July 26, 1763, and furious at the devastation and the
sight of the decomposing bodies of Pauli's little garrison, he re-
solved on some measure of retribution. Marching inland to the
Huron village on the site of the old neutral town at the lower
rapids of the Sandusky, now Fremont, he burned it to the ground,
and destroyed the adjacent fields of standing corn.
In the spring of 1764, General Gage, in command of the British
forces in America, sent Colonel Bradstreet from Albany and
Colonel Bouquet from Fort Pitt to punish Pontiac and his con-
federates and to regain possession of the western forts. Brad-
street's force numbered 1,183, Israel Putnam, later the Revolu-
tionary patriot, being in command of the Connecticut battalion.
The present Fremont was the westernmost point reached by this
force. The whole army with cannon sailed up the Sandusky
River in their unwieldly batteaux, and encamped on the high
ground extending from the present site of Fort Stephenson
around the bluff to the Fair Grounds, at which latter point, as
a protection to the left of his line, Israel Putnam constructed
fleches and redoubts. Lieutenant Montresor, engineer of the
army, noted in his diary September 22, 1764, that he had that
day been to the Huron village destroyed by Dalyell the pre-
vious year. He "took sketches and bearings of that advan-
tageous and beautiful situation and the meanderings of the river.
Remarked that the left of our encampment is contiguous to the
remains of an old fort where the Delawares and some of the
western Indians took shelter against the Iroquois nearly one hun-
dred years ago. This construction is in the form of a circle three
hundred yards in circumference, one-half defended by the river."
During the War of the Revolution, Daniel Boone and Simon
Kenton were each led captive along this trail through Spiegel
Grove. Preceding and following the Revolutionary War more
EARLY HISTORY OF FREMONT 431
Indian captives were brought here along this trail than to any
other place; the Moravian missionaries Zeisberger, Heckewelder,
and their followers being among the number.
Our next knowledge of Lower Sandusky comes from Captain
Samuel Brady the scout, whom Washington sent out for infor-
mation upon the movements of the Indians of this region, and
who, concealed on the island in the river, ever since called Brady's
Island, watched the Indians race their horses along the shore.
Washington's interest in this locality was great and in 1782 he
sent General William Irvine, commandant at Fort Pitt, who noted
that a British post had been established at Lower Sandusky,
giving this place its claim to Revolutionary honors.
The location of this free city was the two-mile square tract,
now Fremont, which constantly reappeared in the old treaties
between the Indians and the Government. The treaty of Fort
Mackintosh, January 21, 1785, reserved "two miles square on each
side of the lower rapids of the Sandusky River" in the allotment
of lands to the Indians. This "two-mile square upon each side
of the lower rapids of Sandusky River" was again reserved by
the United States in its quitclaim to the Indians in the treaty of
Fort Harmar, January 9, I789; and in the treaty of Greenville,
from the Indians to the United States of America, August 3,
1795, Indians ceded "one piece two miles square at the lower
rapids of the Sandusky River."
Although by the treaty of peace of 1783, the present boundary
line was established between American and British territory,
nevertheless the British, on the pretext that treaty obligations to
the loyalists had not been observed, retained possession of Detroit
and its outposts, including Lower Sandusky, and from these
vantage-points kept the Indians in a constant turmoil supporting
their claim that the Ohio River was their natural boundary. It
was not till 1796, after the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, when
the great Indian confederacy was crushed, that the British surren-
dered control of Detroit and its contiguous territory including
the two-mile square now Frement. Tarhe, the famous Wyandot
warrior who made his home at the lower falls of the Sandusky
in the former free city, and who was the first Indian chief to
432 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
make terms with Wayne, received from Wayne a promise to erect
a fort at the lower falls for the protection of himself and the
other friendly Indians. On the outbreak of the Second War with
Great Britain, and after the ignominious surrender of Detroit in
June, 1812, the American settlers fled to the Sandusky country,
and the old factor's buildings at the lower falls were transformed
into a fort under the direction of Major Wood, one of the first
graduates of West Point. In the spring of 1813, this fort was
enlarged under the direction of Colonel Stephenson, from whom
it received its name. It was gallantly defended on the Ist and
2d of August, 1813, by the youthful hero, Major George
Croghan. General Sherman, in a letter to President Hayes em-
phasizing the importance of this victory wrote these words:
"The defense of Fort Stephenson by Croghan and his gallant
little band was the necessary percursor to Perry's victory on the
lake, and to General Harrison's triumphant victory at the Battle
of the Thames. These assured to our immediate ancestors the
mastery of the Great West, and from that day to this the West
has been the bulwark of the nation."
In General Harrison's advance from Franklinton (now Co-
lumbus) through Delaware, and what are now Marion, Upper
Sandusky, Tiffin, Fremont, and Port Clinton to Lake Erie, to
repel the invading British and Indians, he established forts and
depots and constructed a military road following the line of the
French and Indian trail. The heavy wheels of his wagons
have left a clearly defined course which is still easily distinguished
in its winding through Spiegel Grove, although nearly one
hundred years have elapsed since the present state road was laid
out in a direct course, crossing and recrossing the old trail.
In the campaign of 1813, owing to the insecurity of Fort
Stephenson, General Harrison selected as his headquarters Fort
Seneca, nine miles up the river, whence he could make swift trips
to Fort Stephenson, to Fort Meigs on the Maumee, to Huron and
Cleveland. During his campaign, all the noted officers of the
War of 1812, with the single exception of Andrew Jackson, trav-
elled over this trail. General Harrison, the victorious com-
mander-in-chief, was inaugurated President of the United States
EARLY HISTORY OF FREMONT 433
in 1841; Colonel Richard M. Johnson, of the Kentucky Mounted
Riflemen, "the man who killed Tecumseh," was inaugurated Vice-
President of the United States in 1837; Brigadier-General Lewis
Cass, who commanded a brigade, served as Secretary of State in
the cabinet of Buchanan; Governor Meigs of Ohio became Post-
master-General in the cabinets of Madison and Monroe; and the
venerable Governor Shelby of Kentucky always considered this
campaign as the crowning glory of his distinguished career.
Such famous Indians as Nicolas, the renegade Huron chief,
Pontiac, Tecumseh, Little Turtle, and Tarhe the Crane were
frequenters of this old Harrison Trail and occasional residents
of this place.
Under the treaty of 1817, the Indian title in Ohio was finally
extinguished, and the land opened for settlement. The place now
known as Spiegel Grove became a portion of the northwestern
quarter of section three in the United States Reserve "Sandusky,"
which was entered by Joseph B. Stewart and William Oliver.
When the patent was executed, however, by Andrew Jackson in
1834, it was to their assignees Jacques Hulburd, one of the first
settlers of Lower Sandusky; and to the heirs of Martin Baum.
After a partition by these owners, the first transfer was for an
undivided half and was made in 1845, by which Sardis Birchard,
the uncle of Rutherford B. Hayes, became the owner of about
one-half, including Spiegel Grove; and R. P. Buckland, who be-
came a distinguished lawyer and soldier and who had just formed
a law partnership with Rutherford B. Hayes, became the owner
of the remainder; their properties being separated by the old
state road from Lower Sandusky (Fremont) to Fort Ball
(Tiffin), now known as Buckland Avenue.
Several years after the purchase of the Spiegel Grove tract,
Mr. Birchard removed his residence from the village to the
country home of Mr. and Mrs. James Valette, in a house built
about 1828 and now known as the Edgerton homestead. It is
near the site of Colonel Ball's victory over the Indians on the
banks of Sandusky River, on July 30, 1813, two days before
the assault on Fort Stephenson. It was to this house that Mrs.
Hayes brought Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, of the Twenty-third
434 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Ohio, after his partial recovery from his severe wound at South
Mountain on the opening of the Antietam campaign in 1862. Mr.
Birchard on his way to and from the village daily passed his new
purchase. He noted its deep woods, its pools of standing water
reflecting like mirrors (Spiegel, in German) the great trees and
tangled boughs and swaying vines; listened to the song of birds,
the hooting of owls, and the mourning of the doves; brooded over
the legends of the place, smiling at its traditional ghosts and
spooks; recognized many a likeness to the scenes of the German
fairy tales dear to his childhood; named it Spiegel Grove and
selected it for the future home of his declining years with his
nephew, Rutherford B. Hayes.
Sardis Birchard, this early patron of Spiegel Grove, was
born in Vermont in 1801 and was early left an orphan. On the
marriage of his sister Sophia to Rutherford Hayes, the boy of
eleven was adopted and went to live with them, and in 1817
was taken by them from Dummerston, Vermont, to Delaware,
Ohio. In 1822 occurred the death of Rutherford Hayes and
the birth of his son Rutherford Birchard Hayes, and young
Sardis Birchard, then twenty-one years of age, in his turn as-
sumed the care of the family and became the devoted guardian
of his sister's son. He never married. He was a man of va-
ried culture and of the highest social and benevolent quali-
ties. He was active in public and corporate works of progress
in northern Ohio--the improvement of navigation, of vessel
building, of the Western Reserve and Maumee Turnpike, a na-
tional work; also of the Toledo, Norwalk and Cleveland railway;
In 1851 he organized the bank of Birchard, Miller and Co., which
in 1863 became the First National Bank of Fremont, the fifth
oldest on the list of national banks, Mr. Birchard remaining
its president until his death in 1874. He gave two public parks to
the city of Fremont, endowed a public library for the use of the
county, and gave generously to the Frst Presbyterian and other
churches of the city.
The house in Spiegel Grove was begun by Mr. Birchard in
1859 for the permanent home of his nephew and ward, who owing
to his services in the army, in Congress, and as governor of
SARDIS BIRCHARD AND SPIEGEL GROVE 435
Ohio, did not occupy it till 1873, Mr. Birchard living there until
that time and enjoying frequent joyful visits from his nephew
and later from the latter's wife and young children.
The original house was a brick structure, two and one-half
stories high, surrounded on three sides by a veranda. In 1880,
preparatory to his return home from the White House, President
Hayes approved plans for a substantial addition on the north,
duplicating the original brick gable front of the house, in which
were located the present large drawing-room and library, con-
structed of slow-burning material, where were placed, on the first
and third floors, his magnificent collection of Americana. Three
additional bedrooms occupied the second story. His bedroom and
that of his only daughter on the second floor were enlarged by a
three-story bay window on the south. The interior of the original
building was remodeled to include a fourth-story cupola, which
was used by Mrs. Hayes for her house plants. The plans were
prepared and these changes carried out under the supervision of
his son and personal secretary, Webb C. Hayes, who made fre-
quent visits from Washington for that purpose. Further exten-
sive changes were made in 1889, when the entire west wing was
torn down and replaced by the present large dining-room, break-
fast-room, kitchen, and pantries on the first floor, with five addi-
tional bedrooms on the second, and six smaller chambers on the
third floor. Before these alterations were finished the beautiful
mistress of the house, who had looked forward eagerly to the
larger opportunities for hospitality, was stricken and died. Only
two rooms of the old house remain intact, the red parlor on the
first floor, and the ancestral room directly above it, which had
been Mr. Birchard's bedroom.
The house has high ceilings, spacious rooms with hardwood
floors, and many open fireplaces. A veranda fourteen feet wide
and eighty feet long, so that thirty-three laps make an exact mile,
extends in front of the whole house. From the centre of the
large entrance hall one can look up four stories to the observa-
tory, the upper halls forming balconies opposite the stair-
ways. On either side of the front door hang portraits of Sardis
Birchard and of his sister Sophia Birchard, the mother of Ruther-
436 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
ford B. Hayes; and below the latter a charming color portrait of
her son at the age of twenty-four, soon after his graduation at
Harvard Law School. A silver plate presented to Mrs. Hayes
by the soldiers of the Twenty-third Regiment, O. V. I., on the
occasion of her silver wedding at the White House, is engraved
with a depiction of the log cabin in which Mrs. Hayes lived for
two winters in her husband's camp in Virginia; and with verse
inscribed to "Our Mother."
The drawing-room opening to the right of the hall is thirty-six
feet long and connected by an open archway with a library of
the same length, whose shelves originally held the fine historical
library of President Hayes. This room preserves an atmosphere
of homelikeness and comfort. In the drawing-room hang life-
size portraits of President Hayes by Brown and of Mrs.
Hayes by Andrews, and other good portraits, including one of
Mrs. Hayes's grandmother, Lucy Ware, and one of President
Hayes's only sister, Fanny--both in their beautiful young wo-
manhood; portraits of Colonel and Mrs. Hayes; and two fine old
French portraits of the school of Nattier. Among the fine pieces
of old mahogany are twin chaises longues brought from France
to New Orleans during the French possession of Louisiana.
On the floor is a handsome Chinese rug made for Colonel Hayes
during the Russo-Japanese War; also a beautiful five-pronged
bronze candelabra purchased by him in 1918 at Fez, Morocco
while on a mission to confer with Marshal Lyautey, the French
Resident General in Morocco during the World War. The great
embroidered portieres were presented to Mrs. Hayes by the women
of Illinois. A fine embroidered screen in ebony frame dates from
the Philadelphia Centennial Expostion.
A huge bishop's chair here was used by President Bashford of
Ohio Wesleyan University while conducting the funeral services
of President Hayes.
The red parlor to the left of the hall contains a full-length por-
trait of the only daughter of the house; a water color by Turner;
oil landscapes by Bierstadt, and others. During the funeral
services of President Hayes the chairs in the red parlor were
occupied by Grover Cleveland, ex-President and now President
DESCRIPTION OF MANSION 437
elect of the United States; Governor William McKinley of
Ohio, four years later inaugurated as President; the Rev. Dr.
J. L. M. Curry, general agent of the Peabody and Slater Edu-
cation Funds; and William Henry Smith, general manager
of the Associated Press and a close personal and political friend,
Charles Foster, Secretary of the Treasury, John W. Noble, At-
torney-General, John Wanamaker, Postmaster-General, and
J. M. Rusk, Secretary of Agriculture, members of President
Harrison's cabinet, occupied the famous John Randolph of
Roanoke chairs, from the long hall; while the representatives of
the War Department, Colonel Henry C. Corbin, later lieutenant-
general, and Colonels J. C. Breckinridge and M. L. Ludding-
ton, later major-general, occupied the red damask sofa. Cap-
tain John A. Howell and Commanders Francis W. Dickins and
Edwin S. Heuston, all later rear-admirals, represented the United
States Navy, and with Colonel William E. Haynes, the Mem-
ber of Congress from Fremont, occupied the four Presidential
inauguration chairs, now in the Hayes Memorial.
The bedroom in which both President and Mrs. Hayes died
faces the south and overlooks one of the most beautiful parts of
the grove. The furniture is of old mahogany, and the books and
pictures of Mrs. Hayes remain as arranged by General Hayes
after her death.
One of the most beautiful rooms of the home is the large dining-
room with great windows at each end looking over the lawns.
