CHAPTER LIIIINAUGURATION OF MC KINLEY AS GOVERNOR - GREATMEN OF KENYON- REVIEW OF ELECTION OF 1876-DEATH OF BISHOP BEDELL - BENNETT CASE ANDINGERSOLL - PATRIOTISM OF ANCESTORS - ADVOCACYOF SINGLE PRESIDENTIAL TERM- DEATH OF GENERALBUCKLAND - JANUARY-JUNE, 1892
JANUARY 13, 1892. Wednesday. - Returned from Colum-
bus and the inauguration of Major McKinley last evening.
Joined at Fostoria my dear friend Mrs. Herron, of Cincinnati,
who will visit us for the coming week. I found all well. The
young ladies [visiting Fanny] very engaging. Mr. Warner, son
of my long-time friend ex-Treasurer Sidney S. Warner, of
Wellington, is here also. Webb, Rutherford, and Scott.
My diary of this absence is as follows: Last Friday evening
with Webb and Mr. Lawrence to Cleveland. Saturday, met
Aunty Austin, Miss Mattie, and Mrs. Huntington. At about 9
A. M. with Colonel Myron Herrick and wife, Mr. and Mrs.
Mark Hanna, Mrs. Chisholm, [and] Mr. and Mrs. Edwards in
special car from Euclid Avenue station to Orrville. Then with
Governor-elect and Mrs. McKinley and party to Columbus.
Cheered at Hotel Chittenden.
Found all well and a welcome at Laura Mitchell's. Sunday
with Laura heard Mr. Gladden preach a fine sermon on im-
mortality-personal and social.
Called on Governor McKinley. [Call] returned by Governor
McKinley [in the] afternoon. Met General Bottsford and Mrs.
Bottsford, also Colonel Nye, on staff of Governor McKinley.
[The] 11th, Monday, called on retiring Governor Campbell.
Presided at the inauguration in the rotunda. A fine inaugural
address; a monster procession.
Tuesday [yesterday], presided at a meeting of the board of
(48)McKINLEY INAUGURATED GOVERNOR 49
trustees of the Ohio State University. All present except Mr.
Godfrey. Routine business. Agreed to take Hocking Valley
brownstone in preference to Holmes County stone.
During all leisure hours [today], with Mrs. Herron, read
carefully Emerson's essay "Self-Reliance." When this became
tco severe a task, we took up Trumbull's "Friendship, the Mas-
ter Passion," and wanting something more exciting, we seized
hold of George Meredith's "Diana of the Crossways."
January 14. Thursday.- I have agreed to make a talk at
Gambier on the boys and men I knew at Kenyon fifty years ago.
Among students--Andrews, Buttles, Matthews, Rhodes,
Lightner, Trowbridge.- Professors - Sparrow, Ross, Douglass,
McIlvaine. [At] Mount Vernon -Curtis, Hurd, Delano. [In]
Ohio--Stanberry, Ewing, Corwin, Henry Winter Davis, Stan-
ton, Judge David Davis.
January 16. Saturday.--Drove east on pike at 2 P. M. with
Fanny, Mrs. Herron, Warner, and the young ladies.
Never before probably so many vehicles on runners in this town.
In the evening a party of the club, all in costumes, masked be-
yond recognition. Very merry.
Read my first in my new edition of Lowell in ten volumes
His talk on Emerson very true to life--nobly appreciative.
Finished reading Emerson's "Self-Reliance." George Meredith's
novel "Diana" grows better as we proceed. It and all books
are better when read with so good a critic as Mrs. Herron.
January 17. Sunday. - Another fine day with capital sleigh-
ing. Mr. Albritton preached fervently as usual. A tendency to
scolding and complaining. A pastor must not let his work de-
pend on his church-members too much. He is the workman.
He must feel his own responsibility--not dwell too much on
I thought of the talk on the great and the little colleges. The
half dozen, or perhaps the eight or ten, great colleges graduate
some twelve hundred to fifteen hundred young men every year;
the small colleges graduate in number every year, how many
thousand? The little college gave us Mcllvaine, Beecher, and
4 H. D.
50 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Archbishop Hughes. Thurlow Weed came from the printer's
desk - the printing office.
Kenyon gave to the war, Andrews, Stanton, Henry Winter
Davis, Judge [David] Davis.
Education, righteous education, including intellectual, in-
dustrial, and religious, is to save us or salvation is not to be our
Mrs. Herron and I finished "Diana of the Crossways." Not
January 19. Tuesday.- Mrs. Herron leaves today after a
January 20. Wednesday.- North end [of porch], 12 de-
grees below [zero], the middle and south end, 16 degrees be-
low-just before sunrise. A lovely morning but probably the
coldest I ever experienced. Nineteen degrees below by the reg-
ister during the night!
The young ladies left via Wellington with Fanny, Rutherford,
and Scott to lunch with Warner there, and thence Miss Ward-
ner to Baltimore and Misses Bulkley and Ranlett to their homes.
No weather could have been better at this season to make their
stay here pleasant. Bless their dear hearts! They made old
Spiegel vocal and visible with joy.
January 21. Thursday. - Two years and seven months today !
I found this letter (a copy) among my papers yesterday. It
was to an editor in Philadelphia who wrote an editorial friendly
to my Administration and, I think, suggested my reelection to
a second term:
EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, June 5, 1879.
MY DEAR SIR: -I have your letter of yesterday. I cannot
imagine who the friend is that put you the questions named in
your note. I am in no doubt as to the true reply and never
suggested nor felt a doubt on the subject. I cannot conceive
of a case in which I would consider it. To break the habit of
expecting or hoping to be one's own successor in this place,
HARRISON AND CHILI 51
will be to accomplish a great reform. A single precedent will
not do this, but it will do something in that direction. Any
one who fancies I have any other purpose or wish is totally
I need not speak my feelings in regard to your too partial
MR. L. CLARKE DAVIS, R. B. HAYES.
Evening at General Buckland's - an agreeable dinner party.
He was eighty the 20th - an invalid but brave and cheerful.
A man of wonderful pluck. He and Mrs. Buckland passed
their golden wedding several years ago. Mrs. Dorr sang with
more than her usual power and sweetness.
January 27.--Last evening returned from Columbus via
Toledo with Laura who will remain a week or more. I will
now begin a little speech for February 22 at Pittsburgh.
Spent last Sunday in Cleveland. To Columbus Monday.
Called on Cope. The university and its affairs all gone over.
A considerable opposition developing in the Legislature. Drove
to Laura's with Rev. Mr. Williams. Dined at the Chittenden
with Governor and Mrs. McKinley--twenty-first anniversary
of their wedding. Old times, Lucy, politics, the university, etc.,
the topics. A happy time.
January 28. Thursday. - Letters and at home all day, read-
ing with Laura Lowell's "Shakespeare," Everett's "Washing-
ton," and Hayden's capital book, "Virginia Genealogies."
January 29. Friday. -Chili consents to do all we can rea-
sonably demand. My regret is that our Government blustered
and bullied. President Harrison in his message argued like a
prosecutor - made the most of the case against our weak sister.
Forbearance, charity, friendship, arbitration should have been
in our words and thoughts.
February 1, 1892. Monday. - Met with directors of the sav-
ings bank at Io A. M. A good deal of pleasant conversation.
Rev. Dr. Bauer, our Catholic priest, thought the Government
52 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
had been less forbearing and considerate with Chili than was
becoming in the dealings of this great nation with a feeble sister
republic. We could afford to be magnanimous. The affair was
not the action of the [Chilian] Government. It was a riot. Gov-
ernment still in doubt as to its own holding could not afford to
offend the jingo spirit, etc., etc. Much in this.
Dr. Rice spoke of the cruelty of the Romans-the execution
of six thousand on the cross. Of Calvin and Servetus. "We
will not burn you, in consideration of mitigating circumstances,
but you can't live. We will behead you." Is this authentic?
February 2.- The death of Justice Bradley has started again
the partisan misrepresentations of the election of 1876. It is
said that the Republicans were beaten by a popular majority of
Tilden 4,284,265; Hayes 4,033,295. Tilden's majority, on the
face of the returns, 150,970.
But this leaves out of account the suppression of the Repub-
lican vote in the South by the exclusion of the negro voters
from the polls in violation of the Fifteenth Amendment.
In Colorado, by reason of the election of electors by the Legis-
lature, the Republicans lose the popular majority in that State
which, of course, should be considered.
