MAY 1865

   CEDAR CREEK, November 1, 1864.--Saw the new moon

over my right shoulder.  Thar!  "Thinking of absent wife

and boys will blanch a faithful cheek." God bless the dear ones!

I never was so anxious to see them before. Another fine day;

cold nights.

  Wednesday, November 2.--Papers of 31st with much good

news; small victories in West Virginia, east Tennessee, and over

Price in Missouri. Early scolds his army.

                           CEDAR CREEK, November 2, 1864.

  DEAR UNCLE:--We are waiting for the fall rains and the

Presidential election before withdrawing for the season. A

drizzle today gives us hope that our work is almost over for this

year. I am more impatient than usual to see my family.

  The campaign, if it closes now, will remain a most satisfactory

one. I have only one drawback. I fear that Captain Hastings,

my adjutant-general, will die of the wound got at Winchester,

September 19. He is a man of the Rogers and Jesse Stem

stamp. I can't bear to lose him, but his chance is less from day

to day. -- My health is excellent as usual.





  MY DARLING: -- We get trains through from Martinsburg

regularly once in four days. We return them as often. I try to

write you by every regular train. We hope to get mails with

each train.


             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          533

  We have had most charming weather all the fall. Our camps

are healthful and pleasant, but we all are looking forward to the

"going into winter quarters" with impatience. We suppose a

week or two more here will finish the campaign. Then a week

or two of disagreeable marching and delays and then rest.

  My tent and "fixin's" are as cozy as practicable. If my darling

could share them with me, I could be quite content. I never was

so anxious to be with you. This has been one of the happy

periods with me. I have had only one shadow over me. You

know Captain Hastings was severely wounded at the battle of

Winchester, September 19. For three or four weeks he has

been in a most critical condition. I have had a feeling that he

would get well. I still hope, but all agree that his chance is very

slight. He may live a month or die at any time. He is the best

man whose friendship I have formed since the beginning of

the war.

  Doctor is well and has a great deal of enjoyment. We still

think we shall have no more heavy fighting this fall. General

Duffie was captured by Mosby! He was to marry Miss Jeffries

soon (the younger).



          CAMP CEDAR CREEK, VIRGINIA, November 4, 1864.

  MY DEAR SON:--This is your birthday--eleven years old

today--almost a man.  In less than eleven years more, every-

body will call you a man, you will have a man's work to do and

will be expected to know as much as men know. But you are

a good student and an industrious boy, and I have no fears of

your being an ignorant or a lazy man.

  I wish I could be with you today. I would buy you some-

thing that don't cost much, for I mustn't spend much now or

I shan't have anything left for that new little brother of yours.

Besides, I would tell you about the battles. Uncle Joe has all the

good stories now. He says up in Winchester the people work for

the soldiers to make a living--they wash and mend and bake.

The soldiers say they bake two kinds of pies, "pegged" and

"sewed"  The difference is the "pegged" have no sugar in them.


  One boy in the Twenty-third was shot in the face. The ball

entered near his nose and passed over or through the cheekbone

up towards the outer corner of his eye. The surgeon thought it

was a small bullet and fearing it would injure his eye to probe

for it, let it alone. He got along very well for three weeks,

when they cut it out near his temple. They were astonished to

find that it was an iron grape-shot over an inch in diameter -- as

large as one of your India-rubber balls! He is well and never

did suffer much!. . .

  There have been a good many changes in the Twenty-third and

the First Brigade since you saw them last at Loup Creek. Cap-

tain McKinley is on General Crook's staff. He has not been

wounded, but every one admires him as one of the bravest and

finest young officers in the army. He has had two or three horses

shot under him. General Crook said his mess was starving for

want of a good cook, so we let him have Frank. Frank is doing

well there.  Billy Crump has been so faithful that a short time

ago he was given a furlough, and is now with his wife.  He is

coming back soon. Lieutenant Mather is on my staff as provost

marshal.  He is the only one you are acquainted with.

  The band is full; all of them safe and well. I hear them now

playing for guard-mounting. We have many fine bands in this

army, but none better than ours.

  I have lost three horses killed or disabled since I saw you in

July. I am now riding a "calico" horse lent to me by Captain

Craig. My John horse is with me still, but he will never get fit

to use again.

  My orderly in the place of Carrington is Underhill of [the]

Twenty-third, an excellent young man; you would like him

better than Carrington.