The shelved chimney-piece over the large fireplace is devoted to
fine examples of old Chinese pottery and porcelain, and
a large exhibition pitcher of Trenton ware. The two old ma-
hogany sideboards are family heirlooms, descended from the
Birchard and Webb sides of the house respectively; two ma-
hogany serving tables from the White House, purchased during
Madison's Administration, were bought in at a public sale of
discarded furniture in 1881; and the two corner tables were
brought from Mexico by Colonel Hayes. An antique clock which
ticks circumspectly near the dining-room door was bequeathed
to the President by his grandmother and brought hither from the
ancestral Hayes homestead in Brattleboro, Vermont.
438 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Scarcely less than the rooms on the first floor, the upper cham-
bers are crowded with historic and beautiful objects. The Wash-
ington room contains ebony furniture designed by a cousin, Wil-
liam Rutherford Mead, of the firm of McKim, Mead and White,
and purchased by President Hayes for use in his little daughter's
room at the White House so as to be retained by her as a
souvenir. The Birchard or ancestral room originally used by
Sardis Birchard for his own bedroom, has untold treasures from
a colonial and antiquarian point of view.
Hardly less ancestral is the Cook Room -the maiden name of
Mrs. Hayes's mother. Here are gathered the bedroom furniture
used by President and Mrs. Hayes when they began housekeep-
ing in Cincinnati; the cradle in which all their children were
rocked; and Mrs. Hayes's old sewing-machine and lapboard on
which she made her older boys' clothing during the War for the
Union. The mantelpiece in this room was brought from the
room in Chillicothe in which Mrs. Hayes was born.
Across the hall from the Cook Room is the Wright Room,
named for the distinguished geologist and author, G. Frederick
Wright, long president of the Ohio State Archaeological
and Historical Society, an intimate friend who officiated at the
marriage of the present occupants of the residence, Colonel and
Mrs. Webb C. Hayes. This room contains a notable Spanish
mahogany four-post bed with tester. Opening from the Wright
Room is the Otis Room, named for the mother of Mrs. Webb C.
Hayes, and containing her wedding furniture, the Otis mahogany
cradle, the twin beds, and the mantelpiece from the Miller house
in Fremont where Mrs. Hayes lived until her marriage. Here is
also an admirable portrait of Mrs. Miller.
The rooms in the rear part of the house, being remodelled at
the time of the death of Lucy Webb Hayes, having no personal
sentiment, have been named by Colonel Hayes after his cam-
paigns in Cuba, Porto Rico, the Philippines, and China. Six
small bedrooms are in the third story.
On General Hayes's personal assumption of the Spiegel
Grove property in 1873, he began to improve and beautify the
place, preserving and accentuating its natural advantages by
SPIEGEL GROVE ATTRACTIONS 439
clearing out indifferent trees, extending the lawns immediately
about the house to let in the sunlight, opening vistas to throw
into relief some superb old oak or elm; and planting the hemlock
avenue and windbreaks of spruces and pines. The handsome
Japanese cypresses and deciduous trees south of the house were
sent thither from the centennial exposition in 1876, being among
the earliest of such Japanese importations. General Hayes
took particular pleasure in gathering historic trees, among which
were a Napoleon willow, the forebears of which were willows
at Washington's tomb at Mt. Vernon and Napoleon's at St.
Helena; two oaks grown from acorns of the Charter Oak at
Hartford, Connecticut, and tulip trees from the Virginia home
of James Madison. General Hayes would point out to inter-
ested visitors storied trees such as the one to which savage In-
dians bound a captive maiden and built a fire about her when a
thunder-storm burst and put out the flames. White traders
hearing of the outrage sent a swift runner to get an order for
her release from the Crane, the Wyandot chief; and he re-
turned in time to save the captive. Another tree with a tale is
"Grandfather's," an oak with a large hole near its base, under
which Mrs. Hayes's father camped one cold night during the War
of 1812. The story ran that he and a comrade were sent out to
forage for provisions. It was so bitterly cold that they could not
make their way back to camp, and lighting a fire at the foot of
this tree slept there in the open. The soldiers in camp had their
feet frozen that night, but this pair were unharmed. The old
musket and hunting-horn of this Private James Webb, of the
Kentucky Mounted Riflemen, are now in the museum.
West of the residence, in an open field adjoining Spiegel
Grove, General Hayes laid out the Lucy Hayes Chapel in young
walnut trees, with nave, transepts, and tower, - a chapel which
he used to say would be worth looking at two hundred years
The main drive through Spiegel Grove follows the old French
and Indian trail from Lake Erie to the Ohio River, later known
as the Harrison Military Trail of the War of 1812, down which
General Harrison brought his troops on his way to Fort Stephen-
440 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
son after Croghan's victory. The road enters Spiegel Grove by
the present Croghan Gateway, and leaves by the Harrison Gate-
way at the Southwest corner, continuing down to the old French
spring, and on to Ball's battlefield, Fort Seneca; Fort Ball (Tif-
fin); and Fort Ferree, Upper Sandusky, to Franklinton (now
Of the many interesting events which have occurred at
Spiegel Grove the more prominent were the meeting and greet-
ing of General Hayes by his old neighbors and friends in Fre-
mont, on the evening of his third nomination for governor of
Ohio in 1875, after what he had considered his permanent re-
tirement from public life. The next year this was followed by
another gathering on his last visit home, shortly before his de-
parture from Columbus to be inaugurated President of the
United States. Six months later occurred the greatest demon-
stration in the history of the town, in the annual reunion of his
regiment, the Twenty-third Ohio, on the 14th of September,
1877, followed as it was by the dedication of the new city hall in
Fort Stephenson Park. During this reunion President Hayes
entertained the members of his regiment at a luncheon on a
table spread under five of the giant oaks of Spiegel Grove. At
this table also were General Philip H. Sheridan, the favorite bat-
tle general of the War for the Union; and the four colonels of
the regiment, Generals W. S. Rosecrans, E. P. Scammon, Ruth-
erford B. Hayes, and J. M. Comly, together with the first lieu-
tenant-colonel, Stanley Matthews, later a justice of the Supreme
Court. The five oak trees were christened for the five guests.
Captain and Brevet Major William McKinley, also of the
Twenty-third Ohio, was the orator of the day, and other speakers
included Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite and General James A.
Garfield, after whom in later years were named the McKinley
Oaks, the Chief Justice Waite Oak and the Garfield Maple, to
commemorate visits by them. The finest elm in the grove was
christened the General Sherman Elm on the occasion of his visit
after his trip escorting President Hayes and party to the Pacific
coast and the Texan frontier posts in 1880. President Hayes was
the first Chief Executive to visit the Pacific coast during his term
SPIEGEL GROVE ATTRACTIONS 441
of office. On the return of President Hayes to Fremont, after
leaving the White House, he was greeted most cordially by his
fellow townspeople and escorted to his home where he delivered
a short address in which he expressed his love for his old home
and his neighbors of many years standing. He said in the course
of this talk:
"This is a good place to find an answer to the question which
is often heard: What is to become of the man, what is he to do,
where is his place, who having been Chief Magistrate of the Re-
public retires at the end of his term to private life? It seems to
me the answer is near at hand and sufficient. Let him like every
other good American citizen be willing promptly to bear his part
in every useful work that will promote the welfare, the happiness,
and the progress of his family, his town, his State, and his coun-
try. With this disposition he will have work enough to do and
that sort of work which yields more individual contentment and
gratification than the more conspicuous employment of public life
from which he has returned."
Four years later as president of the Sandusky County Soldiers
and Sailors' Monument Association, President Hayes presided
at an enormous gathering at the exercises of the dedication of the
soldiers' monument in Fort Stephenson Park, to commemorate
the services of the soldiers of all wars of Sandusky County, but
particularly in memory of Major George Croghan and the gallant
defenders of Fort Stephenson on the 2d of August, 1813.
The sudden and unexpected death of President Hayes's beloved
wife, June 21, 1889, was a great shock, not only to Mr. Hayes,
but to the community at large, and a great number of friends
gathered at Spiegel Grove to show their respect and love. His
comrades of the Twenty-third Ohio, serving as guard of honor,
marched down the old Harrison Trail to Oakwood Cemetery. A
little less than four years later, another great concourse gathered
at Spiegel Grove out of respect to the departed soldier and states-
man. Chief among the mourners was the ex-President and now
again President elect, Grover Cleveland, who made the long
journey in the midst of furious winter storms to show his fre-
quently expressed admiration and regard. With President Cleve-
442 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
land in the red parlor, were gathered also members of the cabinet
who represented President Harrison; Generals Corbin, Breckin-
ridge, and Luddington, who represented the United States Army;
Governor McKinley of Ohio and the State officers and mem-
bers of the Ohio Legislature; the official representatives of the
Loyal Legion, of which President Hayes was commander-in-
chief; and representatives of many other military, literary, edu-
cational, and philanthropic organizations with which he was con-
nected. A deep snow covered the ground, trees and shrubbery,
so that the scene was most striking, the brilliant coloring of the
military trimmings, indicative of the different arms of the service,
aiding much to make it memorable.
Four years after the death of President Hayes, his former
regimental comrade and aide, William McKinley, as President
of the United States, was an honored guest at Spiegel Grove on
the occasion of the marriage of Fanny, the only daughter. On
the following day the reunion of the Twenty-third regiment was
for the second time held at Spiegel Grove. Mrs. McKinley and
the ladies invited to meet her occupied sofas and chairs on the
roof of the broad veranda, from which they looked down on the
speakers' stand constructed around a group of five white oaks,
since called the McKinley Oaks, from which stand President Mc-
Kinley and other prominent men spoke.
On the ninetieth anniversary of the defense of Fort Stephen-
son August 1, 1903 a memorial tablet was dedicated on Fort
Stephenson, and the George Croghan Chapter, D. A. R., held a
reception at Spiegel Grove in honor of Mrs. Charles W. Fair-
banks, the President General of the Daughters of the American
Revolution, and Mrs. O. J. Hodge the State Regent. An ad-
dress was delivered by Charles R. Williams, editor of the
Indianapolis News. An elm was planted on the knoll by the
Daughters, and ivy from Warwick Castle at the great oaks, by
the Colonial dames of Toledo. Again on August 2, 1906, the
remains of Major George Croghan were reinterred at the foot of
the monument erected in his honor in Fort Stephenson Park,
and the grave covered with myrtle taken from the family burying-
ground at Locust Grove, near Louisville, Kentucky, where
IN HONOR OF MAJOR CROGHAN 443
Croghan had originally been interred after his death in 1849.
Addresses were made at Fort Stephenson by the Hon. Charles W.
Fairbanks, Vice-President of the United States; Governor A. L.
Harris of Ohio, and others, after which a public reception was
held in their honor at Spiegel Grove.
Just before starting on his speaking campaign during the
Presidential canvass in 1908, Judge William H. Taft and his
wife (who as Miss Helen Herron had been a frequent
visitor at the Hayes home both in Ohio and at Washington) came
to spend a day at Spiegel Grove as the guests of Colonel Hayes,
the present owner. They were conveyed from the Harrison land-
ing at Port Clinton, on Lake Erie, in automobiles, south over the
Harrison Trail, to Fort Stephenson, and then on to Spiegel
Grove, where they were entertained at luncheon and in looking
over the old house. Judge Taft was advised by his host of the
custom of naming trees after distinguished visitors, and after
having had pointed out to him the General Sherman Elm, the
Cleveland Hickory, the Garfield Maple, and the McKinley Oaks,
he was invited to select his tree. He promptly advanced to one
of the grandest oaks in the grove, immediately in front of the
mansion, and placing his hand upon it said with a Taft smile:
"This is about my size!" since which time the tree has been
known as the Taft Oak.
The Cleveland Hickory also was named by the laying on of
hands. On the occasion of the attendance of President Cleve-
land at the funeral of President Hayes, the family carriage horses
became somewhat fractious owing to the crisp air and the music
of the bands, so that as President Cleveland was about to enter
the carriage the horses made a plunge forward. President
Cleveland temporarily alighted and while the horses were being
brought under control he placed his right hand upon a thrifty
shellbark hickory, thereupon deemed especially appropriate to
be named in honor of the great Democrat.
On October 18, 1908, the occasion of the annual state con-
ference of the Ohio Daughters of the American Revolution, a
brilliant reception was held at Spiegel Grove. Always after the
return of President and Mrs. Hayes from Washington, in 1881.
444 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Spiegel Grove during the Summer months was the scene of
many delightful gatherings of their guests; and this custom has
been continued to the present time. Since the inauguration of
the National Rifle contests at Camp Perry, on Lake Erie, the
visiting teams, especially the members of the teams representing
the army, navy, and marine corps, have been frequent visitors for
week-end parties during the period of the contests.
During the third reunion of the Twenty-third Ohio at Spiegel
Grove on September 23, 1909, the Harrison Gateway at the
southern entrance of the Harrison Trail into Spiegel Grove was
dedicated by the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society with
addresses by President Wright and Secretary Randall, and also
by Admiral Clark, the captain of the Oregon, after whom the
Admiral Clark White Oak was christened. The Harrison Gate-
way consists of two fifteen-thousand-pound, ten-inch Rodman
guns, standing upright, on the muzzles of which rest fifteen-inch
balls, one bearing the inscription "1775-Old French War, French
Indian Trail 1670-1760" and the other "1776-Revolutionary
War, British Indian Trail 1760-1776."
THE HAYES MEMORIAL
The Memorial Building, a beautiful structure of classic archi-
tecture built of gray Ohio sandstone stands among the great
trees north of the Hayes homestead, facing Hayes Avenue.
Broad steps lead up to the bronze doors of the pillared portico.
On entering the great square hall, or atrium, flanked with eight
massive columns, one passes under the flags of the countries
which claimed ownership of this region from the discovery of
America until the final surrender of Detroit and contiguous
territory, including Fort Miami (1786) on the Maumee, and the
present site of Fort Stephenson (1812) then the old factor's
building at the lower falls of the Sandusky, now Fremont, by
Great Britain in 1796. They are:
The royal standard of Spain - 1492-1670.
The royal standard of France - 1670-1760.
The royal standard of Great Britain - 1760-1796.
Displayed in groups of three on each of the four walls are
THE MEMORIAL BUILDING 445
the flags of the thirteen colonies and the state flags of Vermont,
Kentucky and Ohio; Vermont and Kentucky being the States
from which the parents of Rutherford B. Hayes and Lucy Webb
Hayes migrated to Ohio. The flag of the United States, with
the stars in the blue field indicating the growth of the Union, is
the centre of each group. The shield beneath bears the inscrip-
Constitution of the United States
Adopted 17 September, 1787,
with the date of ratification of the Constitution or admission into
the Union of the State and the war in which the flag was carried
1. Delaware - 7 December, 1787.
2. Pennsylvania-- 13 December, 1787.
Flag - 13 stars, 13 stripes. Adopted 14 June, 1777.
Revolutionary War. 1776-1783.
3. New Jersey - 18 December, 1787.
4. Georgia--2 January, 1788.
Flag- 15 stars, 15 stripes. Adopted 1 May, 1795.
Second War with Great Britain. 1812-1814.
5. Connecticut -9 January, 1788.
6. Massachusetts--6 February, 1788.
Flag-20 stars, 13 stripes. Adopted 4 July, 1818.
A star for each new State.