In the South the loss was probably not far from three hun-
dred thousand by the suppression of the colored vote. Notice
Mississippi ................................................... 75,000
Alabama ....................................................... 45,000
Arkansas ...................................................... 25,000
Delaware ...................................................... 2,000
Florida ....................................................... 2,000
Maryland ...................................................... 12,000
Virginia ...................................................... 25,000
Missouri ...................................................... 5,000
North Carolina ................................................ 25,000
South Carolina ................................................ 20,000
Georgia ....................................................... 40,000
Kentucky ...................................................... 5,000
Tennessee ..................................................... 20,000
Louisiana ..................................................... 10,000
Texas ......................................................... 15,000
REVIEW OF 1876 ELECTION 53
The nullification of the Fifteenth Amendment in the South
clearly increased the majority of Tilden in that section more
than the total majority claimed for him in the whole country.
At this writing, no question is raised as to the systematic and
organized suppression of the negro vote. In 1876 it was denied
The action of the returning boards in Florida and Louisiana
remain[s]. How did those States in fact stand in 1876? Florida,
according to the Republican count and claims, gave the Repub-
licans 206 majority; on the face of the returns, 922. According
to the Democratic count it gave Tilden 94 majority. In fact,
the Republican majority was nearly or about two thousand.
The vote as returned was fraudulent which reduced the Repub-
Proof:-In 1878 Bisbee was elected to the Forty-sixth Con-
gress but was counted out and the return given to Noble A.
Hall, Democrat. Bisbee contested. In a Democratic House,
Bisbee was seated a few weeks before the close of Congress,
January 22, 1881. The proof was clear of the frauds in the re-
turn. The perpetrators of the frauds were convicted and sen-
tenced to imprisonment in the Albany penitentiary. The princi-
pal actor in the affair to obtain a pardon made a full statement
showing how the change of votes was effected. He also showed
fully and beyond question that exactly similar frauds were com-
mitted in 1876 to give the State of Florida to Tilden. The
failure was in not changing enough counties or enough votes.
The substance of the plan was this: In a considerable number
of Democratic counties the returns were made out officially and
correctly. It was found that they gave the State by a decided
majority to the Republicans. It was learned also that the vote
of Florida might decide the result. The first returns were de-
stroyed and a new set with increased Democratic majorities were
manufactured and duly authenticated.
In Louisiana by the Republican count, the majority for the
Republicans was 4807 for President and about 1200 less for
Governor Packard. By the Democratic count, the majority for
Tilden was 6549 and the majority for Nichols, Governor, was
about fifteen hundred greater.
54 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
(Note.) It is often said that Packard ran ahead of Hayes.
In fact, both the Democratic count and the Republican count
show that Hayes ran ahead of Packard.
The Republican count was about 11,300 votes more favor-
able to the Republicans than the Democratic count. Why?
The Republican count corrected the return in the "bulldozed
parishes." By fraud, intimidation, and violence the negro vote
was suppressed or counted for the Democrats. The history of
the Parish of East Feliciana is now not disputed and illustrates
the whole scheme. In East Feliciana, the vote for President at
the next election before that of 1876 was Grant 1667, Greeley
647. Grant's majority 1,020. This was the same in both of the
rival counts. It no doubt showed the true result in 1872. At
other elections, and the inference from the census, [the figures]
show a Republican majority of one thousand to fifteen hundred
votes, according to the fullness of the vote.
Now, what was the return and claim of the Democrats in
1876?-Tilden, Democrat, 1736; Hayes, Republican, none!
Majority for Tilden 1736! It should have been at least twelve
hundred to fifteen hundred for Hayes.
The Democrats claim in the whole State 6,549 majority. The
fraud in this one parish disposes of one-half of this majority.
Is it needed to go into the other bulldozed parishes? If so take
East Baton Rouge, with its fraud of twelve hundred votes;
Morehouse, with its fraud of six hundred or seven hundred,
and the others.
Correspondence, speech for the 22d, and reading Lowell.
February 4. Thursday.-To continue with a word the dis-
puted election of 1876. Washington McLean, proprietor of the
Cincinnati Enquirer, a firm Democrat of large ability and in-
fluence, a Warwick in his party (never taking office), said to me
often: "Oh, we all agree that if the Fifteen Amendment is to
be regarded, you were clearly entitled to the place. No man of
sense can deny that we nullified that in the election. The ne-
groes were kept from the polls by our people deliberately, and
we in the North looked on with approval."
The truth [is], the Republicans were clearly entitled to Mis-
sissippi, Alabama, and other States that were counted for Tilden.
REVIEW OF 1876 ELECTION 55
If all the States in which fraud and force controlled were
[had been] thrown out and not counted at all, the Republicans
would have had a clear and decided majority; and if all the
States whose legal and constitutional voters were Republican
had been so returned, Tilden would have [been] beaten about
forty votes in the Electoral Colleges.
February 5. Friday. - Laura left this morning after a charm-
ing visit. Cheerful, intelligent, cultivated--a most delightful
companion, housemate, and friend. Very dear to me. She has
taken the place of the chosen, elect of my memory and heart -
Fanny - Lucy! My darling daughter grows dearer as the days
- sad days but for her - come and go.
February 6. Saturday. - On this subject of education, let
Ohio see to it that every child--the humblest child -shall
have the chance to get the best education the world can give.
Washington [was] for a university at Washington. Jefferson
and Lee gave the closing years of their lives to this great sub-
ject. No step backwards is the motto of the hour.
February 8. Monday.- A call from a comrade of the old
Twenty-third. I had not seen him since 1868--almost twenty-
five years. Albert B. Logan of Company E, one of Blazer's
scouts, - a fine young fellow, full-faced and rosy, as I recall
him; sergeant, sergeant-major, second lieutenant, first lieutenant;
cheery and good. Now an intellectual-looking, tall, black-haired
lawyer--looking the lawyer. He is in a good practice--coun-
sel in Missouri of the Wabash system. A pleasure to meet one
so evidently respectable and prosperous. I would not have
known him. A long time before I discovered in him my old
SPIEGEL, February 8, 1892.
MY DEAR MRS. HERRON:-Laura left us after almost two
weeks of good times. She is capital company--always cheer-
ful, interesting, and stimulating. She is advanced in convic-
tions, but practically retains the old faith. It makes an odd
56 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
I have been reading Lowell's prose. Pungent, witty, sound;
[Lowell is] too fond of classical and other learned allusions;
retains in form the old faiths, and is always interesting. Not
lofty nor inspired like Emerson, not satisfying; does not leave
one resting and contented, but still one of the better brethren.
So, Blaine has given it up. Harrison will be again the candi-
date by acclaim, and with the angry and revengeful Democratic
condition, he has "a fighting chance to win."
Fanny has a big party Friday and is of course happy.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. HARRIET C. HERRON,
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, February 9, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR: -I have your letter of the 8th instant en-
closing mine of last November. I am disposed to do almost
anything you wish. Before complying with your request, how-
ever, I would like to know who it is that thinks an affidavit is
needed-and why? My statements I am willing to verify with
my oath. But who suggests that it is necessary? Send me the
letter that suggests it. I was never called upon to do it before.
Why now? I suspect somebody is not well informed, or is
trifling with you.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MR. J. B. NESSLE.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, February 9, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR: -I am requested to write you in behalf of
the Fremont Bill authorizing the town to issue bonds for thirty-
five thousand dollars to induce the rebuilding of the Carbon
Works burned in November. I am familiar with the facts. (I
do not believe in the general practice of bonding towns to get
manufacturing plants started. But) this bill is just, wise, and
proper. It is no booming scheme. The works have been here,
well established, and well known. A large number of mechanics
and laborers at good wages have become citizens, bought or
OHIO'S DUTY TO UNIVERSITY 57
built homes, and by the fire are sufferers. The people are
in favor of helping to rebuild. The State of Ohio has often
aided the sufferers by such calamities, even in other States. No
injustice can be done. The precedent can do no harm. In any
similar case a similar bill ought to be passed.
I hope you will give the bill a fair hearing.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE J. C. RORICK,
February 9. Tuesday. - The city of Columbus and Franklin
County, and their citizens have practically done for the Ohio
State University what Ezra Cornell did for Cornell University.
Their appropriation and purchase of three hundred and thirty-
four acres, now in the corporate limits of Columbus, now worth
more than one million dollars, is an endowment that in twenty-
five years, when Columbus will have a population of at least
three hundred thousand, will be available at a valuation of
from three to five millions. Now what remains is for the State
of Ohio to foster and sustain the Ohio State University as New
York sustains Cornell.
February 10. Wednesday. - Today I received the Fredonia
Censor, Chautauqua County, New York. It calls attention to
the attack in debate in the New York Senate by Senator
on me for the 1876-7 affair. He, it seems, called me a "thief,"
and so on. He was replied to in a friendly and, I think proper,
spirit by Senator Edwards, of Chautauqua County.
February II. Thursday. - Conscience is a revelation to man
direct from his Creator.