  Did I write your mother that I found my opera-glass again?

It was lost at the battle of Fisher's Hill. I got it about three

weeks afterwards from a Thirty-fourth soldier who found it

near the first cannon we captured.

  It is getting very cold. We build a sort of fireplace in our

tents and manage to be pretty comfortable. You and Webb

would enjoy being in this camp. There is a great deal to see and

always something going on.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          535

  You must learn to write me letters now.  My love to all the

family, "Puds" and all.

                 Affectionately, your father,

                                              R. B. HAYES.


      Chillicothe, Ohio.

  Tuesday, November 8, -- Went with Generals Sheridan and

Crook and Colonel Forsythe to polls of [the] Thirty-fourth

Regiment. All vote for Lincoln. General Sheridan's "maiden

vote." All of this A. M. under arms.

  Wednesday, November 9.--Marched  eleven miles to camp

south of Kernstown.  Whole army glad to move towards winter

quarters.--Result of election in this division: Lincoln, 575;

McClellan, 98.

  Thursday, November 10. -- Rode to Winchester; saw Hast-

ings; he is better! Very great hopes of his recovery. Lincoln

probably gets all the States but three! Good. General Duval

returns improved from his wound.

  Friday, November 11. -- Clear and cold.  Skirmishing all P.

M. on our right. What does it mean?  We don't want to fight

any more battles this fall, but if we do we shall probably whip


  Saturday, November 12. -- November weather; like snow, only

it doesn't. Captain Blazer and his scouts make some captures;

a deserter from Sixth Corps was married in ten days after.

  Sunday, November 13. -- Windy and very cold. General

Powell on Front Royal road captures from McCausland two

guns, two colors, and two hundred prisoners! A fine affair.

Rode to the front. Rebels gone.


                             November 13, 1864.--Sunday.

  MY DARLING:--You see we have made one day's march to-

wards civilization, and, as we hope, towards our much wished for


winter quarters.  The weather has been and still is very favorable

for the season -- cold and windy to be sure, but very little rain.

We do not know how far north we shall go. No doubt as far as

some railroad and telegraphic communication.  We have halted

here for four days past, probably on account of reports that the

Rebel army, reinforced and reorganized, is following after us.

We do not know how it is, but if they wish to try conclusions

with us again, it is likely General Sheridan will meet them.

  My first brigade went to Martinsburg a week ago.  It was

hoped that they would not have to come back, but the probability

now is that they will return.  If so, I shall assume command of

them again.  General Duval has returned cured of his wound.

I could perhaps keep a division, but under the circumstances I

much prefer my old brigade. It has been greatly improved by

the addition of the Ninth Virginia Veterans, who now with the

Fifth form the First Virginia Veterans under Lieutenant-Colonel

Enochs -- a splendid regiment.

  We  are rejoiced that Captain Hastings is improving; he is

still low but decidedly improving.  His sister, whom you know,

and a brother are with him.

  Lincoln's election was so confidently expected that it does not

cause so much excitement as we sometimes see, but it gives great

satisfaction here.

  Generals Sheridan and Crook both voted for him. It was

General Sheridan's first vote!

  I have no decided feeling about the little soldier's name. But

I can't help thinking, suppose he should die after living long

enough to become very dear to all of you. Would it not be

awkward to think of the dear lost ones by the same name? And

is not the idea of death now associated with the nickname "Little

Jody"? But I am quite indifferent. Decide as you wish, or

leave it to be decided by the boys.

  Give my love to the kind friends.

  Captain Reed, who sent you the dispatch, is an officer on

Colonel Thoburn's staff -- who was thoughtful enough to con-

tradict the false report.*

                   Affectionately ever, your               R.

  * See "Life of Hayes," Vol. I, page 257.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          537

  P. S. -- Doctor and I rode to the front this P. M., a very cold,

windy, raw day.  From the best information I can get, nothing

but cavalry has been seen.  I think the Rebel army is not a-going

to disturb us again.  General Powell  took two guns, two flags,

and two hundred prisoners from General McCausland last night.

A very handsome affair. The Second Virginia Cavalry is getting

as good as any of them under General Powell.


  Monday, November 14.--Cold, windy day.  This morning the

First Brigade returned from Martinsburg. I assumed command

again and camped them pleasantly in a wood on the extreme left.