7. Maryland -28 April, 1788.
8. South Carolina -23 May, 1788.
Flag - 29 stars, 13 stripes.
War with Mexico. 1846-1848.
9. New Hampshire-21 June, 1788.
10. Virginia - 26 June, 1788.
Flag - 34 stars, 13 stripes.
War for the Union. 1861-1865.
446 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
11. New York - 26 July, 1788.
12. North Carolina - 21 November, 1789. West Virginia Ad-
mitted, 19 June, 1863.
Flag--35 stars, 13 stripes. War for the Union. 1861-
1865, after West Virginia was separated from Virginia in
13. Rhode Island - 29 May, 1790.
14. Vermont Admitted-- 4 March, 1791.
Flag--45 stars, 13 stripes. War with Spain, 1898-1899.
Filipino Insurrection - 1899-1900. Relief of Peking-
15. Kentucky -- June, 1797.
17. Ohio-- 29 November, 1802.
Flag-48 stars, 13 stripes. Great World War, 1914-1918.
Over the door leading to the east library is the flag of the
governor of Ohio. Rutherford B. Hayes served three terms,
being inaugurated in 1868, 1870, and 1876. Inserted in the wall
beneath the flag is the headstone from the original grave of Mrs.
Hayes with the inscription:
Lucy Webb Hayes, 1831-1889.
The flag of the President of the United States hangs above the
door leading to the west library, Rutherford B. Hayes being the
nineteenth President, 1877-1881, and beneath this is the compan-
ion headstone from the original grave of President Hayes, in-
Rutherford B. Hayes, 1822-1893.
In the spring of 1915, the monument and the caskets were trans-
ferred from Oakwood Cemetery, Fremont, to their final resting
placed on the knoll in Spiegel Grove, and placed in a huge granite
slab over which the original monument was reerected.
In the centre of the atrium are unique relics from China,
where gunpowder and poison gas were first used in warfare.
THE MEMORIAL BUILDING 447
A bronze cannon with numerous Manchu hieroglyphics, used in
the Manchu conquest of China, in 1645. One of many guns used
by the Boxers in their attacks on the foreign legations in Peking,
in the summer of 1900, and also used against the Relief Column
which captured the Tartar city of Peking, August 14, 1900. One
of three guns brought home by Colonel Webb C. Hayes, of Ma-
jor-General Chaffee's staff.
Also a Chinese stink-pot used to throw noxious bombs into
fortified cities or armed vessels, the fumes of whose poison gas
caused the desertion thereof in early Chinese wars. First used
by the Germans in the defence of their trenches when they were
forced to dig in after their lines were pierced by General Foch,
in their repulse before Paris by Marshal Joffre, in 1914; and
further developed by the Germans and copied by the allies during
the remainder of the war.
On entering the building, the first things that catch the eye
are the portrait of President Hayes, painted by Carl Rakemann,
representing him at the age of seventy shortly before his death;
the Huntington portrait, painted for the White House, and
copied by Rakemann, representing him at sixty, while President,
in the west library; and the Andrews portrait in the east
library showing him at forty, in the uniform of a brevet major-
general of volunteers. Thus, standing in the centre of the
atrium, one can see lifelike portraits of General Hayes, at forty,
sixty, and seventy years of age. Over his portrait in the atrium
is the Hayes coat of arms, from his Scottish ancestor, a falcon
lighting on a rock which bears the inscription Recte. From the
atrium one sees in the west library also Rakemann's copy of
the Huntington portrait of Lucy Webb Hayes, painted for the
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, for the White House, and
accepted by President Garfield to hang on the walls of the White
All of the windows in the Memorial Building have been
utilized by placing in them transparencies of colored portraits or
scenes of special local interest, painted and arranged by the artist,
Carl Rakemann, of Washington, D. C.
448 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
THE EAST LIBRARY.
The east library contains the three-quarter portraits by An-
drews of General Hayes in the uniform of a brevet major-gen-
eral, and of Mrs. Hayes. Corner cases contain the dress and
uniform worn by Fanny Hayes, aged ten, and Scott, aged seven,
at a Martha Washington children's costume ball, given at the
White House. The other cases contain gowns worn in the White
House by Mrs. Hayes. The windows show colored transpar-
encies of Major George Croghan, the gallant defender of Fort
Stephenson against the British and Indians, August 1st and 2d,
1813, who was promoted and awarded a gold medal, and six of
whose officers, each with a sword, by the Congress of the United
States for gallantry in the defense of Fort Stephenson; Lieuten-
ant-Colonel John C. Fremont, the Pathfinder and Explorer, after
whom the town was named, when changed from Lower Sandusky
in 1849; and the local representatives in each of the wars since
the Declaration of Independence, namely: Private James Webb,
aged 18, father of Lucy Webb Hayes, who served here in Spiegel
Grove in Captain Garrard's Company, Kentucky Mounted Rifle-
men, in the War of 1812; Captain Samuel Thompson who was
wounded at Lundy's Lane, Canada, in the War of 1812, and or-
ganized and led the company from Sandusky County, in the War
with Mexico, 1846-48, in which Rutherford B. Hayes was to
have been the second-lieutenant until found disqualified by the
surgeons at Cincinnati; Major-General James B. McPherson, the
officer highest in rank and command killed in battle during the
War for the Union 1861-65; and Sailor George B. Meek, the
first American killed in the War with Spain, 1898-90,--the last
three of whom are buried in Sandusky County.
THE WEST LIBRARY.
The west library is devoted to the more personal souvenirs.
Here are copies of the celebrated portraits of the President
and Mrs. Hayes, painted for the White House by Daniel
Huntington and copied by Carl Rakemann by permission of
President Wilson. In front of these portraits stands an interest-
TREASURES IN LIBRARY 449
ing relic of the battleship Maine, her bronze hand-steering gear,
covered with barnacles and tarnished by sea water, now utilized
as a receptacle for flowers. A companion table to the one in the
east library is here. Two large mahogany cases display many of
the costumes worn by Mrs. Hayes at the White House, and other
articles of dress used during her life from her babyhood to her
last public appearance at the centennial of the inauguration of
George Washington at New York in April, 1889. Also her
diploma from the Wesleyan Female Seminary of Cincinnati in
1850, together with her valedictory address and original manu-
script of several essays written by her before her graduation.
The north window was dedicated by the Croghan Lodge, I.
O. O. F., of which President Hayes was an honored member.
The colored transparencies are portraits of Brevet Major-Gen-
eral Hayes; Sardis Birchard, the uncle and guardian of President
Hayes, a pioneer merchant, banker, and philanthropist of Lower
Sandusky (Fremont), and the builder of the residence at Spiegel
Grove; Brevet Major-General Ralph P. Buckland, soldier, con-
gressman, and pioneer lawyer, who was the law partner of Gen-
eral Hayes at Lower Sandusky (now Fremont) from his ad-
mission to the bar in 1845 until he removed to Cincinnati in
1849. Biographical sketches add to the interest of these portraits.
Smaller transparencies show the funeral of Rutherford B. Hayes
with all honors of the nation after his death at Spiegel Grove
January 17, 1893; "Old Whitey," a hero of nineteen battles,
"Black Yauco," Colonel Webb C. Hayes's war-horse, a veteran of
the campaigns of Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Phillipines, the fast-
est runner, the highest jumper, and the fastest swimmer at Manila,
during the Christmas week festivities, 1899-1900. This horse
was afterwards ridden only by Colonel Hayes at the second in-
auguration and at the funeral services of President McKinley
at Canton in 1901, and by his nephew Midshipman Webb C.
Hayes at the inauguration of President Taft in 1909. Old
Whitey, General Hayes's war-horse, and Black Yauco, Colonel
Hayes's war-horse, are buried with Piddig and Old Ned, just out-
side the enclosure on the knoll, with suitably marked tablets.
The south window shows portraits of Major-General William
450 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Henry Harrison, commander of the Northwestern Army during
the Second War with Great Britain, 1812-1814; and Commodore
Oliver Hazard Perry, commander of the American Squadron at
the Battle of Lake Erie, September 10, 1813.
THE LIBRARY MUSEUM
The Library Museum contains General Hayes's war relics and
war photographs and numerous curios collected on his trips while
President. His complete horse equipment, saddle, bridle, pistol
holster, mess chest, with dishes of iron and heavy stoneware, and
bedding roll, with numerous other personal effects used in the
war are found in Japanese Case No. 1. Other show cases contain
a fairly large collection of guns, pikes, swords, flags, and other
articles captured in the early months of the War for the Union.
Other cases contain samples of equipment carried by members of
his regiment, and others a collection of war-time photographs,
etc., including a collection of political badges dating back to the
Harrison campaign of 1840, with many valuable souvenirs of Lin-
coln's campaign for the Presidency.
A collection of hunting and Indian and war relics made by
Colonel Webb C. Hayes who, for thirteen years prior to the death
in 1890 of his godfather, Major-General George Crook, the most
famous hunter and Indian fighter of the United States Army,
went on long hunting trips with him in the wilds of the Rocky
Mountains, is shown in cases. There is also a collection of war
curios made while he served as major of the First Ohio Cavalry,
through the campaign of Santiago de Cuba and in the invasion of
Porto Rico, in the War with Spain; while serving as lieutenant-
colonel of the Thirty-first U. S. Infantry during the insurrection
in the Philippines, extending from General Young's campaign in
northern Luzon, where Colonel Hayes won the much coveted Con-
gressional Medal of Honor for distinguished gallantry in the
relief of Vigan, December 4, 1899, down to the campaign against
the Moros of Mindanao where his regiment was the first Amer-
ican garrison of that island, with headquarters at Zamboanga,
from 1899 to 1901. There is also a collection made during the
Boxer insurrection in China, where he served on Major-General
THE BASEMENT MUSEUM 451
Chaffee's staff in the China Relief Expedition of 1900. Subse-
quent campaigns which he attended as an observer are represented
by interesting collections made during the Russo-Japanese war,
when he served with General Kuroki's Japanese army on the
march through Korea to the Yalu river, and later with the Rus-
sian army in the vicinity of Mukden. There are also many ob-
jects of interest obtained by him during his last service--in the
World War - in France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and Morocco.
During the first months of hostilities he secured at Louvain three
porcelain cups, the only articles saved from the library.
In the windows of the museum have been placed also illum-
inated portraits of the landing of Columbus on the discovery of
America in 1492; a portrait of Amerigo Vespucci, after whom
the Western Hemisphere was named; and five portraits of famous
characters of the Indians, the Spaniards, the French, and the
British who had to do with this part of Ohio, prior to the forma-
tion of the American Commonwealth after the Declaration of
Independence. It is the intention to place in the upper sash of
each of these windows portraits of the famous Americans who
have had to do with military campaigns in this region or were
natives of it, in the campaigns of the Revolutionary War, the
War of 1812, the War with Mexico, the War for the Union, the
War with Spain, the insurrection in the Philippines, the China
Relief Expedition of 1900, and in the great World War.
The large American flag which floats over the Memorial
Building was presented by the Colonel George Croghan Chapter,
D. A. R., on Flag Day, June 14, 1915.
The family barouche, purchased by President Hayes in March,
1877, and used as the President's carriage during the Adminis-
tration of President Hayes and the brief Administration of Presi-
dent Garfield, has a place in the basement museum beneath the
Library. It was ridden in by all the Presidents from Grant to
McKinley, and by all of our leading generals, Grant, Sherman,
Hancock, Schofield, Miles, and Crook, while guests of President
Hayes. Nearby stands a miniature three-story doll house, which
was on exhibition at a fair in Baltimore, and then presented to
Fanny Hayes, aged ten, and used by her at the White House.
452 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
In the basement museum also are a large elk-horn chair, pre-
sented by Seth Kinman, California hunter and trapper, to Gov-
ernor Hayes, during the presidential campaign of 1876, and a
revolving chair made from Texas steer-horns; also a huge bear
trap, presented to Mr. Hayes while President by the Oneida
Community, and subsequently used by Webb C. Hayes on sev-
eral of his hunting trips in the wilds of the Rocky Mountains
with General George Crook, in one of which he caught a large
black bear, which proved more dangerous to kill than either
of the three grizzly bears killed by him in these hunting experi-
ences; also a full-mounted Rocky Mountain sheep, killed by Gen-
eral George Crook, and a mounted black-tailed deer, killed by
Colonel Hayes, are on exhibition; likewise an admirable as well
as rare collection of American Indian garments, together with
bows, arrows, scalps and Indian totems, with tomahawks and
pipes in two upright cases and two long horizontal cases. On the
wall hangs the history of Little Bad Man, a Sioux Indian.
Windows show in photographic transparencies the Norwalk
Academy at which Rutherford B. Hayes was a pupil in 1836;
Isaac Webb's School at Middletown, Connecticut, where he pre-
pared for college in 1837; Kenyon College, from which he was
graduated in 1842; and the Dane Law School of Harvard Uni-
versity from which he was graduated as a Bachelor of Laws in
1845. Lucy Ware Webb was one of the early graduates of
schools for girls. She was a student with her brothers at the
Ohio Wesleyan University at Delaware during her brothers'
course of four years from 1844 to 1848 before young women
were regularly admitted, and while a student met for the first
time her future husband, then on a visit to his old home in Dela-
ware. Her later school is shown in a transparency of the Wes-
leyan Female College in Vine Street, Cincinnati, from which she
was graduated in 1850.
Other transparencies are the home of President Hayes's great
grandfather, Captain Ezekiel Hayes of the Revolutionary army,
at Branford, Connecticut, built in 1756; the home of his son,
President Hayes's grandfather, Ensign Rutherford Hayes of the
Revolutionary army, at West Brattleboro, Vermont, built in
THE LIBRARY MUSEUM 453
1780; the home of his son, Captain Rutherford Hayes of the
War of 1812, at Dummerston, Vermont, and his later home
after his migration to Delaware, Ohio, in 1817, where he built
the first brick dwelling-house in that village in 1822, and where
his son, Rutherford Birchard Hayes, the future President, was
born October 4, 1822, a few months after his father's death.
Other transparencies represent the Ohio homes of Rutherford
B. Hayes after his marriage at Cincinnati, December 30, 1852.
One is his town residence No. 383 Sixth Street, Cincinnati, which
was his legal residence for twenty years after his marriage, al-
though he was absent during the last ten of these years while
serving in the Union army, as a Member of Congress, and as
Governor of Ohio for two terms. Another photograph represents
the old Justice Swayne house, now the site of the Public Library
in Columbus, Ohio, where he lived for nearly three years in
his three terms as Governor of Ohio. The home in Spiegel Grove
is shown in two transparencies, one representing the original
house built for him by his uncle in 1859, but occupied by him only
for the three years just before his election as President in 1876.
The other represents the Hayes homestead as it has been since
the death of both the President and Mrs. Hayes.