I have read today with renewed interest the letters of Jef-
ferson to Adams after he was seventy years old. Adams lived
twenty-five years after he left the Presidency. John Quincy
Adams, was, I think, the next to his father in his years after the
Presidency, and by all odds the most important figure in our
history fin] his career after retiring from that place.
58 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
February 13. Saturday.-A letter from Captain Cope that
I must meet a committee of the Senate, Wednesday, [the] 18th.
This cuts me off from the welcome of the farmers' insurance
companies on that day here. Must notify them.
February 15. Monday.-Preparing speech before committee
on the bills affecting injuriously the university. Must make it
forcible and convicting [convincing]; no time for rhetoric.
February 16. Tuesday. - I am again reminded of the election
of 1876 and of the decision by the Electoral Commission in 1877
by a letter from Waterville, Maine, from Mr. Charles A. Mer-
rill, who is about to write a sketch of Governor Stearns, of
Two facts have contributed to settle in the people's mind the
general justice and equity, as well as legality, of the result
reached in that exciting contest.
I. Ever since 1876 the Fifteenth Amendment in all of the
then contested States, as well as in a majority of the seceding
States, has been openly and undeniably nullified at all elections.
The Republicans have thus been deprived of the votes of at least
five or six States-of thirty or forty members of the House of
Representatives, and probably of half a million of the popular
vote. The general feeling is that if in these quiet times this fraud
is uniformly committed, that in the excitement of 1876 it was
no doubt done.
2. But more conclusive still: In 1880 the Democratic Na-
tional Convention quietly ignored Tilden, thereby admitting the
whole case against him, and nominated General Hancock, one
of the few Democrats of note who publicly accepted the decision
in 1876, and was among the first to call and congratulate me on
the result. In addition to this, the people at the election of 1880
elected General Garfield, who was more fully identified with the
result in 1876-77 than any other public man.- a. He was a
visiting Republican statesman to Louisiana to observe the count.
b. He reported to me that I was legally and equitably entitled
to the vote of Louisiana. c. He reported to President Grant
and the public the same thing. d. In Congress he maintained
the Republican claim to the Presidency. e. He was one of the
THE DISPUTED ELECTION 59
Republicans members of the Electoral Commission and voted on
every question with the eight who against seven decided the re-
sult in favor of the Republicans.
I do not discuss this or any other question relating to my
Administration before the public. I leave it all to others. On
the whole, I have every reason to be content with the public
treatment of me and of my public conduct.
February 17. Wednesday.-- To Columbus to oppose before
a committee of the Senate a division of the university fund.
En route met on the train an old acquaintance, a lawyer of
Newark, Colonel Kibler. A pleasant renewal of our ancient
friendship. Also Mr. Cole, of Columbus, a general agent of the
coal traffic of the Hocking Valley Railroad, an exceedingly agree-
able and intelligent man; a member of Dr. Gladden's church,
up on all the advanced religious questions of the day.
At about noon in Captain Cope's office met, besides the cap-
tain, President Scott and a member of the university board.
We went over the heads of an argument against the division
of the university fund.
In the evening [I] presented in the Senate Chamber our argu-
ment. Well received by a good audience. Laura and Scott
present. Rather scattered, but main points were fairly well put.
Friends pleased, and a good impression for our cause.
February 18. Thursday. - Some trouble as to the Carbon
Works. Danger of losing it in a quarrel of Richmond with the
local natural gas company. Caution, good nature, and a little
liberality and public spirit will save us, but there is real danger.
February 19. Friday.--I must get ready for the 22d at
Pittsburgh--cash, baggage, speech. Correspondence and this
wretched petty quarrel which endangers our rebuilding of the
Carbon Works. I have started ideas which I hope will save the
enterprise for the town.
SPIEGEL, February 19, 1892.
MY DEAR FRIEND: - I find I have a State University engage-
ment at Columbus March 1 and 2, another March 16. I can
go to Baltimore between those dates or after.
60 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
I am glad to get all you write or say on education. On
Wednesday I spoke in our State Senate Chamber. I used you
freely. We are having the usual fight. I am for concentrating
on one strong university. The opposition would scatter the
state aid among over twenty incomplete and feeble institutions.
I hope Mrs. Curry will easily escape the grasp of the grippe.
With kindest regards to her.
DR. J. L. M. CURRY. RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
February 22. Monday. -[Spent Saturday night and yester-
day in Cleveland. This morning] to Pittsburgh. At Hudson
the boys were out to meet me from the academy and gave the
college cries in the usual way, "What is the matter with ex-
President Hayes?" "He is all right," etc., etc.
Met on the train a constant succession of old soldiers, also
an interesting young man from East Liverpool, who was full
of facts about the pottery, the tariff, etc. Clay brought from
Missouri and New Jersey costs from Missouri by rail over five
dollars a ton to bring it, by water about one dollar. Men get
for common labor one dollar and fifty cents; skilled, five to seven
dollars per day. Mostly English; own their own homes; gen-
erally sober and moral.
Met about 2:30 P. M. at Pittsburgh by Warden Wright, Com-
panion Breed, and Major Morehead. Monongahela House.
Met Nicholson; discussed the Alger incident. His dismissal for
absence without leave, probably on endorsement by Sheridan of
In the evening, banquet at the Duquesne Club. Agreeable,
but no songs. Got off my little talk on Washington. Well re-
ceived. Retired soon after midnight.
February 23. Tuesday. - [At] I :30 P. M. with Major More-
head took the train for Cleveland. Met and talked [with] un-
til we reached Cleveland General Warner of Marietta, ex-Mem-
ber of Congress, well informed on currency, political economy,
etc., etc. He is a bimetallist. A very instructive conversation
SPEECH AT PITTSBURGH 61
February 24. Wednesday.--Visited President Thwing; with
him looked over the new buildings for the woman's college.
Had a full talk about the university. Encouraging.
February 26. Friday. - Ohio has no institution for the higher
education in science, in art, in mechanics, in agriculture, in
practical knowledge except the Ohio State University. You
must go abroad to find it if not here.
February 27. Saturday.--Taking up "Oliver Twist" which
I read in 1837-8 at Webb's school in Middletown, Connecticut,
I was surprised to find how perfectly I recalled parts of it, and
how new and strange other parts seemed to be. It is very fas-
cinating-full of good, cheerful, humane philosophy, and much
better than I anticipated.
Lucy died June 25; was struck June 21; and buried the 28th.
These days in the month are always sad days. The pain is leaving
me but a sweet, almost painless, melancholy remains. I love to
think of her and recall her looks, her smile, her cheerful laugh-
ter, and her witty and sensible-so shrewd and humorous-
Finished reading "Oliver Twist." Better than I expected to
find it. The genius of Dickens is clouded by his character-
snobbery, vanity, etc.--but his heart must have been right.
February 29. - Scott and I go to Columbus. He en route to
his new engagement in Cincinnati, and I to attend a meeting of
the university board. Thence I go to Baltimore to meet with
the executive committee of the Slater board to prepare the work
of the spring meeting in New York. These journeys in bad
weather involve some fatigue and exposure. I feel the weariness
they bring more than I used to do. But on the whole it seems
best for me to continue at work as long as I can.
Dickens regarded a sudden death is [as] nearest to transla-
tion-as of Enoch - of anything now practicable. I am of
the same mind.
March 1. Tuesday. - Scott and I leave this morning via
Fostoria and Columbus. I to go to Baltimore to meet with the
educational committee of the Slater board, together with the
62 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
secretaries of the religious bodies whose schools we aid, to ar-
range as to the distribution of income under the new policy of
Reached Columbus about 11 A. M. and met at Captain Cope's
office immediately the board of the Ohio State University. A
harmonious and useful meeting.
In the evening called on Professor Orton, our able and true
friend, the accomplished State Geologist, a man of admirable
character, now crippled with paralysis of the left side. His
mind is sound, but he is probably at the end of his efficiency.
A great loss to the university, to the State, and to the cause
of scientific learning.
March 2. -With Governor McKinley, Lieutenant-Governor
Harris, Speaker pro tem. Lampson, Speaker of the House Lay-
lin, and other members of the government, to a reception by
the faculty and President Scott at the university. All passed
off well. I presided and spoke first. Governor McKinley and
the other gentlemen made excellent and friendly speeches.
March 3. Wednesday. - Reached Baltimore soon after noon.
At Hotel Rennert. Met at 4 P. M., at the Johns Hopkins
[University] President Gilman, Dr. Curry, Dr. Hartzell, secre-
tary Methodist Episcopal Church, Dr. McVickar, Baptist, Dr.
Beard, Congregational. After conference went with President
Harper to hear his lecture, 5 P. M., on the Old Testament.