Slept cold.

  Tuesday, November 15. -- General Crook gone to Cumberland.

General Duval takes his place. I today return to Second Division.

Not so good quarters nor arrangements as at the brigade.

  Wednesday, November 16. -- A fine November day. Had my

tent floored, banked up, and a chimney. [The] Sixth and Nine-

teenth Corps building winter quarters.  P. M. rode to cavalry

camp on Front Royal Road.        Night, a wine-drinking.

  Thursday, November 17. -- Read speculations on Sherman's

new move.  Great hopes of his success.  Rode into Winchester

with Colonel Harris  and  Captain  McKinley; called at Mr.

Williams' law office; read the constitutional provisions as to


    CAMP NEAR WINCHESTER, VIRGINIA, November 17, 1864.

  DEAREST:--When  I wrote last I was in some doubt whether

this Valley campaign was ended or not. It seems to be now

settled. Early got a panic among his men and left our vicinity

for good, I think.

  The Sixth and Nineteenth Corps are building winter quarters.

A telegraph line is put up and the railroad from Winchester to

Harpers Ferry is nearly rebuilt. The location is a good one

for a large body of troops. We are very pleasantly camped, but


having no orders to put up winter quarters, have not fixed up

for winter.  We  are very comfortable, however.  My  tent is

floored, banked up, a good tent flue built, etc., etc. We get

daily papers now regularly.   The Baltimore American, a sound

Republican paper, sells several thousand copies,--more than all

other papers put together.     The  Philadelphia Inquirer, also

sound, sells next in number.  The New York Herald, sound on

the war in a sort of guerrilla style, sells one thousand to two

thousand copies. No other newspapers have any large circula-

tion, but the pictorials, Harper's Weekly having the preference,

sell immensely--nearly as many copies, I judge, as the Baltimore

American. The Christian Commission distributes a vast amount

of religious reading matter gratuitously. The sutlers sell dime

novels and the thunder-and-lightning style of literature, in large


  The Sixth and Nineteenth Corps have built fine fieldworks.

The weather has been good and a great many squads and regi-

ments are drilling. There are a score or two of bands. Possibly

two are better than ours -- not more than that. There is a good

deal of horse-racing with tolerably high betting. The scenes at

the races are very exciting. You would enjoy them. Nothing so

fine of the kind is anywhere to be sene in civil life. Here the

subordination of rank, the compulsory sobriety of the great

crowds, etc., rid these spectacles of such disagreeable accom-

paniments as rioting, drunkenness, and the like.--We are begin-

ning to have oyster and wine suppers and festive times generally.

   General Crook has gone to Cumberland, and it is thought that

my command will be ordered there for the winter, but this is all

guess.  I am again in command of the division after going back

to the brigade for one day. How we shall be organized ulti-

mately is not settled.  I prefer the brigade.  It now has three

fine veteran regiments and the Thirteenth. The First Virginia

Veterans (old Fifth and Ninth) is splendid.

   I mean to ask for a leave as soon as we get housed in our

winter quarters. I hope to see you by Christmas.

   Tell Birch I am greatly pleased to have a letter from him.  He

will soon be one of my chief correspondents. -- Love to all.

                    Affectionately ever, your               R.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          539

  P. S. -- Hastings is getting better slowly. There are now

hopes of his recovery. His sister is with him.


              CAMP RUSSELL, VIRGINIA, November 20, 1864.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I tonight received yours of the 14th. We

have had no battle for a month, and it is a week yesterday since

I heard Rebel firing! This is wonderful. It is more than six

months since I could say the same. We do not feel settled here,

but are getting very comfortable. It is probable that we shall

have a rest sometime this winter, but not yet certain. The Sixth

and Nineteenth Corps may be needed at Richmond or somewhere,

but I think the Army of West Virginia will do guard duty merely.

What an interest the country now feels in Sherman! It looks

as if he might strike some vital blows. If we get settled in time,

I mean to get home by Christmas, if it is possible.


                                              R. B. HAYES.

  November 23.--Awful weather. Linen tents, like a fiish

seine for shelter, mud bottomless, cold and cheerless. All that

yesterday and day before made many of us cross and gloomy --

not me -- but today is clear and bright and bracing. The turkeys,

etc., sent from the Christian land [have arrived] and everyone

is happy and jolly. This is camp life. We are sure we shall

make another move back in a few days.