Over the entrance of the Library Museum addition is an oval
marble profile bust of Rutherford B. Hayes. After entering the
museum, over the entrance, in a glass case, is the regimental
flag of the Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, originally presented by
Lucy Webb Hayes to the regiment when it veteranized after three
years' service in 1864, when Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes was
promoted to brigadier-general and left the regiment. It was re-
turned to Mrs. Hayes when the regiment was mustered out in
Cleveland in June, 1865. Also, a regimental flag of the Twenty-
third O. V. V. I. Association, used at the regimental reunions, and
presented by the survivors, through Sergeant James Hayr, at the
centenary celebration of the birth of Rutherford B. Hayes,
October 4, 1922; and the headquarters garrison flag of Colonel
Hayes, Twenty-third O. V. I., flown over the winter quarters
of the regiment at Camp Eugene Reynolds at the Falls of
the Kanawha, Virginia, during the winter of 1862-63; also at
454 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
winter quarters at Camp White, opposite Charleston, West Vir-
ginia, during the winter of 1863-64; and at winter quarters at
Camp Hastings, Cumberland, Maryland, during the winter of
1864-65. On the sides are brigade headquarters flag of Brigadier-
General Rutherford B. Hayes during the War for the Union,
First Brigade, Kanawha Division, and the brigade headquarters
flag of Brigadier-General H. F. Devol, successor of General
Hayes in command of the First Brigade, Kanawha Division,
draped in mourning on receipt of the news of the assassination of
President Lincoln, April 14, 1865. Also, the division head-
quarters flag of Brevet Major-General Rutherford B. Hayes,
commanding Kanawha Division, 1864-65. In the large upright
case on the west are the regimental flags of the First Ohio Caval-
ry in the War with Spain, of which Captain M. W. Day, Ninth
U. S. Cavalry, was lieutenant-colonel commanding, and First-
Lieutenant J. E. Runcie (late U. S. Artillery) and Webb C.
Hayes were the two regimental majors. Major Hayes was
wounded when his horse was killed in the assault on San Juan
Hill at Santiago de Cuba, July 1, 1898, but continued to serve as
adjutant-general, brigade commissary, and brigade quartermaster
of the Second Cavalry Brigade, vice Captains A. L. Mills and M.
J. Henry, wounded, and First-Lieutenant Wm. E. Shipp, Tenth
U. S. Cavalry, killed in the assault. He was recommended for a
brevet commission and recently received a citation for gallantry
at Santiago de Cuba. In the large upright case on the east are
the regimental flags of the Thirty-first Regiment U. S. Infantry,
of which Captain J. S. Pettit, First U. S. Infantry was colonel,
Major Webb C. Hayes was lieutenant-colonel, Captain L. M.
Brett, Second U. S. Cavalry (later brigadier-general in the World
War), Captain Hunter Liggett, Fifth U. S. Infantry (later
lieutenant-general, and second in command in the World War),
and First-Lieutenant J. E. McMahon, First U. S. Artillery (later
brigadier-general in the World War), were the regimental majors
for service in the Phillipine Islands, serving as the first American
garrison among the Moros of Mindanao from 1899 to 1901, with
regimental headquarters at Zamboango.
Below the regimental flags of the Twenty-third Ohio Infantry
hangs an oil painting, representing the arrival of Marshal Joffre
THE LIBRARY MUSEUM 455
of France, the hero of the First Battle of the Marne, July 6, 1914,
and the Hon. Arthur J. Balfour of Great Britian, representing
the Allied Mission, at the National Capitol in Washington, in
April, 1917; painted and presented to the museum by Carl Rake-
mann of Washington.
On the west of the entrance is the Lincoln desk, a walnut
roller-top desk, purchased for the original Cabinet Room on the
second floor of the White House, during the Administration of
Abraham Lincoln, and used through the subsequent Administra-
tions of Presidents Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur,
Cleveland, Harrison, and McKinley. In the renovation of the
White House during the Administration of President Roosevelt,
it was sold for ten dollars, and purchased by Webb C. Hayes,
who, as a youth, used this desk and chair even during cabinet
meetings, while serving as the personal secretary of his father.
On the east of the entrance is Rutherford B. Hayes's bookcase
with the first law books used by him when he began practice at
Lower Sandusky, now Fremont, as a member of the firm of
"Buckland and Hayes" -Ralph P. Buckland and Rutherford
B. Hayes--1845 to 1849, and until his removal to Cincinnati
in 1850. On the tops of these two desks are celestial and ter-
restrial globes, presented to the President and Mrs. Hayes.
The window in the south door, opposite, contains colored trans-
parencies of the east front and west front of the National Capitol
at Washington; the inauguration of President Hayes in 1877;
the inauguration of President Garfield, President Hayes' succes-
sor, in 1881; the north front and the south front of the White
House; and the northwest corner of the State-house and the
west front of the State-house at Columbus, showing the gov-
ernor's office and the monument to "Ohio Jewels," namely,
General U. S. Grant, General W. T. Sherman, General P. H.
Sheridan, Secretary of War E. M. Stanton, Chief Justice S. P.
Chase, President Rutherford B. Hayes, and President James A.
Midway between these doors is a grandfather's clock, purchased
by Rutherford Hayes, father of President Hayes, on his marriage
to Sophia Birchard in Vermont in 1812. When the family moved
456 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
to Delaware, Ohio, from West Dummerston, Vermont, in 1817,
the clock, because of its length, would not permit the tailboard of
the wagon to be in place for the long journey across the Allegheny
Mountains. The clock was sold to relatives, by whom it was
later brought to Ohio, and returned to the Hayes family as a
bequest of Mrs. Linus Austin in 1915.
On top of the clock stands the owl, which, by dangling on the
plumb-bob in the Washington Monument, when the old stone
foundation was being carefully removed and a new concrete
foundation placed in its stead, a very delicate engineering feat,
nearly caused the despair of the engineer in charge, who thought
that his foundation had proved insufficient and that the monument
Near the clock is a marble-top walnut water table, also pur-
chased for the original Cabinet Room, during the Lincoln Ad-
ministration, on which a silver decanter with two silver cups pro-
vided fresh ice-water for the President and his callers, from the
Administration of President Lincoln until after the death of
The Library Museum contains a specimen cannon or shell-case
captured in each of the wars in which the United States has been
engaged since the Declaration of Independence.
Revolutionary War, 1776-1783. A bronze cannon with the
British coat of arms, and the royal ciphers of King George and
of King Louis, probably showing it was a gift from the King of
France to the King of England. Inscribed by direction of
General Benedict Arnold, a commander of victorious American
troops at the Battle of Saratoga:
October 7, 1777
THE LIBRARY MUSEUM 457
The name of Benedict Arnold was erased, as it was from all
trophies, by direction of the Continental Congress after his treach-
ery. The manufacturer's mark below is: "R. Gilpin Fecit 1761."
Second War with Great Britain, 1812-14. A bronze Coehoorn
mortar with the British coat of arms and King George's royal
cipher, captured during the Second War with Great Britain.
War with Mexico, 1846-1848. A bronze cannon with the in-
scription "San Juan," captured in the War with Mexico. This
was one of the four bronze guns known as the Apostles' Battery
or the Four Apostles, presented by the King and Queen of Spain
to Cortez and used in the conquest of Mexico and later in the
war for the Independence of Texas and the subsequent War with
Mexico. Of the remaining three guns, St. Matthew, St. Mark
and St. Luke, one is on exhibition at West Point on an entrance
to the library, and the others in front of the War Department at
War for the Union, 1861-1865. A brass six-pound gun, in-
scribed "Louisiana," captured during the War for the Union.
War with Spain, 1898-1899, and the Insurrection in the Philip-
pines, 1899-1901. A single-barrelled bronze Spanish lantaka, and
a double-barrelled bronze Spanish lantaka, together with three
bronze or brass Spanish helmets and Spanish coat of mail which
hang among the Moro exhibits on the south wall, all presumably
taken by Magellan to the Philippine Islands after his discovery of
them in 1521, following his passage through the Straits of Magel-
lan, and later captured by the savage Moros of Mindanao, and
presented to Lieutenant-Colonel Webb C. Hayes Thirty-first U. S.
Infantry, commanding the first American troops at Reina Regen-
ta, Mindanao, during the winter of 1899-1900. Datto Piang
welcomed him at Reina Regenta and fired a salute from fifty-one
captured bronze Spanish cannon and lantakas, presenting the
double-barrelled lantaka as a souvenir of the visit. The single-
barrelled lantaka was presented to Colonel Hayes by the
Sultan of Mindanao, when he escorted the Sultan to his state
barge at the dock of Parang Parang. He presented the Sultan
with a fancy penknife, whereupon the Sultan proposed to give him
a return present of ten of his three hundred Moro wives. Be-
458 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
fore the tragedy of the delivery of the wives, Colonel Hayes in-
dicated his preference for the lantaka on the state barge, near
which he was standing, in lieu of the ten wives, to the surprise
and apparent disgust of the Sultan.
Chinese Boxer War of 1900. Two iron Chinese cannon of
small calibre, used in the Manchu conquest of China; part
of the guns surrendered by the Boxers after their attacks on the
foreign legations in Peking. A bronze Chinese cannon, with
numerous Manchu hieroglyphics, used in the Manchu conquest of
China in 1645, --one of three guns brought home by Lieutenant-
Colonel Webb C. Hayes, of Major-General Chaffee's staff,--
stands in the atrium. This was one of many guns used by the
Boxers in their attack on the foreign legations in the summer of
1900, and also used against the Relief Column composed of two-
thousand Americans, two-thousand British, four-thousand Rus-
sians, and eight-thousand Japanese, which on August 14, 1900,
captured the Tartar city of Peking. Of the other two cannon
brought home by Colonel Hayes, one was presented to the mu-
seum of the West Point Military Academy and one to the
Western Reserve Historical Society of Cleveland, of which he
is a trustee.
On the wall above the iron Chinese cannon and the Lincoln
marble-top walnut water table, already described above, hang
Chinese imperial (or Boxer) uniforms, Chinese man's kimono
and boy's costume, and a collection of sawed-off rifles of
the Chinese, who were the earliest users of gunpowder-match-
lock, flintlock, percussion cap, and needlegun. Also, Chinese
spear, halberd, and sword; two Chinese bows with quivers of
Chinese arrows, including whistling arrows, which were dis-
charged in the air so as to give a weird whistling sound like that
emitted by bad spirits, and carried by both pursued and pursuers,
so that the pursuers could use them in case they became the pur-
sued; a queue from the head of a Chinese who was one of ten
executed for looting and murder on the day following Colonel
Hayes's arrival in Peking; Chinese fishing spears and three
Chinese flags, captured during the Boxer Insurrection of 1900,
and representing a Chinese swallowing the Japanese insignia
FOREIGN WAR RELICS 459
(causing severe indigestion). The Chinese changed their flag
every time they were defeated. The fact that they were usually
defeated explains the different designs of flags. The large yellow
flag from the Chinese Imperial Summer Palace was captured by
the Russians and looted from them by Colonel Hayes. The small
maroon silk flag was captured by him on an American expedition
from Peking, sent out to rescue Chinese Christians.
War on the Mexican Border, 1916-1917. Two metallic cases
for fixed ammunition for French field-pieces, used by the
Mexican bandit Villa in his raids on Columbus, New Mexico,
in 1916. The ammunition was cached near Colonia Dublan,
Mexico, the headquarters of Major-General Pershing's Expedi-
tionary Force, and was captured and presented to Colonel Hayes
by Major Robert L. Howze, a former comrade, and adjutant-
general of the First Brigade Cavalry Division at Santiago de Cuba
in 1898; lieutenant-colonel of the Thirty-fourth U. S. Infantry in
General S. B. M. Young's campaign in northern Luzon, P. I., in
1889, where he captured Appari, and was promoted to brigadier-
general; and again a brigadier-general in France during the
World War; now major-general, commanding the Fifth Corps
Area with headquarters at Fort Hayes, Columbus, Ohio.
World War, 1917-1918. German shells and curios in Japanese
cases No. 2 and No. 3.
A carillon of bells hangs between the two central columns
with two bronze Catholic mission bells, one used as an ash tray
and cuspidor in the prison occupied by Lieutenant Gilmore, U.
S. N., and American sailors while prisoners in Vigan, northern
Luzon, September, 1899; the other, broken in the engagement
at Laoag, presented to Colonel Hayes by the Spanish padre in ap-
preciation of rations furnished to the seven-hundred Spanish
soldiers who had been held as prisoners of war by the Filipinos.
These were fed with American rations until they were re-
patriated to Manila en route to Spain in 1899. Also, Chinese
temple bells, captured in the relief of Peking, which, when
swayed by the wind, gave forth low sweet notes to weary way-
farers. Above are three bells of precious metals-gold and
silver-made for the Spanish Conquistadors, Francisco Pizarro
460 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
in 1541 and Hernando de Soto in 1589. Also, in the adjoining
upright show-case are candle-sticks, spoons, and plates, the latter,
with the inscriptions:
"En Honor Don Francisco Pizarro, Gran Capitan y Con-
quistador y Primer Governador Del Peru, Cuzco, Ano D 1541."
"En Omenaje Al Capitan Don Diego De Almagro Conquistador
Del Peru, Cuzco, Ano (D) 1541."
"Don Hernando De Soto, Gran Capitan Conquistador, Ano
On the centre columns hang two grandfathers' guns of the
War of 1812, the old flintlocks used by Rutherford Hayes of
Brattleboro, Vermont, and James Webb of Lexington, Kentucky,
when they were young men and before their removal to Ohio.
Captain Rutherford Hayes, of the Vermont Militia, removed
from West Dummerston, Vermont, to Delaware, Ohio, in 1817.
James Webb, who served as a youth of eighteen in Captain
Garard's Company of Kentucky Mounted Riflemen in General
Harrison's northwestern campaign at Fort Meigs, Fort Seneca,
and Fort Stephenson, before his invasion of Canada, subsequent-
ly was graduated from Transylvania University, Lexington, Ken-
tucky, and began the practice of medicine at Chillicothe, Ohio.
There he married Maria Cook, who was born there in 1801 and
whose father, Judge Isaac Cook, migrated to Ohio in 1792 from
Connecticut. This Isaac Cook was the third of the name (father,
son, and grandson), who served in the Revolutionary War. The
first Isaac Cook was a captain and collector of military supplies in
Connecticut. His second son Isaac was colonel of a Connecticut
regiment, in which his young son, the third Isaac, was his orderly.
Below the grandfathers' guns hang two glass-fronted wall
cases. The case on the west contains the military equipment of
Rutherford B. Hayes during the four years of the War for the
Sword carried while major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel
Twenty-third Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, June 7, 1861,
to October 19, 1864.
RELICS OF COL. HAYES'S WAR SERVICE 461
Sword carried while brigadier-general and brevet major-
general, U. S. Volunteers, October 19, 1864, to June 8, 1865.
Colt cap revolver, calibre 45, carried in saddle holster through
Smith and Wesson revolver, calibre 32, and holster, carried
after the Battle of Cedar Creek, October 18, 1864.
Field-glass, carried through the war.
Leather revolver holster. The revolver had been drawn, but
was lost when Colonel Hayes was wounded and his horse killed,
pierced by many bullets from the charging lines of the enemy at
the Battle of Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864.
General Hayes's casualties during the war-wounded six times
and four horses killed in battle.