'Not history, not in order of time; rather sermons with ex-
tracts from history to illustrate, etc.'
Agreed perfectly with the doctors of divinity on the appor-
tionment of our income, so far as the particular institutions to
be aided is concerned.
March 4. Thursday.-Breakfast with Gilman and Harper
at Gilman's, 1300 Eutaw Place, the President's House of the
university. Train to Pittsburgh about noon. Found the Secre-
tary of our National Prison Association on the train. He cor-
rected my ticket so I could go on the limited, the best train
from Harrisburg west. But with several hours of very agree-
able talk I could not recall his name. Will look. A totally un-
NEED OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING 63
expected name, John L. Milligan, a Presbyterian minister. Well,
he is a courteous and intelligent gentleman, if I did entirely
forget his name.
SPIEGEL, March 9, 1892.
MY DEAR GENERAL:-As I was returning Monday from
Baltimore I meditated on the long gap in our meetings. Of
course I found your mind on the same topic when I reached
home and found your favor of the 4th. I am to go to Kenyon
next week. With the pile of letters and things on my table,
I can't go over to the Home before going to Gambier. But if
you don't come over and stay at least a day or two (with Mrs.
Force and Horton if possible) before the 20th, you may expect
me soon after that date. Coming to see why you don't come
All well with us. Kindest regards to all the generations.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GENERAL M. F. FORCE,
March 11. Friday. - To make the boy equal to his fellows,
let him be taught to make a living with the skilled labor of his
hands. This is the corner-stone of American education. We
hear a great deal of foolish talk about intellectual training as
if it was the sole object of education; that manual training
should never go to the length of teaching trades. My friends,
make no mistake about this. Let the boy be taught the in-
dustries clear to the point of useful production--to the point
of self-support by the labor of his hands, and at every point of
such training it will be found that his intellect and character are
March 12. Saturday.--My early friend among the living
ladies in Fremont is gone. The earliest lady friend --probably
the earliest friend in the world--has left us and gone to the
Unseen. Mrs. Sarah Bell Smith, when a girl, was sent to school
in Delaware and lived with us, by urgent request of Uncle
64 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Birchard, during some months of her school life. This was
about as early as 1832- sixty years ago. We remained good
friends. I sent her flowers a day or two before her death. She
read my card and seemed pleased.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, March 12, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR: - I send you the letter to Mr. Sherman with my
affidavit to its statements as you suggest. You have not told
me who objected to the letter. I suspect you have been misled
and that this will do you no more good than the letter. If it
is not useful, please return it to me.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MR. J. B. NESSLE,
March 13. Sunday.--I would say of Governor Chase that
on important occasions I differed toto coelo with his conduct. I
abhorred the eagerness and the methods with which he sought
power and place. But such were his powers and his culture that
his writings on public questions were unsurpassed by anything
in our language with which I am acquainted. They are terse,
elegant, forcible, and convincing. I have just read a letter on
education (see Shuckers' "Life of Chase," P. 170) -which is
so masterly that I will quote it freely.
Dean Stanley's sermon on Charles Dickens is given in Mac-
kenzie's "Life of Dickens." It is so good. Read it, my chil-
dren. Read also Dickens' will, where he speaks of his re-
ligion. I would say to it, dear ones, with all my heart, ditto.
March 14. Monday.-- I have learned of the death of my
valued friend Bishop Bedell. He was a man of noble char-
acter. Free from bigotry, Christian, patriotic; a good pulpit
man, cheerful, prudent, wise. The funeral will be at Gambier
at about the time-the day of my talk. It [the talk] will of
course be postponed.
VALUE OF RELIGIOUS REVIVALS 65
SPIEGEL, March 15, 1892.
MY DEAR MRS. HERRON:-I believe in [B. Fay] Mills re-
vivals. They afford a chance for those who are drifting to the
bad to return to better lives. They call the attention of the un-
thinking to their peril. They stiffen up those who are weakly
staggering along in good paths. When all are lifted up to the
full stature of manliness, they may not be needed. No doubt,
they have objectionable features, but, all in all, they help the
Mrs. Booth has a good cause. Her methods or her father's
are poor enough. Their chief value, as I see it, is that they
open the eyes of the world. But honest people who are in-
terested in good aims are always to be commended, and if one
happens also to be a "beautiful woman" with a "soulful mind"
I, for my part, am ready to fall down and worship her. Our
friend Broadwell is doing what all old fellows who are left
alone feel like doing. It must be natural therefore. If so it
is of Divine appointment and not to be scoffed at. Let the
Scott seems to like his new calling. He is apt to like the
new. We hope. I see perils and temptations but that is so
ordered-hence good. Jack is better off. He has the security
of home life.
I go to Kenyon today. I was to talk offhand on "Old Times
at Kenyon," but the funeral of Bishop Bedell, will, I suppose,
postpone it indefinitely. He was one of the best of his pro-
fession, and more largely than most of us, he practiced what
With all regard, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. H. C. HERRON,
March 16. Wednesday.- To Gambier. Attended funeral of
Bishop Bedell. Met the two bishops, Vincent and Leonard,
Dr. Bates, Mr. Delano, President Sterling, and many others.
A bright cold day; an impressive funeral.
66 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
In the evening my talk passed off well. The old hall, Rosse
Chapel, rang with cheers, oft repeated, of the students. The
old place more beautiful than ever, the Hills and Rust boy school,
the girl school, and the divinity school, all well attended and
promising. Only the college and the college building looked
the ruin that has reached dear old Kenyon.
March 17. Thursday.- Visited the schools, the library, the
laboratory of Dr. Sterling, etc. The three companies of boys
in their fine uniforms were well drilled. Library beautiful;
girls' school excellent. Dr. Rust paralyzed. [All] most in-
The family of Dr. Sterling entertained me to perfection. They
made my stay at Kenyon a delight.
March 22. Tuesday. -The ends we aim at in the education
of the young are character, ability, information. The first in-
cludes of course integrity, virtue, religion. The second in-
cludes the powers of mind, body, will - whatever is in the words
faculty, skill, power. The third includes learning, facts, his-
Read life of [Bishop] Simpson. The best parts are the words
of Simpson and of his wise uncle and mother. Whenever the
author appears there is the vainglory of his superior learning.
March 23. Wednesday. - Our revival meetings ended. Per-
haps forty or fifty accessions to the church, mostly young folks.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, March 24, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR: - I have your favor of the 22d instant. There
are two ways of dealing with an offhand talk. One is for the
reporter in his own words to briefly sketch the topics-the per-
sons named, the general character of the talk, etc., etc. The
other is a perfectly full verbatim report by a skilful hand. But
you have caught the editorial frailty. No bargain is binding
that interferes with the paramount duty to furnish the news.
THE TRUE ENDS OF EDUCATION 67
The victim has no recourse but submission. To correct one
error would be an endorsement of all the others.
With best wishes,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
March 26. Saturday.--My visit at Toledo Thursday and
yesterday was a most happy one. The only drawback was the
grippe. No doubt, in a mild form, I have it. All day Friday
and Thursday I was oppressed with it. Did not conjecture the
cause [of my oppression]; felt that it was old age and that my
time was almost come to quit these scenes for the other world!
This, in spite of the delight I felt in the boys. They are charm-
ing. Sherman has gone up two steps. He uses very skilfully
his tricycle, and he has gone into pants and jacket - or rather,
he is in the process of getting into them. He looks well and
enjoys the new rank it gives him with "a fierce joy." Webb
is lovely--bright, intelligent, cheery. I never enjoyed the
grandfather's pride and happiness so keenly before.
The day proved the first spring day we have had. In the
evening, a long-continued storm with thunder and lightning in
The town was filled with people from the country, during the
afternoon especially. When the crowds were largest the Her-
brand works took fire, just across the bridge, and flamed up,
fed by the oil used for fuel, soon gathering the largest crowd I
ever saw here on a similar occasion. The fire department were
promptly on hand and saved the large brick building. Only the
frames were burned.
March 27. Saturday.--A heavy snow--damp, falling fast.
As it clings to trees and shrubbery it gives a wintry look to the
scene in complete contrast with yesterday. Spring and summer
last evening and midwinter this morning.
Last evening I received a letter from Rev. A. C. Dixon, one
of the editors of the Baltimore Baptist, asking me to state
whether Colonel R. G. Ingersoll appeared in person, or how,
before me when I was in the White House to seek a pardon
68 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
for D. M. Bennett, a convict for sending obscene literature
through the mails, and saying that Chaplain McCabe told him
that I said to him that Colonel Ingersoll was offended at me for
refusing a pardon!