  24th. -- Thanksgiving Day. Good winter weather and no news.


              CAMP RUSSELL, VIRGINIA, November 20, 1864.

  MY DARLING: -- You see the Army of the Shenandoah has a

name for its camp.  Named after the General Russell who was

killed at the battle of Winchester, September 19.

  We have had no battle for a month! No Rebel firing for a

week! Wonderful. But we don't feel settled yet. We are quite

comfortable, nevertheless. We are I think waiting to see the


issue of Sherman's daring campaign in Georgia. At present no

furloughs or leaves of absence are granted except for sickness.

  November 23. -- Colder than any huckleberry pudding I know

of! Whew, how it blew and friz last night! I took my clothes

off in Christian style last night. No enemy near for a week and

more makes this the correct thing. It got windy, flue disgusted

smoked, let the fire go out, then grew cold; put on pants, coat, and

vest, in bed. Cold again, put on overcoat and in bed again.

Colder than ever, built up the fire, [it] smoked. So I wanted to

be cold, and soon was. Tent-pins worked loose from the wind

flapping the fly; fixed them after much trouble; to bed again, and

wished I was with my wife in a house of some sort!

  Today the men were to have had overcoats, stockings, shirts,

etc., which they greatly need, but behold, we learn that the clothing

couldn't come because all the transportation was required to haul

up the turkeys and Thanksgiving dinner! We must wait until

next train, eight days! And we all laugh and are very jolly in

spite of it.

  8 P. M.--The clothing has come after all. The turkeys are

issued at the rate of a pound to a man. Very funny times we

are having! When the weather is bad as it was yesterday, every-

body, almost everybody,  feels cross and gloomy.       Our thin

linen tents--about like a fish seine, the deep mud, the irregular

mails, the never-to-be-seen paymasters, and "the rest of man-

kind," are growled about in "old-soldier" style. But a fine day

like today has turned out brightens and cheers us all. We people

in camp are merely big children, wayward and changeable.

  Believe me, dearest, your ever loving husband,



  Camp Russell, Monday, November 21, 1864. -- Cavalry camp

on our left broken up. Said to be gone to Stephenson's Depot,

five miles north of Winchester. Rode out to works on Front

Royal Road. Review of Sixth Corps in a cold rain-storm; eight

brigades -- ten thousand [men].

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          541

  Tuesday, 22.--Snow on the mountains low down; ground

frozen; "sky, chill and drear."  Rode with Roberts to Win-

chester and the battle-field, to where I crossed Red Bud Creek.

An ugly place to cross, it is.

  Saturday, 26. -- Rode with Generals Crook and Duval, Colonel

Harris, of [the] Tenth, and Wells, of [the] Fourteenth, to works.

A jolly wine-drinking in the evening with Captains Stanley and

Stearns, Thirty-sixth, who leave on resignation.

  Sunday, 27. --  A ride with Colonel Comly; a visit to General

Crook. A fine day; a brigade dress parade. All pleasant.

             CAMP RUSSELL, November 27, [1864].  Sunday.

  DEAR MOTHER:--We are not in winter quarters yet. The

continued presence of the Rebel army in our front, or Sherman's

campaign, or Grant's, or something else, keeps us in suspense.

But we are gradually improving our condition and quarters until

now we are pretty comfortable, and if we finally stay here for the

winter, I, for one, shall not grumble.

  We had a jovial Thanksgiving. A fair supply of turkeys and

other good things from the cities, together with good weather,

made the day cheerful.

  The railroad, it is supposed, will be finished to within four or

five miles of us this week.  We shall then have mails and supplies

with some regularity.

  I still hope to get settled in time to visit [home] during the

holidays.  My kind regards to Mrs. Wasson and Sophia.

                   Affectionately, your son,




                                         November 30, 1864.

  MY DEAR SON:--I received a letter from your mother today

in which she says that you are expecting a letter from me.

          I am very glad to hear that you are studying your


lessons very well. . . . What a funny name your mother

has for your brother "the Little Soldier." She thinks of calling

him after one of her ancestors, Captain Bilious Cook. I would

prefer George Crook to such a queer name as "Bilious."