The case on the east contains the military equipments of Colonel
Webb C. Hayes, M. H., worn during the War for the Union, as
a small boy, 1862-63, and as an active combatant in the War
with Spain, the Philippine Insurrection, the China Relief Ex-
pedition, on the Mexican Border, and in the World War:-
War for the Union, 1861-1865
Sword, broken by Captain James L. Bottsford, Twenty-third O.
V. I., while fencing, in 1862, presented to Master Webb Hayes,
aged six, and carried during the remainder of the war, while in
winter camps in Virginia, 1862-63 and 1863-64.
War with Spain, 1898-1899.
Sabre carried while major First Ohio Cavalry, during the cam-
paigns of Santiago de Cuba and Porto Rico, strapped to the
saddle of his horse, "Chickamauga," when Major Hayes was
wounded and his horse killed in the assault on San Juan Hill,
July 1, 1898; later recovered with horse equipment from the
dead body of his horse. This sabre was carried by him from
1881 to 1897 while private and sergeant First Cleveland Troop,
Troop A, Ohio National Guard, while serving as personal escort
of Presidents Hayes, Garfield, Cleveland, Harrison, and McKin-
ley, and in command of President Roosevelt's escort at the Mc-
Kinley obsequies at Canton, in September, 1901.
462 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1901
Sword carried while lieutenant-colonel Thirty-first Infantry,
U. S. V., in northern Luzon and among the Moros of Mindanao
during the Philippine Insurrection, 1899-1901. Presented by
China Relief Expedition, 1900-1901
Sword carried while aide-de-camp on personal staff of Major-
General Chaffee, commanding China Relief Expedition of 1900.
Presented by Fremont friends.
World War, 1914-1918
Field officer's trench crop with concealed French bayonet,
officer's overseas belt, field-glass, combination watch and com-
pass, whistle, and automatic Colt pistol, carried during the World
War while serving in France, Italy, and French Morocco.
Colt double-action 45 calibre revolver carried while hunting
grizzly bear with Major-General George Crook, U. S. A., 1878-
1889 and subsequently, with U. S. Army cartridge belt with
sabre attachment, during the campaigns of Santiago de Cuba and
Porto Rico, in the War with Spain 1898, Philippine Insurrection,
1899-1900, and China Relief Expedition of 1900; also carried
during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904, while an observer with
the Japanese army in Korea, and the Russian army in Manchuria.
Colonel Hayes was recommended by the brevet board of the
War Department for brevet lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in
action at Santiago de Cuba, where he was wounded; was awarded
the Congressional Medal of Honor by direction of President
Roosevelt, through Secretary of War Elihu Root, on the rec-
ommendation of Lieutenant-General S. B. M. Young, President
of the Medal of Honor Board of the War Department, who was
his commander in Cuba and the Philippines, for
"Distinguished gallantry in pushing through the
enemy's lines alone on the night of December 4, 1899,
from the beach to our beleaguered force at Vigan, P. I.,
and returning the following morning to report the con-
dition of affairs to the Navy and get assistance."
WAR RELICS OF PRESIDENT HAYES 463
Decorated by General Lyautey, the French Resident General in
Morocco, at Fez, Morocco, August 15, 1918, with French-Mo-
roccan military order, "Ouissam Alaouite"; also a citation with
silver star, by direction of the President, made by the War De-
partment in General Orders on March 12, 1925, "for gallantry
in action against the Spanish forces in Santiago de Cuba, July
Three Japanese exhibition cases, presented by the Centennial
Commission from Japan to Rutherford B. Hayes at the close of
the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. Japanese case
No. 1 contains:-
Field officer's coat worn by Lieutenant-Colonel Rutherford B.
Hayes, commanding the Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, when
severely wounded at the Battle of South Mountain in the Antie-
tam campaign, September 14, 1862.
Cap and sword-belt worn by Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes.
Photograph of the painting of the Battle-field of South Moun-
tain, September 14, 1862.
The New Testament presented to Major Rutherford B. Hayes
by his mother, 1861.
Rubber drinking cup presented to Major Rutherford B. Hayes,
Twenty-third O. V. I., during the Battle of Carnifex Ferry,
September 10, 1861, by his former law partner, Adjutant Leopold
Markbreit, Twenty-eighth O. V. I.,--their first meeting after
leaving their law office in Cincinnati on the breaking out of the
War for the Union.
Cane from Redbud Slough, Battle of Winchester, September
Cane from the house of Barbara Frietchie, Frederick, Mary-
land, the heroine of Whittier's poem, "Barbara Frietchie."
Portrait of Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, after recovering from
his severe wound received in the Antietam campaign, 1862.
Portrait of Brigadier-General Rutherford B. Hayes, brevet
major-general, and staff, 1864-1865.
Daguerreotype (later enlarged) of regiment headquarters'
mess, Twenty-third O. V. I., at Raleigh, western Virginia, in
1862. Colonel Hayes, Major J. T. Webb, surgeon, Captain M. P.
464 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Avery, adjutant, Captain C. A. Sperry, "Old Gray," orderly, and
colored boy, Tom. With insert of Master Webb Hayes, aged
Daguerreotype of officers of the Twenty-third fencing in front
of Colonel Hayes, Captain C. A. Sperry, and Captain John S.
Ellen, winter of 1862-63, Camp Raleigh, western Virginia; Ad-
jutant M. P. Avery fencing with Captain James L. Bottsford,
whose sword was broken in the bout and later presented to
Master Webb Hayes, and worn by him thereafter while the regi-
ment was in winter quarters in Virginia in 1862-63 and 1863-64,
until the opening of General Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley cam-
paign on May 1, 1864.
Photograph of the last review and muster out of the Twenty,
third O. V. I., in Public Square, Cleveland, Ohio, June, 1865, with
photographs of the officers at the dedication of the monument
to the soldiers of the Twenty-third in Woodland Cemetery,
Cleveland, Ohio- Brevet Major-General Rutherford B. Hayes,
third colonel, Brevet Brigadier-General James M. Comly, fourth
and last colonel, and Brevet Brigadier-General Russell Hastings,
the last lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-third, and Brevet
Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph T. Webb, major surgeon of the
regiment from its muster in, in 1861, until its muster out, in
1865, the Twenty-third, being the first Ohio regiment mustered
into the United States service for "three years or the war."
Funds for this monument were raised immediately after the
Antietam campaign in 1862, where the regiment lost so heavily,
and the monument itself was erected and dedicated at the final
muster out of the regiment at Cleveland, Ohio, in June, 1865. It
was the first regiment to erect a monument to its dead, the money
all subscribed by members of the regiment.
General officer's coat, worn by Brigadier-General Rutherford
B. Hayes, brevet major-general, United States Volunteers, in
the War for the Union.
General officer's felt hat with insignia of the Red Star Brigade.
Gauntlets worn by General Hayes in the War for the Union.
Brigadier-general's shoulder-straps, cut from his own coat by
General George Crook, commanding the Army of West Virginia,
WAR RELICS OF PRESIDENT HAYES 465
and presented to Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes after the Battle of
Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, on his promotion on the field
on the recommendation of General Crook and General Sheridan,
and worn during the remainder of the war.
Camp looking-glass carried with other traps in cornu-copia.
Photograph of Master Webb Hayes, aged six, with Orderly
Loomis and Cook Frank Halpin of the regimental headquarters
of the Twenty-third at Camp Eugene Reynolds at the Falls of the
Kanawha, during the winter of 1862-63, or at Camp White, op-
posite Charleston, West Virginia, during the winter of 1863-64.
Enlarged daguerreotype of regiment headquarters' mess,
Twenty-third O. V. I., at Raleigh, western Virginia, in 1862, with
insert of Master Webb Hayes, aged six.
Portraits of the relatives of General and Mrs. Hayes who
served in the War for the Union.
Military equipment of Rutherford B. Hayes while major,
lieutenant-colonel, and colonel, Twenty-third Ohio Infantry, and
brigadier-general and brevet major-general, U. S. Volunteers,
1861-1865. Bridle and bit, saddle, martingale and crupper-strap,
saddle-bags, pistol holsters, mounted officer's boots.
Ammunition-box chest, called "Cornu-Copia," used for carry-
ing personal effects of Rutherford B. Hayes during the War
for the Union.
Oilcloth bedding roll, combination folding camp table with
metallic cooking outfit, carving knife and saw, and fork of mess
kit, and mess dishes, all used by Hayes during the War for the
Ammunition box for headquarters records.
Copies of printed orders issued by General Rutherford B.
Hayes and others during the War for the Union.
Leather brass-bound trunk used by Rutherford B. Hayes while
a student at Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, 1838-1842; also one
used while a student at the Harvard Law School, 1843-45.
On the top of the case is a hollow ball from the top of the
flag-pole of the old War Department Building, in which Edwin
M. Stanton, as Secretary of War, performed his great service
during the War for the Union. The old War Department Build-
466 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
ing was torn down, with other buildings, to give place to the
present State, War, and Navy Building.
Camp chest of Rutherford B. Hayes, used as field officer's
chest, Twenty-third Infantry, 1861-1864, and as brigadier-gener-
al's U. S. Volunteers, 1864-1865.
Field officer's desk (with regimental records and muster-out
roll), used by Hayes during the War for the Union.
Japanese case No. 2 contains: -
The uniforms, military equipment, and curios used or collected
in the World War by six of the seven grandsons of Rutherford
B. Hayes (one being too young), four of whom left college for
their military service. Also, uniforms, equipment, and souvenirs
collected by Colonel Webb C. Hayes, M. H., and by his wife,
Mary Miller Hayes. The latter was a Red Cross worker in Paris
in 1914 and 1917, and in Rome in 1917, and during the American
participation in the World War in 1917-18 a Y. M. C. A. li-
brarian and hostess at the American Soldiers' Leave Areas in
Aix-les-Bains and Nice, until after the Armistice in 1918; when
she returned to America with her wounded nephew, Sergeant
Dalton Hayes, and her husband, after his service in France, Bel-
gium, Germany, Italy, and Morocco, 1914-1918.
The uniforms and equipment of the four sons of Mr. and Mrs.
Birchard Austin Hayes of Toledo, Ohio, all of whom served in
the World War. In recognition of this fact, Mrs. Hayes was
designated to present the colors to a regiment later organized for
service in the World War.
Olive-drab uniform of First-Lieutenant Sherman O. Hayes,
Fourteenth U. S. Infantry.
Blue uniform of Lieutenant-Commander Webb C. Hayes 2nd,
a graduate of the U. S. Naval Academy of the class of 1911.
Executive Officer of the U. S. Destroyer Trippe of the Queens-
town flotilla during the World War. Also, flag of the Trippe
in European waters in 1917.
White uniform, with side-arms and service badges, of Lieu-
tenant (J. G.) Walter S. Hayes, U. S. N., a student at Cornell
University, from which he was a post-war graduate in 1919. He
was transferred from the Naval Training Station at Newport,
HAYES RELICS OF WORLD WAR 467
Rhode Island, to the U. S. Naval Academy for volunteer officers
at Annapolis, after graduation from which he served overseas on
the U. S. Battleship Utah in European waters.
Olive-drab uniform of Lieutenant Scott R. Hayes, first-lieu-
tenant field artillery, a student at Princeton University, from
which he was a post-war graduate in 1919.
Olive-drab uniform and equipment, with tin hat and gas mask,
of Private William P. Hayes, Twentieth U. S. Engineers, son of
Rutherford P. Hayes, a student at the University of Wisconsin,
from which he was a post-war graduate in 1919, who served in
France until after the armistice.
Olive-drab uniform with shoulder insignia of the Forty-second
Division and wound stripe, overcoat, and equipment, with tin hat
and gas mask, of Sergeant Dalton Hayes, Company D, One-
hundred-sixty-fifth Infantry (Sixty-ninth New York), Forty-
second (Rainbow) Division, son of Mrs. Fanny Hayes, a student
at Princeton University, from which he was a post-war graduate
in 1921; who was serverely wounded in the Argonne Forest,
October 14, 1918, and placed in the American hospital at Beaune,
Cote-d'-Or, and at Nice, until taken home after the armistice.
Also, German regimental banner, captured by Corporal Dalton
Hayes, before he was wounded.
Here too may be seen the Kaiser's horn obtained from one of
the armed orderlies of the German imperial car, which conveyed
Colonel Hayes from Berlin to Brussels, through Aix-la-Chapelle,
Liege, Namur, and Mons, with the advancing German armies in
1914, while returning from carrying dispatches, as a representa-
tive of the American Diplomatic Corps, between Paris, London,
The Hague, and Berlin in September, 1914.
Three bowls from the famous library in Louvain, Beligum.
The only articles left after the destruction of the library by the
German army, August, 1914. These bowls were probably used
to contain mucilage. They were picked up by Colonel Hayes while
on an official visit for the rescue of stranded Americans before
America entered the war.
Photographs, curios, and Italian posters, welcoming American,
British, and French troops.
468 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Message shell fired from American front line trenches in
France back to headquarters with a message, in 1917.
Italian steel helmet worn by Colonel Hayes in the Italian
trenches on the Piave River in December, 1917, after the debacle,
when British, French, and American reinforcements were sent
from France to stiffen the Italian lines.
Italian steel helmet, pierced by German bullets which killed
an Italian soldier in Italian front line trench of General Gari-
baldi's command, on the Piave River, December, 1917.
Austrian six-inch shell, fired at General Garibaldi's head-
quarters and presented to Colonel Hayes while still hot, in De-
Italian and Austrian gas masks.
A wooden persuader used in Morocco, while on an expedition
to General Lyautey's headquarters at Fez, Morocco, where Col-
onel Hayes was decorated by General Lyautey, as the representa-
tive of the Sultan of Morocco, August 15, 1918.
Moroccan slippers from Fez.
Field-glasses or binoculars of Mr. and Mrs. Scott R. Hayes of
Spiegel Farm, Croton-on-Hudson, New York, lent after their
return from a mission to Petrograd in April and May, 1915, to
the U. S. Navy and used on offensive patrols and duties off the
coast of the United States until the submarine foundered on
October 5, 1918, when the commanding officer and second officer
Japanese case No. 3 contains:--
(Upper compartment) German maps, curios, decorations, re-
volvers, and entrenching instruments, including iron crosses,
campaign decorations, medals indicating one hundred years' serv-
ice of a family and medals indicating twenty-five years' service
and twelve years' service in the army of the Kaiser, captured
during the World War in France, Belgium, Italy, and Morocco.
(Lower compartment) Cavalry officer's saddle (with yellow
trimmings), bridle, saddle-cloth, and saddle-bags of Major Webb
C. Hayes, First Ohio Cavalry, when his horse, "Chickamauga,"
was killed and he was wounded in the assault on San Juan Hill,
July 1, 1898; recovered one week later from the dead horse.
CURIOS OF COL. HAYES'S WAR SERVICE 469
Mounted infantry officer's saddle, bridle, saddle-cloth, and sad-
dle-bags (with white trimmings) of Lieutenant-Colonel Webb C.
Hayes, Thirty-first U. S. Infantry, in the Philippine Islands,
1899; also used while a cavalry officer of the First Ohio Cavalry
in the campaign in Porto Rico in 1898.