This is an example of the mischief that comes from repeating
private and casual conversations for publication. Probably the
editor has used this to connect Colonel Ingersoll with obscenity.
He did appear, as I recollect, in person and very earnestly urged
the pardon of Bennett. I refused the pardon. Colonel Inger-
soll had been a warm supporter of me and my policy when
other Stalwarts opposed and abused me. Afterwards when
many of the opponents of the Administration, such as Chandler,
Blaine, and others, became in a good degree reconciled - at any
rate, personally respectful and friendly, he turned against me.
I could not know his motive, but I did conjecture that it was
due, in some degree at least, to his failure to persuade me to
pardon Bennett. But he seemed, as I recall it, to abhor ob-
scenity, and put his action in behalf of Bennett on the ground
that the publication complained of, while opposed to religion,
was not, in any fair sense, obscene. It was claimed that the
able Attorney-General, Devens, was of this opinion. The cur-
rent of judicial opinion was the other way. Mr. Justice Clif-
ford, and Judges Blatchford, Choate, and Benedict held that
the publication was obscene. I followed the opinion of the
judges. But there was certainly much to be said in behalf of
the opposite conclusion.
I was never satisfied, as I would wish, with the correctness
of the result to which I came chiefly in deference to the courts.
"Cupid's Yokes" was a free-love pamphlet of bad principles,
and in bad taste, but Colonel Ingersoll had abundant reason for
his argument that it was not, in the legal sense, "an obscene
With Webb and Rutherford seriously considered our large
indebtedness. Our property in unproductive real estate and
enough to warrant going on as we are. But we must try to
borrow at five per cent twenty to forty thousand dollars on
SANCTITY OF PRIVATE TALK 69
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, March 28, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR:-I have your letter of the 25th instant with
respect to the action of Colonel Ingersoll in the pardon case of
D. M. Bennett. Of course I am very willing to give you all
the facts as far as I can recall them. Before writing, however,
I prefer to know more fully the situation. I would like to see
the publication you refer to, and also to know whether the con-
versation was given to you for publication - as an interview, or
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
REVEREND A. C. DIXON,
March 28. Monday. - I cannot help thinking of Lucy today
especially. I dreamed of her last evening - not so pleasantly
as usual. But she was a dear woman. The glory of life.
March 30. Wednesday. -Read on Russian prisons, the In-
ternational Congress at St. Petersburg, education, etc., etc.
Arranged papers, letters, and photographs. . . . My idea
is that a history of my Administration, containing good por-
traits and sketches of Lucy and myself, may be written and I
place the materials where they will be found together.
SPIEGEL GROVE, March 30, 1892.
DEAR MISS AUSTIN :- I have your letter of the - and will
be glad to aid if practicable. The board meets April 12 in New
A policy of concentration has been definitely adopted. No
small appropriations are probable. But Hampton will probably
get an increased appropriation. I shall favor it decidely. Now
can't you get out of that the three hundred dollars you want?
If you will write me at Fifth Avenue Hotel as to your ability
70 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
to manage this I will try to add the three hundred dollars to
the amount Hampton might otherwise get. Do you see? Will
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS EMILY L. AUSTIN
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, March 31, 1892.
MY DEAR COMRADE:- I am glad to hear from you again.
Of course you know you can count on my sympathy and also
my aid when I can give it. I send you a letter for Governor
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
M. V. RITTER.
SPIEGEL, FREMONT, March 31, 1892.
MY DEAR GOVERNOR: -I am reliably informed that the col-
lector of the first district internal revenue in California needs
and ought to have an additional man for storekeeper in internal
revenue warehouse, Number 6. If this is so I hope you will
order it. It will help a meritorious and brave comrade of mine
who lost his leg at South Mountain, Lieutenant M. V. Ritter,
by giving his son a place. Do this and I will contrive to think
and say all manner of good things about you.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
GOVERNOR CHARLES FOSTER,
SECRETARY OF TREASURY.
April 2. Saturday. -To Sandusky to visit the Forces. A
happy supper and evening. Old times in Cincinnati the topic
of conversation. Friday was spent most happily. During the
day Mr. Plantz, son of an associate in the Thirty-ninth Con-
gress, and S. Dana Horton came and added much to our
ANCESTRAL PATRIOTISM 71
Dana Horton is the master of the money question, the cham-
pion of bimetallism by international agreement. He has studied
the subject many years; has spent much time in Europe; is at
home in several languages, and acquainted intimately with the
leading men on the question in England, France, Germany, Italy,
Spain, etc. Our conversation was widely over this topic. With
Plantz I talked over the Morgan raid and my part in it, which
did save Gallipolis and then Pomeroy from capture by Morgan,
and did prevent his escape at those points.
April 3. Sunday.--Webb and I looked into the record of
our ancestors in the Revolution. On his mother's side he found
an exceptionally patriotic history. All of her great-grand-
fathers, one great-great-grandfather, Captain Matthew Scott,
and one grandfather, Judge Isaac Cook, or General Isaac Cook,
was [were] in it. As Webb puts it, "They went into the war
from the cradle to the grave." On his father's side the case is
almost as strong. All of my great-grandfathers served in the
war. My grandfathers, both of them, are found on the
rolls of the army - Grandfather Roger Birchard, from Connecti-
cut, as a private soldier and Grandfather Rutherford Hayes as
a lieutenant in the New York line.
April 4. Monday.--I am half through my seventieth year
today! Psalm XC: 10: "The days of our years are three-score
years and ten; etc."
Moved two large and fast growing Japanese trees that were
in the way [and] cut them back severely. Will they live ? Poisoned
during the afternoon, not badly, in face and hands either by the
Japanese tree or at the vines near the lightning stub. Which?
April 5. Tuesday. - To Wooster. Met at Orrville Rev. Dr.
Pomeroy, president of the board of trustees of the University
of Wooster, Mr. Robinson, of the Troop, and others en route
for Wooster to attend the celebration of the 6th instant. Was
met at the station by my old friend of the Thirty-ninth and For-
tieth Congress, Judge Martin Welker, President Scovel, Pro-
fessor Kirkwood, and others. Reached the pleasant home of
the judge; met Mrs. Welker again. Tea and a hospitable, home-
72 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
like feeling and talk. But the "poison," the swollen face and
blood-shot eyes, the look of "just coming out of a spree," was
not merely embarrassing but painful.
April 6. Wednesday.-Decided to appear and speak ac-
cording to program in spite of la grippe and the poisoned face.
I had not slept at all. Judge Welker and other friends thought
that I might appear notwithstanding my red and swollen face.
Rev. Dr. Pomeroy, of Cleveland, spoke first. A carefully pre-
pared written [speech]. President Scovel gave a short historical
sketch of the university. I began: "A personal reference will
be excused. Perhaps it is required by the circumstances. When
your eyes met mine, a suspicion arose in your minds which I
assure you is without foundation. I have not forsaken my
temperance principles and practice. Appearances, I admit, are
against me. But, in truth, it is not whiskey but poison ivy that
The pleasant ripple of laughter and clapping of hands which
greeted me put me at ease, and I got off a sensible talk on educa-
tion and manual training, with a semihumorous account of the
wise location of the university.
Afternoon, drove with Judge Welker and his brother-in-law,
Judge Armor, of Millersburg, to the farm of the judge and the
experiment station. A fine and beautiful country. In the eve-
ning Professor Kirkwood and other teachers, the two ex-Mem-
mers of Congress of Wooster, McClure and , Dr. Barrett,
and others called.
April 10. Sunday. - Face not so well; hands worse. Did
not rest much during night.
The day spent pleasantly with Webb and the rest. Judge
Ross, of Logansport, with Bristol called. The day chiefly spent
in hearing the boys reading newspapers and in nursing my
poisoned face. It gradually grew better as the day passed.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, April 10, 1892.
MY DEAR GUY: - Your letter came last evening. It is very
welcome. Its tone and spirit are in exact harmony with my
FAMOUS MEN OF OLD KENYON 73
own temper and feelings. The golden days are the days that are
gone. It is a happiness to dwell upon them and to live them
Two or three weeks ago, on an invitation from a student lec-
ture committee, I went to Kenyon and made them a talk. Con-
nected as trustee with three or four other colleges - [of] one
of which (the Ohio State University) I am a founder, perhaps
the founder, - I am so engaged at the commencement season
that I can not go to Old Kenyon. Eight years away, it was like
going home again after a protracted absence. My theme for an
offhand talk was, "Some of the Boys and Men at Kenyon More
than Fifty Years ago." Old Rosse Chapel was crowded. I
never spoke to a more responsive and enthusiastic audience.
Students, officers, and the lawyers in Mount Vernon, Hurd,
Delano, and Curtis; old graduates or students before our time-
Judge Davis, Chase (Chief Justice), Stanton, Henry Winter
Davis, etc., etc., McIlvaine and Sparrow; Bryan, Trowbridge.