  We are having pleasant weather, and drill the officers and men

every day. All the officers of the brigade were out today and

we began with the musket drill, shoulder arms, etc. You would

like to see our brigade have dress parade. The four regiments

are formed in one line -- the band and brigade flag in the middle.

It makes a fine display.

  December 2. -- You would have enjoyed being here yesterday.

It was a fine warm day and we moved camp. One division of

the Sixth Corps left to go south via Washington, perhaps to

Grant. We moved our camp about a mile over to their ground.

We are getting well fixed again. We hauled over our flooring

and bunks, and they left a great deal of material, so we rather

made by the change.

  Your little letter pleased me very much. If you study hard

you will soon be able to write a good long one. Give my love

to Grandma, "the Little Soldier," and all the rest of your friends.

If I don't get home by New Year's, you must write me about

the holidays. -- Good-bye.

                     Your affectionate father,

                                              R. B. HAYES.



  Thursday, December 1, 1864.--An Indian-summer-like day.

[The] First Division, Sixth Corps, go back--where? We

change camp to their place -- a pleasant enough change -- west

side of Valley Pike one and one-half miles south of Kernstown.

  Friday, 2. -- Another good day. All thought is of Sherman and

Hood's army.  Hopeful.  Busy fixing new camp for cold and

wet weather.

  Saturday, 3. -- Still fair weather. [The] Third Division, Sixth

Corps, leave us. Rode around our works. Too numerous for

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          543

our force.  Too extensive for less than forty thousand infantry

or more. A battle at Franklin. Reports look well.

  Sunday, 4. -- A fine day.  All talk is of Sherman and Georgia

or Hood and Tennessee. This week is likely to inform us of their

movements and so determine our own. Will Early on hearing

that the Sixth Corps has left visit us?

  Tuesday, 6. -- Good weather. The battle at Franklin, Tennes-

see, was a fortunate escape from a disastrous defeat.  It was

probably also a damaging blow, perhaps severely so. Nashville

can probably hold out. The situation there is interesting with a

favorable look for us.

                           CAMP RUSSELL, December 6, 1864.

  MY DARLING:--We  are very comfortable and very jolly.

No army could be more so. We have had no orders to build

winter quarters, but we have got ready for rough weather, and

can now worry through it.

  We have horse-races, music, church (sic!), and all the attrac-

tions. No fighting, which makes me hope I shall get off the last

of this month to see my darling and the dear ones.





                                           December 6, 1864.

  DEAR MOTHER:--I received your cheerful letter on Sunday.

It finds us in the best of spirits and so comfortably camped that

we all would be glad to know that our winter quarters would be

at this camp. We have the railroad finished to within eight

miles; daily mails and telegraphic communication with the world.

The men have built huts four feet high, eight or nine feet square,

of logs, puncheons, and the like, banked up with earth and covered

with their shelter blankets. My quarters are built of slabs and

a wall tent. Tight and warm. We are in woods on a rolling

piece of ground. It will be muddy but we are building walks

of stone, logs, etc., so we can keep out of the dirt.--I have a


mantel-piece, a table, one chair, one stool, an ammunition box,

a trunk, and a bunk for furniture.

  We  get Harper's Monthly and Weekly, the Atlantic, daily

papers from Baltimore, New York, and Philadelphia. The Chris-

tian Commission send a great many religious books. I selected

"Pilgrim's Progress" from a large lot offered me to choose from

a few days ago.

  Our living is, ordinarily, bread (baker's bread) and beef, and

coffee and milk (we keep a few cows), or pork and beans and

coffee. Occasionally we have oysters, lobsters, fish, canned fruits,

and vegetables. The use of liquor is probably less than among

the same class of people at home. All kinds of liquor can be

got, but it is expensive and attended with some difficulty.

  The chaplains now hold frequent religious meetings. Music

we have more of and better than can be had anywhere except in

the large cities.  We have very fine horse-racing, much better

managed than can be found anywhere out of the army. A num-

ber of ladies can be seen about the camps -- officers' wives, sis-

ters, daughters, and the Union young ladies of Winchester.

General Sheridan is particularly attentive to one of the latter.

General Crook is a single man--fond of ladies, but very diffident.

General Custer has a beautiful young wife, who is here with him.

  I have just seen a case of wonderful recovery -- such cases

are common, but none more singular than this. Captain Williams

of my command was shot by a Minie ball on the 24th of July in

the center of the back of his neck, which passed out of the cen-

ter of his chin, carrying away and shattering his jaw in front.