Filipino saddle and lariat used on Filipino pony "Piddig" in
northern Luzon, when Colonel Hayes won the recommendation
for the Congressional Medal of Honor for gallantry at Vigan,
December 4, 1899; subsequently awarded by President Roosevelt
through Secretary of War, Elihu Root, on the recommendation
of Lieutenant General S. B. M. Young, U. S. A., President of
the Medal of Honor Board of the War Department, who was
his commander in Cuba and the Philippines.
Rocky Mountain bedding roll transformed into a military sleep-
ing cot and used by Major Webb C. Hayes, First Ohio Cavalry,
through the campaign of Santiago de Cuba in 1898.
Sailor's bag from the Reina Mercedes, which was sunk by the
Spaniards to block the harbor of Santiago de Cuba; later carried
as a military war sack through the campaigns of Cuba, Porto
Rico, the Philippines, and China.
Officer's military cot, chair, bathtub, and canteen, used while
in the smallpox detention camp on Angel Island, California, Sep-
tember and October, 1899, and during the winter of 1899-1900 at
the headquarters of the Thirty-first U. S. Infantry, Zamboanga,
Mindanao, P. I.
(Intermediate compartment) Personal curios of Colonel Webb
C. Hayes, M. H., from his campaigns in Santiago de Cuba and
Porto Rico in the War with Spain, 1898-1899, and in the Philip-
pine Insurrection in northern Luzon and Mindanao, 1899-1900.
Pen and inkstand, used by President McKinley in signing the
resolution of Congress, declaring war with Spain, April 25, 1898.
The New Testament, presented by William McKinley, May
26, 1898, to Major Webb C. Hayes, First Ohio Cavalry.
Housewife, presented by Mrs. William McKinley and Mrs.
Myron T. Herrick to Major Hayes on his departure for the cam-
paign of Santiago de Cuba.
Key to the deck plate of the U. S. Battleship Maine, and
470 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
other curios from the wreck of the Maine, sunk in the harbor at
Havana, February 15, 1898.
Rope from the rigging of the collier Merrimac, sunk by Naval
Constructor R. P. Hobson to block the entrance of Santiago
Bay; curios from the Reina Mercedes, later also sunk by the
Spaniards to block the harbor of Santiago Bay; Admiral Cer-
vera's smoking set; piece of the flag of the Spanish ship Colon;
steam gauge from the Spanish cruiser Viscaya, recovered from
the Spanish warships of Admiral Cervera's fleet, which were
sunk in order by the shell fire of the U. S. Battleship, Oregon,
Captain Charles E. Clark commanding, as they endeavored to
escape from Santiago Bay. "The U. S. Battleship, Oregon, left
not one of them until it surrendered or had been run ashore."
Spanish curios collected during the siege of Santiago de Cuba
by Major Webb C. Hayes, adjutant-general, brigade quarter-
master, and brigade commissary of the Second Cavalry Brigade,
from July 1 to July 8, 1898.
Spanish cartridge-boxes, bayonet, uniforms, and cloth car-
tridge belt, containing ammunition, captured at the first landing
of American troops on the island of Porto Rico at Guanica, July
25, 1898; and three hundred Spanish flags and bunting, captured
at Yauco, while Major Hayes commanded an expedition sent out
by Brigadier-General Guy V. Henry.
Officer's equipment, used in the campaign in Porto Rico.
Curios, captured from the Moros of Mindanao, P. I., includ-
ing letter from the Sultan of Sulu and copy in Arabic of the
treaty made with the Sultan of Sulu by Brigadier-General John
C. Bates, commanding the department of Mindanao and Jolo;
Moro children's wicker football and bronze Moro curios from
Mindanao and Jolo.
On the top of the case is a cardinal parrot, presented by the
Sultan of Sulu to Lieutenant-Colonel Hayes, at Maibung, Sulu
Corner case contains curios from the China Relief Expedition
Chinese Imperial (or Boxer) arms, guns, and swords and
specimens of Chinese headgear and Chinese horse equipment.
CURIOS OF COL. HAYES'S WAR SERVICE 471
Needleguns purchased by China from Germany and Austria
in liquidation of alleged claims for damages, found in the original
packages in the arsenal at Tientsin.
Chinese waist ammunition belt, Chinese sword for beheading,
Chinese sword-bayonets, orginally purchased from Germany and
Austria, and a suit of Chinese armor.
Chinese ammunition for gingals; also for modern European
breech-loading machine guns.
Belt buckle of one of the British regiments, the First Leicester-
shire Regiment, which participated in the looting of Peking in
1860, when the Christian nations of Europe had their first taste
Three Chinese gods, a piece of the great wall of China, Chinese
seal, dagger, chopsticks, and case containing quill pens used by
the famous Chinese statesman, Li Hung Chang, when arrang-
ing for the indemnities to be paid; Chinese copper coin, circu-
lated by Emperor Kwan-wo, Hau dynasty, 40 A. D., and Chinese
money adding machine.
Kodak pictures taken in the Imperial Palace in the Forbidden
City on an official inspection by Brigadier-General James H. Wil-
son and Lieutenant Reeve of his staff, accompanied by Lieu-
tenant-Colonel Hayes of Major-General Chaffee's staff; with por-
celain and tray for serving tea, as shown in the photograph; also
bronze knob with which Colonel Hayes was branded.
Against the north wall of the Library Museum are three up-
right cases, which contain relics captured in the War for the
Union, 1861-1865. On top of the cases is a large American flag,
purchased for the reunion of the Twenty-third O. V. V. I. at
Spiegel Grove, September 14, 1877; subsequently flown over the
White House and the National Soldiers' Home, the summer resi-
dence of President Hayes, over the Arlington National Ceme-
tery, the National Capitol, and the U. S. Senate and House of
Representatives while in session; also three souvenir footstools,
made from mahogany chairs with brocade upholstering, used by
the President and his Cabinet in the Cabinet Room; and two
stands, made from White House furniture when the house was
refurnished in 1879.
472 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Case No. 1 contains:-
Rebel garrison flag of Wise's Legion, marked "Union of the
South" and "Liberty," captured by the Thirty-fourth Ohio in
1861 and presented to Major R. B. Hayes, Twenty-third O. V. I.
Small case of surveying instruments belonging to Lieutenant-
General James Longstreet, C. S. A., captured by Captain Rus-
sell Hastings, adjutant-general of Brigadier-General Hayes.
Bullet-moulds captured during the War for the Union; three
percussion shells fired by the Rebels without exploding; cannon
ball from caisson captured at South Mountain, Maryland, Sep-
tember 14, 1862, by the Twenty-third O. V. I., and presented to
Colonel R. B. Hayes, who was severely wounded in the battle;
cartridge and cap-box captured at the Battle of South Moun-
tain; cartridge-box, cap-box and bayonet captured by the Twen-
ty-third at Antietam, September 17, 1862; brass spurs taken from
a wounded major captured at Sheridan's victory of Winchester,
September 19, 1864; pike captured in the Shenandoah Valley,
1864; and spear captured at Guyandotte, Virginia, by Lieuten-
ant-Colonel Hall, Thirteenth Virginia Infantry (Union), one of
many made by order of Governor Henry A. Wise of Virginia "to
toss the Yankee invaders across the river."
Case No. 2 contains:-
Regimental flag of the stars and bars, captured from General
Jubal Early's command in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864, and
presented to Brigadier-General R. B. Hayes.
Flagstaff of the Twenty-third North Carolina Regiment, cap-
tured by the Twenty-third O. V. I. at South Mountain, Septem-
ber 14, 1862.
Confederate officer's sword; hunting rifle captured from Guer-
rillas at Fayette C. H., Virginia, in 1862, by the Twenty-third
O. V. I.; hunting rifle captured from the "Flat Top Copper-
heads," Flat Top Mountain, Virginia, in 1862, by the Twenty-
third O. V. I.; camp-chair, presented to Colonel R. B. Hayes,
Twenty-third O. V. I., inscribed as follows: "The carpet in
this chair is a part of a blanket of a Rebel soldier, said blanket
captured at South Mountain, September 14, 1862. The owner of
aforesaid was mortally wounded by a Yankee bayonet."
RELICS OF THE WAR FOR THE UNION 473
Squirrel rifle captured from guerrillas at Fayette C. H., Vir-
ginia, March, 1862, by the Twenty-third O. V. I.; sword cap-
tured from raiding cavalry at Dublin Depot, Virginia, by the
Twenty-third O. V. I. in 1864; ramrods and cleaning rods; Field
officer's sword, captured at Moorefield, Virginia, 1864, by Cap-
tain Gillmore, First Virginia Cavalry (Union); and cavalry
sword, captured at Wytheville, Virginia, 1863, by the Twenty-
third O. V. I.
Case No. 3 contains:-
Chromo of the inauguration of Jefferson Davis and Alexander
H. Stephens at Montgomery, Alabama, February 18, 1861; photo-
graph of Alexander H. Stephens, taken after the Reconstruction,
while a member of the U. S. House of Representatives at Wash-
ington; and two group photographs of the Committee on Elec-
tions, Thirty-fourth Congress, with noted Representatives of pre-
A report of Jacob Thompson, representative of the so-called
Confederate States in Canada, reporting on his mission to Judah
P. Benjamin, dated Toronto, December 3, 1864, for burning the
northern cities, introducing contagious diseases, etc. Endorsed
"Received 13 February, '65," with a file mark, "J. P. B."
Mississippi rifle captured at the mouth of the Bluestone, Mer-
cer County, Virginia, May, 1862, by the Twenty-third O. V. I.;
Austrian rifle, captured during the War for the Union; Missis-
sippi rifle, captured at Princeton, Virginia, May 1, 1862, by the
Twenty-third O. V. I.; turnkey for pulling teeth, captured at
Carnifex Ferry, Virginia, 1861, in Captain Gillmore, First Vir-
ginia Cavalry (Union); and envelope with hostage tickets of
Union officers in Libby prison in the handwriting of Captain
Wirz of Libby prison, executed in 1865. The names were placed
in a tin can by General Winder and drawn by the Honorable
Alfred Ely, M. C., to select the required number of Union of-
ficers of the rank of captain to be held as hostages under fire of
the Union guns, for the Rebel spies confined by United States
Tourniquet to check the flow of blood, captured at Fayetteville,
Virginia; spurs, captured at Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864, by
474 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Captain Singleton, and presented to General R. B. Hayes; case
of signal rockets, captured in 1864; canteen, captured at the Bat-
tle of Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862; spurs, captured
at Fayetteville, Virginia, November 13, 1861; shoe, with wooden
sole, one of several hundred, captured at Dublin Depot, Virginia,
May 9, 1864; officer's field telescope, captured at Carnifex Ferry,
September 19, 1861; cow-horn powder-flasks, captured from
guerrillas; shackles from the slave pens of Brice, Birch & Com-
pany, dealers in slaves, Alexandria, Virginia; rebel spur, brass
spurs, sword bayonet and pair of brass stirrups, captured during
the War for the Union; bowie-knifes and officer's scabbard, cap-
tured at Carnifex Ferry, Virginia, September 19, 1861, by the
Twenty-third O. V. I.
Affixed to the north wall of the Library Museum is a shield
with fine specimens of two-pronged horns of an American an-
telope, ten-pronged horns of a black-tailed deer, and fifteen-
pronged horns of an American elk, killed by Webb C. Hayes in
1878, 1879, and 1880; and General Crook's specially constructed
Nearby hang the large horns of an elk killed by General Crook
on which rests his favorite Sharp's rifle, calibre 45. Above
and beneath hang photographs of Brigadier-General George
Crook, with his two personal aides, and of Major-General Crook,
with his official staff, while commanding the Department of Mis-
souri at the time of his death on March 20, 1890.
Portraits of the horses ridden by Colonel Hayes in four of his
campaigns are shown; a steel engraving representing "Chicka-
mauga," the Troop A horse, ridden by Major Hayes, First Ohio
Cavalry, which was killed in the assault of San Juan Hill, San-
tiago de Cuba, July 1, 1898, when Major Hayes was wounded;
enlarged photograph of "Black Yauco," a survivor of the San-
tiago campaign, ridden by Major Hayes in the campaign in
Porto Rico, and so named after the town of Yauco, cap-
tured by Major Hayes on his arrival with the first American ex-
pedition reaching Porto Rico from Cuba under Major-General
Miles, July 26, 1898; enlarged photograph of Lieutenant-Colonel
Hayes, Thirty-first Infantry, on "Piddig," the Filipino pony
WAR CURIOS OF COLONEL HAYES 475
which he rode at Vigan, P. I., when he earned the Congressional
Medal of Honor on December 4, 1899, now buried on the knoll
at Spiegel Grove; enlarged kodak of Colonel Hayes on Troop A
horse, "Trooper," of the Sixth U. S. Cavalry, on his arrival at
the outer wall of Peking, China, to report for duty on the staff
of Major-General A. R. Chaffee, commanding the American
China Relief Expedition, August, 1900.
Below are photographs of hunting scenes in the Rocky Moun-
tains and of Colonel Hayes as an enlisted man for sixteen years
in the First Cleveland Troop, Troop A, O. N. G., prior to the War
with Spain, in which Troop A served as the First Regiment of
Ohio Cavalry of which he was major.
Over the fireplace hangs an oil portrait of Colonel Webb C.
Hayes, M. H., showing Congressional Medal of Honor insignia,
with American service campaign ribbons and the Franco-Mo-
roccan insignia with which he was decorated by General Lyautey,
the French Resident General at Fez, Morocco, August 15, 1918,
painted after his return from the World War by Carl Rakemann.
The same artist painted the portrait of "Black Yauco," who died,
aged 30, and was buried on the knoll at Spiegel Grove, a veteran
of the campaigns in Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines. Be-
neath hang the horns of an American elk, on which rests the
Marlin rifle used in killing the huge grizzly bear, whose jaws ap-
pear on the mantel below, which Colonel Hayes punched out of
his hole less than thirty feet distant.
The collection of autographs, letters, and curios of the Presi-
dents of the United States are shown in four large mahogany
Presidential case No. 1 contains:-
Numerous autographs, letters and curios of the six Presidents
of Revolutionary days-George Washington of Virginia, to John
Quincy Adams of Massachusetts.
First President, George Washington of Virginia:
Discharge from the American Army, signed by George Wash-
ington, June 10, 1783; portrait of George Washington, published
October 1, 1795; autograph letter of George Washington, De-
476 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
cember 22, 1774; money of the Revolution; autograph letter of
Patrick Henry; piece cut from a dress of Lady Washington, given
by Colonel J. W. Ware of Berryville, Virginia, to his cousin,
Mrs. Lucy Ware Webb Hayes, 1880; bricks from the house
where George Washington was born; copy of the last will and
testament of George Washington; Washington medals; invitation
to the dedication of the Washington Monument, Washington,
D. C., to Rutherford B. Hayes by John Sherman, Chairman of the
Commission; photograph of the dress of Martha Washington,
now exhibited in the National Museum, Washington, D. C.; pho-
tographs of the east and west fronts of Mount Vernon, the car-
riage house and stable, and the old tomb of Washington; ruler
used by George Washington when in Bristol, Pennsylvania; and
steel engravings of George Washington.