Andrews, and Matthews. You see!
The only drawback is the college. The old building is neg-
lected and in some degree down. It is thought to be looking
up. But the boy school with new building-with three uni-
formed and well drilled companies-is very fine and promising.
The girl school is fully up to the mark also. The theological
seminary stands well. A gem of a chapel, a noble library and
building for it. an excellent gymnasium, society hall, etc., etc.
Taken together an unusually well equipped institution and build-
How we would have enjoyed together the visit! But, alas,
not one of our cronies, classmates, or contemporaries was there.
Think of it, the nearest to our day was a fine-looking boy in
the military school, a grandson of Joash Rice Taylor, our class-
mate now in Michigan.
You don't know how nearly I came to visit Texas about
these days with Dr. Curry of the Slater and Peabody Funds.
It is a cherished dream which may yet be a reality.
Scott, the youngest, now twenty-one, has a place in an electric
concern, "Thompson-Houston," At Cincinnati. Birch in Toledo
still, Webb in Cleveland, Fanny and Rutherford here.
74 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Yes, yes, I recall the feasts, the studies, the good times to-
gether! We shall cherish these friendly recollections till our
latest breath. Good-bye. God bless you! Written with my
eyes and face bunged up badly with poison ivy, but these
thoughts are for the time a cure-all.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE GUY M. BRYAN.
April 12. Tuesday. - Awoke on the Hudson--clear and
cold. Met Dr. Curry at Fifth Avenue [Hotel]. Agreed as to
the points to be discussed: 1. Du Bois to be recommended;
2. Miss Austin to have at Hampton three hundred dollars;
3. Aid for Presbyterian schools; 4. Pay appropriations to the
religious bodies controlling the school aided.
Dined with Wm. E. Dodge and Mrs. Dodge and two daugh-
ters, Gilman, Dr. Curry, Dr. Nevins (long in Rome), and had
an entertaining time.
FIFTH AVENUE HOTEL, April 12, Tuesday.
MY DEAR FANNY:- I reached here after a very agreeable
and comfortable trip on time-8 A. M. Poison dead--the
peeling stage now in force. Shall be rid of that in a day or two.
I have opened relations with my old friend Wm. Henry
Smith. He is not quite well. Dr. Curry and President Gilman
will, with myself, constitute the caucus.
I forgot to speak, I think, of Frank DeWitt. When he comes
I want you and Rutherford to capture him. He is worth cul-
tivating. Can't Webb or some of you find something for him
to do--in Toledo or Fremont? At any rate treat him as a
friend and a brother.
It was well I came. The weather is cold, bright, and stim-
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MISS FANNY HAYES.
SLATER BOARD MEETING 75
April 13. Wednesday.-Visited the manual training school
for teachers, at 9 University Place. An attractive and capable
man in charge. Men as well as women educated for teachers
of manual training for sixty dollars a year. Men can go there
for short periods to complete their equipment.
At 11 A. M. Slater trustees met, viz., Stewart, Dodge, Gilman,
Curry, and myself. The recommendations of the educational
committee, on resolutions of Mr. Gilman, were all confirmed,
viz., appropriations to about thirteen institutions. An article to
be printed by Curry. Aid to Du Bois.
April 14. Thursday.-Breakfast with President Gilman.
Talk of the City Club with the purpose of divorcing city affairs
from national politics; Mr. Hewitt and Mr. Carter, leading
persons. Introduced Gilman to Senator Warner Miller. The
Nicaragua canal the topic of interest.
Forenoon, called on Mrs. Currier, at 28 West Twenty-
seventh Street, where she was living over twenty years ago. I
had not met her since 1844! She is a fine-looking, intelligent,
and sensible old lady-gray, of course, but apparently in good
health. Learned that she expected Charlotte tomorrow from
Florida. I accepted an invitation to lunch at 1 P. M. Friday.
Charlotte is to be surprised. This was the only stroke of humor
visible. Earnest, cheerful, and wise words were in all her talk.
I now call on Howells at 241 Seventeenth Street, East.
Lunched with Howells, Elinor, and the lovely nun-like daughter.
They will soon change their residence. A happy chatty time.
Howells is now editor of the Metropolitan [Cosmopolitan],
owned by John Brisben Walker. In the building on Twenty-
fifth, Broadway, and Madison Square. Called there and met
Walker, an old Washington acquaintance and supporter. His
room is the office in which Conkling wanted to sit and ruminate,
looking at the splendid scene where Broadway and Fifth Avenue
come together. I hope this will be Howells' best success.
Evening with Recorder Davis, Loyal Legion, of Chicago.
April 15. Friday. - At breakfast received a card from Du
Bois, the colored scholar from Harvard. President Gilman and
I arranged to give him seven hundred and fifty dollars - one-
76 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
half cash donation, one-half on his note--to support him one
year in Germany at some university. Very glad to find that he
is sensible, sufficiently religious, able, and a fair speaker.
An agreeable lunch with Mrs. Currier. Her son was absent
waiting at the dock for the steamer from the South with Char-
lotte. Talked over old times and old friends and acquaintances.
Afternoon, at Carl Schurz's. A crowd of ladies listening to
a lecture in German on poetry. Mr. Schurz and I went into
his daughter Agatha's room and spent a happy hour. Dined
with the daughters, the son, and two ladies. A very happy
April 16. Saturday. - At eleven called at Mrs. Currier's and
found that Charlotte had arrived last evening. Walked with
her to my room here in [the] Fifth Avenue. At 1 P. M. lunched
with Mrs. Currier and Edward.
Dined with the Howells[es] at Fleischmann's Cafe, Tenth and
Broadway. A very happy chat. Mildred, the beauty, is an
author, and is self-sustaining. She gave me one of her pieces.
She has one thousand dollars in bank.
April 17. Sunday. - About 10 A. M. called on Mrs. Charles
Mead. The young folks, Larkin and Mabel, gone to see the
Easter decorations of the churches--all beflowered. People
visiting a half-dozen different churches to see the riches of the
Mrs. Mead and I talked of all the kindred--of Lucy, of
Fanny, of all we could think of. Larkin and Mabel came home
filled with the wonderful flowers they had seen.
Evening, called on Dr. Matthew T. Scott, of Lexington, Ken-
tucky. An agreeable evening with them and luncheon. The
talk of family. . . A happy day.
April 18. Monday. - Called, 231 Second Avenue, on Mr. and
Mrs. Evarts. A very long good talk. Maxwell, the youngest
son, came in from Windsor, with Vermont talk. Mr. Evarts
talked politics; hopeful for the Republican chances. A fine
bust of Roger Sherman.
Afternoon, finished Howells' fine novel which he gave me,
"The Quality of Mercy." Visited Laura Fullerton, my grand-
VISIT AT NORWICH 77
niece [here in school]. She was charming as ever and will dine
with me here tomorrow.
April 19. Friday.- . . Disappointed in the hope of
having Laura Fullerton to dine with me. The dear girl has a
nervous headache. . . Met President Harper, of the
Chicago University, and he introduced me to the editor-in-chief
of the [Chicago] Inter-Ocean.
In the evening a short good-bye call on Mrs. Charles Mead.
April 20. Wednesday.- I hope this is my last day in New
York. My strength is less than normal. I do not feel like
sight-seeing. The fact of age is a reality. Home is the place
for the old. The final home is the final rest. To be with Lucy!
At 4 P. M. met my good friend Mr. Moses Pierce at Park
Avenue Hotel and arranged to go with him and Mrs. Pierce to
their agreeable home in Norwich, Connecticut.
April 21. Thursday. - Reached Mr. Pierce's home in Nor-
wich about 2 P. M. Mr. D. A. Wells called in the evening,
Colonel Wait, and others.
April 22. Friday.--Visited banks, national and savings.
They are now getting six per cent on loans. I made none there-
fore. Mr. Green, a member of the Legislature, Loyal Legion
Companions, and others called.
April 23. Saturday. - Called on Mr. Wells at his home.
Visited the Slater Memorial Library and Museum. I enjoy
statuary more than paintings.
At 3 P. M., train for home. A very happy visit with Mr.
and Mrs. Pierce. Met on train McBride, a kind friend of the
Austins, an able business man who is "wise and good."
The wise and good find their greatest happiness comes to them
from well-directed effort to make others happy. How to do
this? Let your friend do what he prefers to do. I knew a good
woman who was under the harrow. She never had a chance
among the strong wills around her to have her own way. She
visited at my home. I persuaded her to believe that here she
should have things as she preferred to have them in all cases.