He is now perfectly stout and sound (his voice good) and not

disfigured at all. But he can chew nothing, eats only spoon


  Dr. Webb is a great favorite. The most efficient surgeon on

the battle-field in this army. He is complimented very highly in

General Crook's official report. He hates camp life, especially

in bad weather, when he suffers from a throat disease.

  My love to the household.

                   Affectionately, your son,


             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          545

   Wednesday, December 7, 1864. -- Fine weather.  We still in-

quire as to Early's position, not feeling sure but that he will visit

us. Sherman is reported to have taken Millen. If so he is safe;

quite sure to reach the sea.

  Thursday, 8. -- Windy and very cold, but dry.  Rode with Dr.

Joe around the works on our left. Bitterly cold. Some things

look as if we were to move up the Valley to stop Early from

going to Richmond, so as to give Grant a fair field.

  Friday, 9. -- Cold and raw all day. First snow fell this eve-

ning. General Crook gave me a pair of his brigadier-general

shoulder-straps this afternoon. A rank cheapened by poor ap-

pointments.  I feel it an honor, conferred as it is at the close of

a bloody campaign on the recommendation of General Crook ap-

proved by General Sheridan.

    CAMP RUSSELL, VIRGINIA, December 9 (Evening), 1864.

  MY DARLING: -- We have had two winter days. It has been

snowing for the last hour or two. We feel that this ends our

campaigning for this year. The last of the Sixth Corps left this

morning.  One "grapevine" (our word for camp rumor) says

they have gone to Kentucky or Tennessee by way of the Ohio

River, and another that they passed through Washington on the

way to Grant. I conjecture the last is the truth.

  General Crook gave me a very agreeable present this afternoon

--a pair of his old brigadier-general straps. The stars are some-

what dimmed with hard service, but will correspond pretty well

with my rusty old blouse. Of course I am very much gratified

by the promotion. I know perfectly well that the rank has been

conferred on all sorts of small people and so cheapened shame-

fully, but I can't help feeling that getting it at the close of a most

bloody campaign on the recommendation of fighting generals like

Crook and Sheridan is a different thing from the same rank con-

ferred -- well, as it has been in some instances.

  Dr. Joe is busy court-martialling one of his brethren, who as

medical chief of our hospitals at Winchester turned into private



profit the medicines, stimulants, chickens, eggs, etc., which had

been provided for our wounded.

  We hope to get home together the last of this month or early

next, but no one can yet tell what is to be our fate. We are

waiting on Sherman and the weather. -- My love to all.

                    Affectionately ever, your


  P.S. -- I am ever so glad that Governor Chase is Chief Justice.

I had given up all hope of his appointment.

  I sent to Gallipolis directing my trunk or valise to be expressed

to Chillicothe care of William McKell. If he is put to expense,

as he will be, perhaps, have it paid. Get into it -- my duds may

need airing.--I shall want two or three pairs knit woollen socks.


  Saturday, December 10, 1864.--A cold day; deep snow (eight

inches) on the ground. [I] am the centre of congratulations [on

promotion to generalship] in the camp. General Duval and staff,

Colonel Comly, etc., drink poor whiskey with me! A rational

way of doing the joyful, but all we have!

  Sunday 11. -- Snow still on the ground. Wind high and very

cold. Men must suffer on picket. Three deserters came in from

Early. Early going to Staunton -- perhaps to Richmond. Sher-

man and Hood "as they were." Am getting anxious about


  Monday, 12.--A bright, cold day, less wind. Miss Hastings

and Miss Defendrefer came out with Captain Hastings' nurse

(Miss Wilber) in a sleigh. Their first visit to a winter camp.

I give them wine and warm up. A pleasant call, the first from


              CAMP RUSSELL, VIRGINIA, December 12, 1864.

  DEAR UNCLE:--The snow is at least eight inches deep.  A

fierce northwester has been blowing for the last fifteen hours and

the cold is intense. I fear that men on the picket line will perish

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          547

of cold. We probably notice severe weather more when living

as we are in rather poor tents, but I certainly have seen nothing

worse than this even on the shore of the lake.

  The campaign in the Valley has closed. The Rebel infantry

has all been withdrawn. Our own is leaving rapidly. It goes to

Grant. The destination of Crook's command is not yet known.