Money of the Revolution, including bills of three-pence, by
Pennsylvania, Continental Currency, The United Colonies, Vir-
ginia, New Jersey, one-third of a dollar and four shillings and
Mountain Road Lottery tickets, signed by George Washing-
Gold ring with hairs from the head of Washington, given by
him to Mrs. Alexander Hamilton, who gave it to her son, James
A. Hamilton. The latter presented it to John Hay, First Assist-
ant Secretary of State in the Hayes administration, who presented
it to President Hayes shortly after the Presidential election of
Third President, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia:
Desk, bearing the inscription: "Thomas Jefferson gives
this writing desk to Joseph Coolidge, jun., as a memorial of af-
fection. It was made from a drawing of his own by Ben Randall,
cabinet maker of Philadelphia, with whom he first lodged on his
arrival in that city in May, 1776, and is the identical one on which
he wrote the Declaration, of Independence. Politics, as well as
Religion, has its superstitions. These, gaining strength with time,
may one day give imaginary value to this relic, for its association
with the birth of the Great Charter of our Independence.
"Monticello, November 18, 1825."
MEMENTOES OF THE PRESIDENTS 477
"This is an accurate fac-simile copy of the desk and its inscrip
tion presented to the United States, 22 April, 1880, by the heirs
of Joseph Coolidge, jr.,
"Executive Mansion, 9 July, 1880. R. B. HAYES."
Fac-similes of the signatures to the Declaration of Independ-
ence, July 4, 1776, certified as "exact imitations of the original"
by John Quincy Adams.
Grant of military land in Ohio to Lieutenant Isaac Webb of the
Virginia line, grandfather of Lucy Webb Hayes, signed by Presi-
dent Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, his Secretary of
State, December 21, 1802; dogwood berries and leaves cut from
tree near Jefferson's grave in the cemetery at Monticello, Char-
lottesville, Virginia, September 25, 1877; piece of the sash from
the top of window in the dancing hall in Thomas Jefferson's home
at Monticello, Virginia; military order, signed by Thomas Jef-
ferson, February 3, 1781; and medal, presented to Indian chief in
Thomas Jefferson's time.
Letter addressed by Benedict Arnold to Colonel Pickering,
Quartermaster-General at Philadelphia.
Fourth President, James Madison of Virginia:
Miniature of Dolly Madison.
Fifth President, James Monroe of Virginia:
Autographed letter of James Monroe, October 7, 1819.
Presidential case No. 2 contains:
Numerous autographs, letters, and curios of the seventh Presi-
dent, Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, to the fifteenth President,
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania.
Seventh President, Andrew Jackson of Tennessee:
Autographed letter of Andrew Jackson to Judge George W.
Campbell, November 30, 1809, who was later a Senator from
Tennessee, a member of President Jackson's Cabinet, and Envoy
of the United States to Russia, presented by ex-Governor James
D. Porter of Paris, Tennessee, January 15, 1890; land warrants,
signed by Andrew Jackson in 1830 and 1831; pictures of the tomb
of Andrew Jackson and The Hermitage; a five-cent "shin-
478 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
plaster" of Monrovia, dated July 4, 1834, but unsigned; and a
seal used by Andrew Jackson during his eight years as President.
Ninth President, William Henry Harrison of Ohio:
Autographed letter of General William Henry Harrison, Head-
quarters Seneca Town, August 5, 1913, 6 o'clock A. M., enclosing
official report to John Armstrong, Esq., Secretary of War, Wash-
ington, referring to Major Croghan's official report of the de-
fence of Fort Stephenson, 1813.
Numerous autographed letters of George Croghan.
Eleventh President, James Knox Polk of Tennessee:
Calling cards of the wife of James K. Polk.
Fourteenth President, Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire:
Fac-simile of letter of Franklin Pierce, endorsing Jefferson
Davis for the Presidency, dated January 6, 1860.
Presidential case No. 3 contains:
Numerous autographs, letters, and curios of the sixteenth Pres-
ident, Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, to the twenty-first President,
Chester Alan Arthur of New York.
Sixteenth President, Abraham Lincoln of Illinois:
Fac-simile of Abraham Lincoln's letter to Mrs. Bixby, Novem-
ber 21, 1864; portrait of Abraham Lincoln and his son Tad; piece
of the coat worn by Abraham Lincoln when he was assassinated
by J. Wilkes Booth, April 14, 1865; slippers worn by Abraham
Lincoln up to the date of his death; Lincoln and Hamlin medal,
campaign of 1860, probably lost by a soldier in Camp Morrow,
Portsmouth, Ohio, 1861, found in preparing the camp for the
reunion of the Army of West Virginia, September, 1885; seal
used by Abraham Lincoln; old lithograph of the funeral proces-
sion of Abraham Lincoln at the State-house at Columbus, Ohio;
bronze cast of the hand of Abraham Lincoln moulded in clay by
L. W. Volk at Springfield, Illinois, 1860; paper-cutter and book,
"The Last Man of the Revolution," presented by Abraham Lin-
coln to his executive clerk, William H. Crook, in 1865, and by
him to Webb C. Hayes; letter from William H. Crook, who ac-
companied Abraham Lincoln to Petersburg and Richmond, Vir-
MEMENTOES OF THE PRESIDENTS 479
ginia, April 4, 1865, with curios cut by him from the chair, desk,
screen, and door of Jefferson Davis's office; one of the early pho-
tographs of Abraham Lincoln, when he was clean shaven; alleged
spiritualistic communication from Abraham Lincoln, after his
assassination, to Andrew Johnson, his successor as President of
the United States, dated August 8, 1868; a letter from a minister
named A. Lincoln, imitating the handwriting of Abraham Lin-
coln; telegram from Abraham Lincoln, suspending sentence of
death in case of R. D. Wheeler, sergeant Sixth Missouri Volun-
teers, December 5, 1864; also telegram from Abraham Lincoln to
Commanding Officer Norfolk suspending execution of William
H. Jesse, Company B, Fifty-sixth Massachusetts Volunteers, un-
til further orders; endorsement of Abraham Lincoln, dated Jan-
uary 7, 1863, on application of Rev. Mr. Elmore for chaplain;
also endorsement of Abraham Lincoln, October 17, 1864, on let-
ter of Thaddeus Stevens, recommending appointment of a hos-
pital chaplain; program of Ford's Theatre, Washington, D. C.,
Friday evening, April 14, 1865, on the occasion of the assassina-
tion of Abraham Lincoln by J. Wilkes Booth; and autographed
letter of Robert T. Lincoln, enclosing autographs of Abraham
Seventeenth President, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee:
Autograph, October 21, 1868; signature on official jacket, for-
warding report of Major-General Sherman to Lieutenant-Gen-
eral Grant for an early report, with endorsement of U. S. Grant,
Lieutenant-General, with his report to the President; numerous
autographs of Andrew Johnson on nominations of sundry offi-
cials, which were returned by the Senate without action.
Eighteenth President, Ulysses Simpson Grant of Ohio:
Photographs of President Lincoln and Lieutenant-General
Grant, taken on his promotion to the supreme command of the
Union armies as Lieutenant-General, U. S. Army, and copy of
General Orders, No. 126, dated Washington, March 29, 1864,
announcing the members of the staff of Lieutenant-General
Sketch of the McLean House at Appomattox Court-house,
480 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
done by E. H. Bailey at the time of the conference there between
Lieutenant-General Grant and General Lee, showing General
Merritt, Colonel Forsyth, Captain Brown, and Major Bailey, of
the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, on the piazza, and the
orderlies with General Grant's horse, General Lee's horse, and
General Sheridan's horse and battle-flag, as Commander of the
Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.
Miniature copy of Major-General Sheridan's cavalry head-
quarters battle-flag, with letter to, and engraving of, Miss Re-
becca Wright, "the loyal girl of Winchester."
Pencil "formerly belonging to General Robert E. Lee, used by
Generals Grant and Lee in drawing up the rough draft of the
terms of surrender." Certified by E. H. Bailey, major and
provost marshal, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac.
Blank invitations of the President and Mrs. Grant for dinner;
autographed letter of President U. S. Grant, written at the Ex-
ecutive Mansion, Washington, August 16, 1876; numerous auto-
graphed letters of General Grant; and General U. S. Grant's cer-
tificate of membership in the Association of Maryland Veterans,
Mexican War, 1846, 1847 and 1848, issued January 4, 1876.
Nineteenth President, Rutherford Birchard Hayes of Ohio:
Bible "used for the administration of the oath on the inaugura-
tion of Rutherford B. Hayes as President of the United States,
5 March, 1877. See 118th Psalm, 11th Verse."
Souvenirs of the Administration of Rutherford B. Hayes, to-
gether with his diplomas on graduating from Kenyon College,
Ohio, in 1842, and the Harvard Law School in 1845, and hon-
orary degrees of Doctor of Laws from various institutions and
Two commissions as city solicitor of Cincinnati, 1857, and
1859; commissions as major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel,
Twenty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry; brigadier-general, U. S.
Volunteers, and brevet major-general, U. S. Volunteers, for
service during the War for the Union, 1861-1865; two com-
missions as Member of Congress in the Thirty-ninth and For-
tieth Congresses from the Second District, Cincinnati, Ohio; three
MEMENTOES OF THE PRESIDENTS 481
commissions as Governor of Ohio, 1868, 1870, and 1876; certifi-
cate of election of the Electoral Colleges of the States, declared
and announced at the joint session of Congress by T. W. Ferry,
President of the Senate.
Fac-simile of the "cipher dispatches" in "the effort to buy a
vote in Florida," addressed to "Colonel Pelton, 15 Gramercy,
Kodak photographs of the funeral of Rutherford B. Hayes,
January 20, 1893, and of the railway car in which Grover Cleve-
land, ex-President and then President elect of the United States,
arrived to attend the funeral; photograph of the Cabinet of
Rutherford B. Hayes; views of interior of the White House.
Engraved invitation of the President and Mrs. Hayes to meet
the members of the Diplomatic Corps; engraved invitation to the
dedication of the Hayes Memorial, erected in the Spiegel Grove
State Park, May 30, 1916; and engraved invitation to the Cen-
tenary Celebration of the birth of Rutherford Birchard Hayes in
Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio, October 4, 1922, with dedication
of the Library Addition to the Hayes Memorial, the Memorial
Gateways into the Spiegel Grove State Park, and the Soldiers'
Memorial Parkway of Sandusky County.
"The President's Words," Abraham Lincoln. The only book
carried by Rutherford B. Hayes in his canvass for Governor in
Twentieth President, James Abram Garfield of Ohio:
Photograph of the inauguration of James Abram Garfield and
the retirement of Rutherford B. Hayes as President of the United
Autographed memorandum of President elect James A. Gar-
field, December, 1880, recommending David G. Swaim as judge
advocate general of the army and stating his services; and nu-
merous other letters.
Inaugural invitation, signed by John Sherman, Chairman Sen-
ate Committee, and William McKinley, Jr., Chairman House
Committee; and invitation to the inaugural reception and prom-
482 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
enade concert, in honor of President James A. Garfield and Vice-
President Chester A. Arthur.
Calendar from the desk in the Cabinet Room of President
James A. Garfield with the date, July 2, 1881, on which Guiteau
fired the shot of assassination; and photograph of the White
House draped in mourning after the death of President Garfield.
Engraved invitation to the Memorial Services over James
Abram Garfield, February 27, 1882, signed by David Davis, Pres-
ident of the Senate, pro tempore, and J. Warren Keifer, Speaker
of the House of Representatives.
Twenty-first President, Chester Alan Arthur of New York:
Card from the family of Chester A. Arthur with grateful ac-
knowledgment of expressions of sympathy and condolence on
his death, November 12, 1886.
Presidential case No. 4 contains:
Numerous autographs, letters and curios of the twenty-second
President, Grover Cleveland of New York, to the twenty-ninth
President, Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts.
Twenty-second President, Grover Cleveland of New York:
Piece of the wedding cake on the marriage of President Grover
Cleveland to Frances Folsom, June 2, 1886; also stereoscopic
views of President Cleveland and Frances Folsom.
A copy of a letter from Rutherford B. Hayes, with reference
to the reappointment of Captain Thomas Reed as Postmaster at
Fairmont, West Virginia, stating as his personal reasons for urg-
ing his reappointment that he rendered the greatest possible serv-
ice in telegraphing Mrs. Hayes that Colonel Hayes, though badly
wounded, was not killed as reported. Letter endorsed, "I con-
sider this a very proper and creditable request and it should be
considered and granted if possible." Signed "G. C." (Grover
Twenty-third President, Benjamin Harrison, born in Ohio and
elected from Indiana:
Photographs of "Ben and Levi," Harrison and Morton; and
ticket to the Republican National Convention of 1892.
MEMENTOES OF THE PRESIDENTS 483
Numerous letters from Benjamin Harrison to Rutherford B.
Hayes, including letter of January 2, 1889, from President Har-
rison, asking for name of Union soldier of Southern birth and
army associations, suitable for Secretary of War. Answered by
suggesting General Nathan Goff of West Virginia and Colonel
Goodloe of Kentucky.
Autograph letter from Vice-President Levi P. Morton.
Twenty-fourth President, William McKinley of Ohio:
Numerous letters from William McKinley, while a Member
of Congress and Governor of Ohio.
Invitation to the marriage of William McKinley, Jr., and Ida
Saxton; slippers knitted by Mrs. Ida Saxton McKinley, wife of
Governor McKinley of Ohio, and sent to Rutherford B. Hayes
during his last illness and worn as bed slippers by him until his
death, January 17, 1893; baby bootees knitted by Mrs. Ida Saxton
McKinley for Dalton Hayes.
Photographs of President and Mrs. McKinley, showing por-
traits of Spiegel Grove hanging on the walls.
Second inaugural program of William McKinley and Theodore
Roosevelt, March 4, 1891.
Twenty-fifth President, Theodore Roosevelt of New York:
Autograph of Theodore Roosevelt; letter to Rutherford B.
Hayes, making inquiry on historical matters of the great West;
membership certificate of Major Webb C. Hayes in the Naval
and Military Order of Spanish-American War, autographed by
Theodore Roosevelt, Commander.
Twenty-sixth President, William Howard Taft of Ohio:
Numerous autographed letters, including letter of appreciation
read at the Centenary Celebration of the birth of Rutherford B.
Hayes, signed by William H. Taft, Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court of the United States, October, 1922.
Sash of special aide, Midshipman Webb C. Hayes 2nd, U. S.
N. A., with rosettes worn by "Black Yauco," while serving as
naval orderly at the inaugural parade of President Taft, March
484 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Photograph of luncheon guests of Colonel and Mrs. Webb C.
Hayes at Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio, September 7, 1908, in
honor of William H. Taft and his wife, Helen Herron Taft, au-
tographed by the guests present.
Twenty-seventh President, Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey:
Numerous autographed letters from Woodrow Wilson before
and during his terms as President of the United States, together
with autographed letters of Robert Lansing, Secretary of State,
Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War, J. P. Tumulty, Secretary to
the President, and other officials.