She told me earnestly on leaving, she had never before in all
78 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
her life been so happy as in these Spiegel Grove days. Moral:
Try to let others have their way.
[Cleveland], April 24. Sunday. -A good time with Mr. Mc-
Bride. Reached Mrs. Austin's at 11 A. M. All at church.
When they came, Mrs. Austin, Mattie, and Mrs. Huntington,
a warm welcome after [my] five weeks' absence [from Cleve-
April 25. Monday.- Learned to eat at Aunty Austin's the
(new to me) grapefruit. Refreshing.-Home again.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, April 29, 1892.
MY DEAR AUNTY DAVIS:--Returning home after a longer
absence than usual, I have just fished up from the pile on my
table your letter of the 17th. Would that I could send you a
soul-reaching antidote for your loneliness and grief. You have
done so much for me and mine! I have felt guilty of ingratitude
whenever I recall the oceans of good things I owe to your good-
ness and to your wonderful ability and skill in making others
happy. [I think of] Lucy's little proverb, "The happiness of
this life is to make others happy." One of your latest things
is the sketch of Lucy. I have never told you how happy that
made me. It grows on me. I am so glad you did it. I want
nothing more. It is quiet, sympathetic, sensible, in good taste.
Nobody else could have done it.
And what a life of good works the dear doctor lived. Don't
you begin to thank God for him? Why despond? Live the
life over in imagination. You were so blessed. You made him
so happy. You can be grateful that he was yours.
Ever your friend, sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
MRS. ELIZA G. DAVIS.
FREMONT, April 30, 1892.
MY DEAR MR. HILLIARD: - Protracted absences from home
have prevented an earlier acknowledgment of your thoughtful
courtesy in sending me your book "Politics and Pen Pictures."
PRAISE OF HILLIARD'S BOOK 79
I have read it with great interest. Its graphic description of
the great conflict--the election of 1860, the Civil War, and
the reconstruction period,--coming as it does from a conserva-
tive Southern Whig and "American" who opposed secession
but who when the war came, espoused the cause of the Con-
federacy, is especially noteworthy and valuable. We had heard
before from the Union side in many volumes, and from the pens
of original and extreme States' Rights men of the school of
Calhoun and Jefferson Davis, but you have given a full, clear,
and able presentation of this stirring epoch from the standpoint
of a Southern Unionist of national sentiments, who was swept
into the mighty struggle against the Union by the stress of
strenuous circumstances. It aids in completing the great pic-
ture in a masterly way and will therefore be of permanent
value. I beg you to receive my thanks for the volume.
With all good wishes. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE H. W. HILLIARD,
SPIEGEL GROVE, April 30, 1892.
MY DEAR GOVERNOR: -I know Major Camp intimately. He
is able, well educated, of sound judgment, and may be trusted
to the end of the chapter. He will do well anything he under-
takes. He will be an efficient and satisfactory offcer. I hope
you can give him a place.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
May 3. Tuesday.--To Columbus. On the train from Fos-
toria met Mr. Hahn, the chairman of the Republican State
Committee. A long and interesting talk with him on the political
situation. He regards the factional power of George Cox and
Company [Cincinnati] as permanently broken in Ohio.
At Columbus found the university board in session. The
main question was as to the mode of heating the different build-
80 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
ings of the institution, new and old. On my motion, finally
resolved to try concentrating all in a new building to cost not
more than thirty thousand dollars with all complete.
May 4. Wednesday.--With Captain Abbott and Felton,
Loyal Legion members, to Cincinnati. The approach to Cin-
cinnati gave us a fine spring view of Cincinnati and its sur-
roundings. Was met at the depot by Scott R., who was look-
ing as finely as ever. Went to the Grand, now a homelike
The Loyal Legion annual reunion was a marked success. It
is fortunate that General Cox succeeds Major Dawes. Major
Dawes for five years has been an excellent chief. General Cox,
with his dignity, prestige, and character, will carry on the dear
commandery in a way to preserve and elevate [it].
General Miles made a capital speech. He complimented me
and my Administration. Well received.
Bishop Vincent, the new chaplain, captured the commandery
by an earnest talk. I got out of my trouble fairly well. I read
the closing paragraph of Devens' famous Worcester speech and
nearly broke down when I reached the reference to the presence
of General Grant's wife at his death-bed.
May 5. Thursday.- Morning spent delightfully in a circle
of old comrades in the large office, "swapping" reminiscences.
Afternoon, again a charming time with Mrs. Herron. Evening
with Scott, General Veasey, and the Iowa member of the Inter-
state Commerce Commission.
May 6. Friday. - To Columbus. Saw Captain Cope at his
office. Afternoon, visited the university with Captain Cope.
Met the committee of the Y. M. C. A. Encouraged them to
proceed in their work and promised hearty cooperation.
May 7. Saturday.--With Rogers and [family] and dined
with them happily. Gradually I get rid of the effects of the
poisoning. Evening called with Laura on R. H. Platt and Fanny
May 8. Sunday. - Must begin to prepare talks for the G.
A. R. meeting at Piqua.
STATE GRAND ARMY AT PIQUA 81
Morning, drove with General Mitchell, Mr. and Fanny Wall
out Broad Street, across Alum Creek to the new allotment for
a suburban extension of the city. Everywhere signs of rapid
growth. Broad Street is very fine now and promises great
things for the future.
Wall and Fanny lunched with General Mitchell. A long
talk on aerial navigation. Does the albatross, the eagle, the
gull, or any bird, sail, soar, or sweep up, down, and swiftly
away, without propelling itself with its wings?
May 9. Monday.--Today I want to see Dr. Gladden as
to the presidency of the university; Captain or Colonel Riggs
as to Memorial Day, and some one as to the twenty-sixth G.
A. R. Reunion in Piqua.
May 10. --Reached Piqua with a host of comrades about
noon. Driven by committee to Companion John G. Battelle's
residence. Met by Miss Fanny Battelle at the door of the
Afternoon, called on the stand by Comrade Warner in the
rink. Warmly greeted and made a short response.
Evening with Mrs. Battelle and Miss Fanny Battelle at the
rink. Drill of girls, songs, etc.
May 11. Wednesday. - Rain - cold; but the crowds were
enthusiastic. McKinley came in time to help warm up. A pro-
cession in the rain; great good cheer. Drove with McKinley,
Hicks, and General Force.
Elected by acclamation, on motion of B. B. Brown, delegate
at large to National Encampment at Washington.
Evening, a fine campfire. McKinley made a noble speech.
Mine was well received.
May 12. Thursday. - Still cold rain. With Battelle and
Hicks visited their tin experiment, - rolling mill, corrugating
works, etc. At noon with General Force and others north to
Lima and home.
May 13. Friday. - At ten A. M. with Fanny to Sandusky to
visit General and Mrs. Force at the Soldiers' Home to celebrate
with them their wedding day, May 13, 1874.
6 H. D.
82 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
Attended the funeral of a comrade. The clergyman, Congre-
gationalist of Sandusky, preached an excellent sermon. After
my afternoon nap dined beautifully . . .
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, May 14, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR:--Returning home last evening I find your
note of the 6th. I fear I have been telling the story of the
sensible course adopted by Ewing and Corwin in 1844 rather
better than the facts will warrant. The truth is, I have had such
a decided opinion of the folly of factional quarrels between
public men, putting it merely on the low plane of self-interest,
that I was solicitous to find precedents showing the good re-
sults of magnanimity and friendship between rivals in the same
party. But human nature still rules, and what we have seen
in recent years is merely a manifestation of what was going on
fifty years ago, with, perhaps, wiser heads to control the tongues
I dined with General and Mrs. Force and a pleasant party
at the Sandusky Home on the eighteenth anniversary of their
wedding. He is quite himself again. Better in all ways than
With kind regards to Mrs. Perry and Mr. Follett when you
Meet him. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE A. F. PERRY,
May 16. Monday.--Evening, read Lowell's book on the
great conflict, I mean volume fifth of his prose works; full of
May 18. Wednesday.- Read several books of Pope's "Iliad."
Pope is a poet. His Homer may not be a literal rendering, but
it is noble.
Finished the opening of my Memorial [Day] talk for Co-
J. Q. ADAMS PLAYED POLITICS 83
SPIEGEL, May 19, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR:--I have your favor of the 16th. General
Force seems to be now delightfully home. With some of the
board hostile and the party in power who wanted his place, he
was often annoyed, but at present the general Government has
probably nothing within his reach so good as the State Home.
R. B. HAYES.
HONORABLE AARON F. PERRY.
May 22. Sunday.--I did not attend church on account of
the effects of the poisoning. But it turned out I could safely
have gone. In truth, I am now in all ways in better health than
usual. This long absence from church will not, I hope, be re-
peated. It is longer than ever before since the war -six weeks.
May 24. Tuesday. - John Quincy Adams in his Diary, May
20, 1828, admits that his appointments of [General] Har-
rison to Colombia and [Peter B.] Porter as Secretary of War
were not right but were expedient; and on the same ground be
kept in the Cabinet [John] Maclean, whom he despised and re-
garded as unfit to be trusted. All this was [due to] the bee
in the bonnet--the second term.
May 25, 1892.--Read extensively in the Diary of J. Q.
Adams--seventh and eighth volumes--the Presidency. A
bitter man--the most remarkable trait was his industry. Few
men ever gave so many [hours] to work and study. Finished
printing the Memorial Day speech.
SPIEGEL, May 25, 1892.
MY FRIEND:--I have a speech in type at the Journal office
for Memorial Day. You would not want to send out the whole
of it--it is long and commonplace for the most part--but the
last three quarters of a column may be interesting. The last
84 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
two or three paragraphs are on the duties of the Nation by reason
of the power and prestige the war has given us.
With best wishes. Sincerely,
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE WILLIAM HENRY SMITH,
Associated Press, New York.
SPIEGEL GROVE, FREMONT, OHIO, May 25, 1892.
MY DEAR SIR:--I am in receipt of your favor of the 17th
as to the amount credited to Fremont on the books of the Grant
Monument Association. The statement you give, as follows, is
no doubt correct:
"G. A. R., Moore Post, Fremont, Ohio .......................... $94.00
G. A. R., Rawson Post, Fremont, Ohio ....................... 52.00
G. A. R. Two Posts, Fremont, Ohio ........................... 242.00"
The facts are that immediately on the announcement of the
death of General Grant, I conceived the idea that the time to
raise the funds for a monument was while the whole country was
mourning their loss most keenly and before his burial. I re-
called the fact that for the Garfield monument at Cleveland
more than one hundred thousand dollars was raised in Cleveland
alone before the funeral of President Garfield, without much
effort, and perhaps less than twenty thousand dollars in the
whole country after repeated trials, afterwards. My plan was
to ask all the G. A. R. posts to hold meetings, appoint commit-
tees, and canvass their respective neighborhoods. To show its
practical working the two posts in Fremont took it up and in
a few hours the amount you have was collected. In the mean-
time the telegraph was used to call attention to the plan.
The commander-in-chief of the G. A. R. was of opinion that
the proper place for the monument was Washington. My plan
designated New York. The commander also held that the
principal monument to Grant ought to be paid for by Act of
Congress. The plan being thus disapproved of was not pushed.
Of the amount raised by the Fremont posts, I paid two hundred
SINGLE TERM FOR PRESIDENT 85
dollars. All this, that you may have "the truth of history" and
not for publication, or the public.
With best wishes for your success.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
JAMES C. REED,
SECRETARY OF THE MONUMENT ASSOCIATION.
SPIEGEL GROVE, May 27, 1892.
MY DEAR MR. CURTIS:--I have long had it in mind to write
to you in behalf of a single Presidental term of six years, and
to urge you to make it the special aim of the National Civil
Service Reform League. This letter will be hastily written but
the suggestion I offer has been maturely considered, and is my
deliberate opinion after such reflection as I am able to give.
A few days ago I read in the Civil Service Record your ex-
cellent address at the April meeting in Baltimore.
The society by pegging away is gaining step by step. But here
is an opportunity. The country is ready for it. It will give
the society prestige for all its other issues. Receiving Mr.
Eaton's article in the North American for June this morning
decided me to delay no longer. Nothing is more in the way
of the reform of the civil service than the President's natural
desire to have the endorsement of a second term. I respect Mr.
Cleveland. He is sound, independent, and firm. I do not hesi-
tate to speak well of him on all occasions. But his last two
years--well, to be moderate--did not strengthen the reform
of the civil service. He fell a victim to the necessity of a re-
election. The society you are at the head of is doing good but
it does not attract new supporters to the cause as it would do
with the salient issue of one term for the Presidency. Please
think of it. I see reasons in all directions as plenty as black-
berries, but I will spare you the list.
I am tempted to add a word of criticism on one sentence in
your address. It is not of great importance, and the statement
was probably a passing inadvertence. You speak of the use of
patronage by the President in elections. You say: "There has
been no Administration since that of John Quincy Adams which
86 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
has not done the same thing." Always an admirer of John
Quincy Adams and of his public career, I am yet persuaded
that while he personally never turned his hand over to get pro-
motion, he was no more clear of offense in that direction than
myself. And if you speak of those under him -his Cabinet and
other officials--high and low, I am satisfied that they interfered
in elections more than those under me. It is certain he did not
do half as much to prevent it as I did.
I can speak of one locality and you must know of another.
My files of newspapers show that office-holders were in force
in the Adams Conventions in State and country in 1828. They
also show that in 1880, for the first time since party govern-
ment began, they were conspicuous by their absence from all
party caucuses. How was it in the pivotal place under your
eyes, New York City? Did Adams office-holders show less
activity in machine work than Collector Merritt, Postmaster
James, and Naval Officer Burt? But I am boring you.
RUTHERFORD B. HAYES.
HONORABLE GEORGE WILLIAM CURTIS.
May 28. Saturday.--The long looked-for end of my old
friend General Buckland has come at last after years of suf-
fering, perhaps six or eight, from a mysterious difficulty in his
chest. He was yesterday, about 4 P. M. at his law office, seized
with distressing pains; was carried home and died about six
o'clock or half past six; was conscious to the last moment.
Worn out with disease and with old age, he passed away. He was
a strong and conspicuous figure for more than forty years, at the
bar, as a citizen, as a public man, and especially as a soldier.
His traits of character and faculties were honesty, amazing in-
dustry, tenacity of purpose, and perseverance, and a courage,
physical and moral, unsurpassed. He was a friend to be
trusted. He was a man of executive talents and power rarely
found in common life. His opportunity was the war. It came
to him when he was fifty years old. Late in life to learn a new
profession, and especially the profession which, in a peculiar
DEATH OF GENERAL BUCKLAND 87
degree, requires youth, elasticity of spirit, and physical strength
and endurance. But the new, strange, hard life was for General
Buckland congenial. He was fitted for it, equal to it. Shiloh's
day was his fortunate day. On the right of the army so
furiously assailed,- under the genius of the war, as it after-
wards was proved, under Sherman, General Buckland with his
gallant Seventy-second and his brigade, saved the day. Shiloh
and Buckland are linked together, to his honor, forever.
May 30. Monday. Memorial Day. -On 7 o'clock train to
Fostoria, thence to Columbus. Found Laura and all well. In
the evening at the Board of Trade, a large audience. My ad-
dress was well received and satisfactorily got off. Laura greatly
pleased which made me content.
May 31. Tuesday. - Home again. - Afternoon, funeral of
my aged friend, General Buckland. A fine sermon by [the]
Rev. [Mr.] Aves of Norwalk. A large and beautiful military
funeral. I spoke briefly--a tribute
June 1, 1892. Wednesday. - Reached Columbus about 11
A. M. after a pleasant journey with comrades Winters and
Cammetz of the Seventy-second
Found at Captain Cope's office the university board in ses-
sion, viz., Godfrey, Wing, Schueller, and Chamberlain (the new
member). The questions were the bids for the loan of one
hundred thousand dollars [in] certificates. The bidders were
sharp young fellows, Mr. Reis for Seasongood and Mayer bid
"par, interest, and 106 15/100 This we interpreted to mean 6
15/100 premium on each $100 or $6,150 in the aggregate. This
was the highest. All others rejected, this one accepted. Mr.
Reis claimed that it meant 106 15/100 as the total premium on
the whole $100,000. But he finally agreed to adopt our view.
We discussed a new scheme for heating and power - doing
the whole work from one point and carrying it in a sewer-built
passage way. Rain - rain.
June 2. Thursday. - Morning, another session of the board.
Afternoon, read with Laura Edwin Arnold's "Death and After-
wards." A remarkable argument for immortality in the sense,
88 RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES
not of continued and conscious identity or personality, but in
the sense of continued life and progressive evolution; e. g.,
passing from the chrysalis to the butterfly, etc., etc; but very
beautiful and persuasive. Called in the evening on Fanny and
the doctor. Laura [Fullerton] came home from her New York
school, a lovely vision--as "delightful a vision as ever lighted
on this orb."
June 4. Saturday.--June 4, 1834, first came here (then
Lower Sandusky) with Uncle, Mother, and dear sister Fanny,
en route for New England to visit grandparents and other rela-
Agreed to be at Chautauqua to preside on Grangers' Day and
on G. A. R. Day, August 19 and 20.