Twenty-eighth President, Warren Gamaliel Harding of Ohio:
Numerous autographed letters, while U. S. Senator from Ohio
and President of the United States, including his letter of appre-
ciation read at the Centenary Celebration of the birth of Ruther-
ford B Hayes, which he was unable to attend, owing to the ill-
ness of Mrs. Harding.
Autographed certificate of appointment of Colonel Webb C.
Hayes as a member of the Board of Visitors to the Naval Acad-
edy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1923, with the autographed cer-
tificate of attendance of Admiral Henry B. Wilson, Superin-
Shipping card for flowers sent by the President and Mrs. Hard-
ing from the White House for the funeral of Scott Russell
Hayes, at Spiegel Grove, Fremont, Ohio.
Autographed letter frank of Florence Kling Harding, widow
of Warren G. Harding.
Twenty-ninth President, Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts:
Autographed acknowledgment of the copy of the "Centenary
Celebration of the Birth of Rutherford B. Hayes."
COLORED WINDOW TRANSPARENCIES 485
COLORED WINDOW TRANSPARENCIES
FIVE INDIANS, NATIVES OF OHIO-EAST WALL
NICOLAS, OR ORENTONY
A renegade Huron Chief from the French at Detroit,
who permitted British traders to erect old Fort Sandoski of 1745,
the first fort built by white men within the present
limits of Ohio, on the portage between the
Sandusky River and Lake Erie.
PONTIAC, AN OTTAWA CHIEF
born 1720-died 1769,
who, as an ally of the French,
refused to accept the British king as his Great Father
after the surrender of French sovereignty in 1760.
He organized the great conspiracy in which he seized nine
British forts, Fort Pitt and Detroit alone escaping capture.
Sandoski was the first to fall, 18 May, 1763, when the fort was
burned and the garrison, with the exception of Ensign Pauli,
LITTLE TURTLE, OR MISHIKINAKWA, A MIAMI CHIEF,
born 1752-died 1812,
distinguished in council and in war.
He organized the largest force of Indians ever gathered against
the whites, but was defeated by General Anthony Wayne
in the Battle of Fallen Timbers near the British
Fort Miami, 20 August, 1794.
TECUMSEH, A SHAWNEE CHIEF,
born on the Scioto River, Ohio, in 1768.
With his brother, the Prophet,
he organized the Indians to war against the whites.
He joined the British as a Brigadier-General,
fighting against Gen. Harrison's Northwestern army
at the Massacre of the River Raisin,
Siege of Fort Meigs and the Dudley Massacre.
486 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
He was defeated in the assault on Fort Stephenson
and was killed by Col. Richard M. Johnson in the Battle of the
Thames, where General Harrison routed Proctor's British
army and his Indian allies, 5 October, 1813.
TARHE, "THE CRANE,"
a war Chief of the Wyandots of the Sandusky,
born 1742- died 1818,
who rescued Peggy Fleming after she had been fastened to
the huge oak stub near the Croghan gateway into Spiegel Grove
to be burned at the stake in 1790.
Tarhe fought under Little Turtle at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
He supported the Americans
against the British and Indians in the War of 1812.
FIVE SPANISH EXPLORERS-- SOUTH WALL
Balboa, the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean.
Ponce de Leon, the discoverer of Florida.
De Soto, the discoverer of the Mississippi.
Cortez, the conqueror of Mexico.
De Ullea, the governor of Louisiana.
FIVE FRENCH EXPLORERS--WEST WALL
Cadillac, the founder of Detroit.
Marquette, the explorer of the Mississippi.
La Salle, the discoverer of the Ohio River and the Illinois country.
De Celoron, the explorer of the Ohio country,
who buried leaden plates claiming the whole territory for France.
De Lery, the French engineer officer from Quebec,
whose journals of numerous trips through the Ohio country
between Quebec and as far south as New Orleans,
were discovered by Colonel Hayes
among the archives of Laval University at Quebec.
FIVE BRITISH ARMY OFFICERS
COLONEL JOHN BRADSTREET,
whose British expedition of 1280 men was composed of British
regulars and 750 Colonial troops from New York, New
Jersey and Connecticut, the 250 Connecticut troops
under command of Major Israel Putnam.
COLORED WINDOW TRANSPARENCIES 487
MAJOR-GENERAL ISAAC BROCK,
the British Commander-in-Chief, whose troops captured Detroit,
after its ignominious surrender by General Hull in 1812.
General Brock later was killed in the Battle of
Queenstown Heights, October 13, 1812.
GENERAL HENRY A. PROCTOR,
the bloody commander of the British and Indian forces
at the Massacre of the River Raisin
and the Dudley Massacre of the Siege of Fort Meigs,
who was defeated in his attack on Fort Stephenson,
with his Wellington Regulars,
who had been transported up the Sandusky River
on Captain Barclay's fleet to Fort Stephenson,
accompanied by 2000 Indians under Tecumseh,
where he was finally repulsed on August 2, 1813,
by Major George Croghan, 17th U. S. Inf.,
with 160 men and one cannon, "Old Betsy."
The defense of Fort Stephenson was our one land victory on
American soil during the War of 1812 and was recognized
by Congress voting a gold medal to Major Croghan
and a sword to six of his officers engaged in the defense.
The victory of Commodore Perry
and his capture of Captain Barclay's British fleet
at the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10, 1813,
was followed by the advance of
Major-General Harrison's northwestern army,
with headquarters at Fort Seneca on the Sandusky River,
down the river to Fort Stephenson and on to
the shore of Lake Erie, opposite the mouth of the Sandusky River,
where his army was embarked on Commodore Perry's
victorious fleet and transported across the lake for the American
invasion of Canada which resulted in the final defeat of
Proctor's British army and the death of Tecumseh at
the Battle of the Thames on the 5 October, 1813.
CAPTAIN ROBERT H. BARCLAY
of the British Navy, who lost an arm at Trafalgar under Nelson,
and later built and commanded the British fleet on Lake
Erie, which was captured by Commodore Perry at the
Battle of Lake Erie, 10 September, 1813.
488 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
BREVET LIEUTENANT-COLONEL WILLIAM C. SHORTT,
Captain in H.B.M. 41st Regiment,
who was killed in the assault of the British on Fort Stephenson,
and, with his Lieutenant, J. G. Gordon, was buried with
military honors at the northeast corner of
Garrison Street and Park Avenue.
The portrait of Colonel Shortt,
now on the walls of the Birchard Library on Fort Stephenson,
was forwarded by one of his descendants in England for the
centennial celebration of the defense of Fort Stephenson in 1913.
Lieutenant Gordon's father wrote in his printed memoirs,
"The great sorrow of my life was the loss of a son in an
unimportant battle in an obscure place in North America
called Fort Sandusky."
THE AMERICAN HERO OF FORT STEPHENSON
MAJOR GEORGE CROGHAN,
17th U. S. Infantry,
Defender of Fort Stephenson,
August 1 and 2, 1813,
against General Proctor's Wellington Veterans,
with cannon from Captain Barclay's British fleet, and Indians
Appointed Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel and awarded a gold medal,
and six of his officers swords, by the Congress of the U. S.,
for gallantry in the defense of Fort Stephenson, August
1 and 2, 1813.
Colonel Inspector General, U. S. Army,
during the War with Mexico, 1846-1848.
Born Locust Grove, Ky., November 15, 1791.
Died New Orleans, La., January 8, 1849.
Buried near his uncle, General George Rogers Clark,
in the Croghan family burying-ground at Locust Grove, Ky.
Remains reinterred at the base of the Soldiers' Monument
in Fort Stephenson Park, Fremont, O., August 2, 1906.
THE HAYES HOMES IN AMERICA -EAST WALL
Above the illuminated portraits of the five Indians, in groups
of three, are the photographic transparencies of the American
homes of Rutherford B. Hayes and his ancestors:
COLORED WINDOW TRANSPARENCIES 489
THE HAYES HOME, BRANFORD, CONNECTICUT.
Built in 1756 by Captain Ezekiel Hayes (1724-1807) of the
Connecticut line during the Revolutionary War.
Great grandfather of Rutherford Birchard Hayes.
THE HAYES HOME, WEST BRATTLEBORO, VERMONT.
Built in 1780 by Ensign Rutherford Hayes (1756-1836) of the
Connecticut line during the Revolutionary War.
Grandfather of Rutherford Birchard Hayes.
THE HAYES HOME, DUMMERSTON CENTRE, VERMONT.
Occupied by Captain Rutherford Hayes (1787-1822)
of the Vermont Militia in the War of 1812,
after his marriage to Sophia Birchard, 13 September, 1813,
and until his migration to Delaware, Ohio, in 1817.
Father of Rutherford Birchard Hayes.
THE HAYES HOME, DELAWARE, OHIO
Built in 1822 by Captain Rutherford Hayes (1787-1822),
a Captain during the War of 1812.
The first brick dwelling-house built in Delaware, Ohio,
in which he died 20 July, 1822, prior to the birth of his son,
Rutherford Birchard Hayes, 4 October, 1822.
THE HAYES HOME, CINCINNATI, OHIO.
Occupied by Rutherford B. Hayes
after his marriage to Lucy W. Webb, 30 December, 1852.
His legal residence until his return to Fremont in 1873,
although unoccupied by him during his four years of service
in the War for the Union, 1861-1865,
his two terms as a Representative in Congress
from the 2nd Ohio District (Cincinnati), 1865-1868,
and his two terms as Governor of Ohio, 1868-1872.
THE BRUSH-VALETTE-EDGERTON HOMESTEAD, FREMONT, OHIO.
Built in 1828, two miles south of Fort Stephenson,
in which Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes, 23rd O. V. I.,
lay recovering from his wounds, received in the Antietam cam-
paign, September, 1862, while, with his family, visiting
his uncle, Sardis Birchard.
WINTER QUARTERS AT THE FALLS OF THE KANAWHA, VIRGINIA.
Occupied by the 23rd O. V. I., Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes
commanding, during the winter of 1862-63.
490 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
DOUBLE LOG CABIN QUARTERS.
Occupied by Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes and his wife and
family, as regimental headquarters at the winter
quarters of the 23rd O. V. I., at the Falls of
the Kanawha, Virginia, winter of 1862-63.
THE HAYES HOME, COLUMBUS, OHIO.
Former home of Associate Justice N. H. Swayne,
at the east end of State Street, now the site of the
Occupied by Rutherford B. Hayes while Governor of Ohio,
THE HAYES HOME, SPIEGEL GROVE,
FREMONT, OHIO, 1859-1881.
Built by Sardis Birchard (1801-1874) for the future home of
his nephew and ward, Rutherford B. Hayes, in 1859. Andrew
Jackson issued a land patent for it in 1834. The first transfer
was made to Sardis Birchard in 1845, who christened it "Spiegel
Grove," the year Rutherford B. Hayes began the practice of
law at Lower Sandusky, now Fremont, the name adopted on his
petition and motion on his last appearance in the Court of Com-
mon pleas of Sandusky County, prior to his removal to Cin-
cinnati, Ohio, in 1849. General Hayes returned permanently to
Spiegel Grove and again became a citizen of Fremont in 1873,
occupying the home in Spiegel Grove, although he was tempor-
arily absent for the five years from his third inauguration as
Governor of Ohio in 1876 and his inauguration as nineteenth
President of the United States for the four year term from 1877
THE HAYES HOMESTEAD, SPIEGEL GROVE,
FREMONT, OHIO, 1881-1893.
On the return of President and Mrs. Hayes from Washing-
ton on March 6, 1881, they reentered the old home, which had
been almost doubled in size by the addition, on the north, of a
duplicate of the original brick structure, which included the large
drawing-room and the specially constructed library for his Li-
brary Americana on the first floor and three bedrooms on the
COLORED WINDOW TRANSPARENCIES 491
second floor, with an elevator from the basement to the garret.
In 1889 further extensive additions, barely completed before the
sudden death of the lovely mistress, were made in the erection
of the present west wing, which includes the large dining-room,
the breakfast-room, kitchen and serving rooms of the first floor,
the five bedrooms on the second floor and six sleeping apart-
ments on the third floor, making eighteen bed chambers in all.
Lucy Webb Hayes died June 21, 1889, followed by her husband,
Rutherford B. Hayes, January 17, 1893, and were each buried
in the family lot in Oakwood Cemetery, for which Rutherford
B. Hayes selected and designed the monument of West Dummer-
ston granite from the farm from which his father migrated from
Vermont to Ohio, the inscription thereon lacking simply the
date of his own death. In March, 1915, the monument, to-
gether with the remains, were removed to the knoll in the
Spiegel Grove State Park, and the caskets placed in a niche of
the new granite base over which the original monument was
SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES ATTENDED BY
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES- EAST WALL
NORWALK SEMINARY, NORWALK, OHIO.
Organized under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church
in 1833 in a three story brick building, erected
by the Norwalk Academy in 1826.
Rutherford B. Hayes was enrolled as a student for
the year 1836-1837.
ISAAC WEBB'S SCHOOL.
Later Webb Hall and now East Hall, Wesleyan University,
Rutherford B. Hayes was enrolled as a student for the year
1837-1838, preparing for Yale College,
but in the fall of 1838 entered Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio.
"OLD KENYON," KENYON COLLEGE, GAMBIER, OHIO.
Founded by Bishop Philander Chase of the Protestant
Episcopal Church in 1826.
Rutherford B. Hayes was a student at Kenyon College from
1838 to 1842 and later served as a Trustee of the College.
492 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
He was graduated as valedictorian of his class in 1842,
received the degree of Master of Arts in 1845
and was given the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1868.
DANE LAW SCHOOL, HARVARD UNIVERSITY,
Rutherford B. Hayes was enrolled as a student in 1843
and was graduated as a Bachelor of Law in 1845.
He received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws in 1877.
COLLEGES ATTENDED BY LUCY WARE WEBB-
MANSION HOUSE OR ELLIOTT HALL AND
WHITE SULPHUR SPRING.
Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio.
Founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1844.
Mrs. Maria Cook Webb removed from her home in Chilli-
cothe to Delaware in 1844 to educate her sons in the Methodist
College, which had just been opened in the Mansion House, re-
christened Elliott Hall, near the Spring at Delaware, Ohio. Her
sons, Dr. Joseph T. Webb and Dr. James D. Webb, were grad-
uated in the Class of 1848 and received the Master's Degree in
1851. Her only daughter, Lucy Ware Webb, was permitted to
attend the college as a student with her brothers during their
four year course, before the organization of the Wesleyan Fe-
male College in 1853, and here met at the White Sulphur Spring
her future husband, Rutherford B. Hayes, then a law student
at Harvard University, who was on a visit to his birthplace,
WESLEYAN FEMALE COLLEGE, VINE STREET,
Founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1842.
Lucy Ware Webb (wife of Rutherford B. Hayes)
was enrolled in 1847 and was graduated in 1850.
Her graduating essay, "The Influence of Christianity on National
Prosperity," is preserved with her diploma in the
West Library Room.