It probably waits news from Sherman.

  I shall ask for a leave of absence as soon as we get orders

to go into winter quarters, which may come any day.

  I have been promoted to brigadier-general. The honor is no

great things, it having been conferred, particularly at the first

part of the war, on all sorts of men for all sorts of reasons; but

I am a good deal gratified, nevertheless. It is made on the recom-

mendation of General Crook, approved by Sheridan. This at the

close of such a bloody campaign is something; besides, I am

pleased that it seems so well received by officers and men of

the command. It has not yet been officially announced, and will

not be for perhaps a week or so.

  I am very glad Governor Chase is Chief Justice. I had al-

most given up his appointment. I received letters from Swayne's

friends urging me to write in his behalf. I heard nothing of the

kind from the friends of Governor Chase. I suppose they felt

safe. I replied to Perry and others that I was for Governor


  It seems I have a place at West Point at my disposal. It is

quite encouraging to know that my district abounds in young

Napoleons. I hear of a new one almost every mail. The claim

of one is based largely on the fact that he has two brothers in

the service. I happen to know that they (both officers) have

been so successful in finding soft places in the rear that neither

of them after more than three years' service, has ever been in a


  I begin to feel very anxious about Sherman. His failure

would be a great calamity in itself. Besides, it would bring into

favor the old-fogy, anaconda style of warfare.  Boldness and

enterprise would be at a discount. If he has made a mistake,

it is in not moving with more celerity.


  We ought to have another draft without delay -- or rather an-

other call for troops, to be followed by a draft if volunteering

failed to produce the required number within a reasonable period.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


  Tuesday, December 13, 1864. --  Snow still on the ground; very

cold. Sleigh-ride with Captain McKinley to Winchester Depot.

Run against hay team. Hastings improving decidedly. News

from Sherman encouraging but meagre. Hood as he was, before

Nashville. Early gone.

  Wednesday, 14. -- Snow going off rapidly; sun shining at

intervals. In quarters almost all day. News from Sherman

favorable. He is near Savannah and can probably avoid a fight

and go to the sea if he wishes to do so. Nothing new from


  Thursday, 15. -- Cold, a little sleet.  This evening we get the

first message from  Sherman's army.  "So far all well,"  says

General Howard from camp five miles from Savannah. Rebel

news is that a battle for the possession of Savannah was raging

on the 12th.  God protect the right!

  Friday, 16. -- A thawing, raw day; no rain. General Thomas

attacks Hood's left with good results. We hope for a complete

victory.  Nothing  new  from  Sherman. . . .  Fifty  guns


  Saturday,  17. -- An  inspection  of  First  Brigade.     [The]

Twenty-third looked well, but alas! very few of the old men.

I shed tears as I left the line. It never looked better. Abbott,

wounded at Cloyd's Mountain and a prisoner for months, joined

us today. General Thomas completed his victory at Nashville.

One hundred guns fired here. General Crook fears that one

division will go to Grant.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          549

                         CAMP RUSSELL, December 17, 1864.

  MY  DARLING:--No  certainty about things yet.  We  fired

fifty guns yesterday and one hundred more today over General

Thomas' great victories. How happy our men are. We had an

inspection today of the brigade. The Twenty-third was pro-

nounced the crack regiment in appearance, etc. It looks very

finely--as large as you used to see it at Camp White, but so

changed in officers and men. A great many new ones at Camp

White; then three hundred of the Twelfth in July; and three

hundred conscripts, volunteers, and substitutes since. I could

see only six to ten in a company of the old men. They all smiled

as I rode by. But as I passed away I couldn't help dropping a

few natural tears.  I felt as I did when I saw them mustered in

at Camp Chase.

  Captain Abbott joined us today -- a prisoner since Cloyd's

Mountain. He is very happy to be back. He looks in good

health, his arm not perfectly well.

  Lieutenant McBride, the brave fellow who took Lieutenant-

Colonel Edgar and forty-two others at Winchester, is here again.

Sweet and Snyder are back. Hastings is in capital spirits; says

he will be well long before next spring campaign. Heiliger

writes me that he wants to get a commission in Hancock's


  The band is playing its finest tonight. It contains all the old

members and some good additions.

  I have written the boys. I asked them how they would like to

call the little soldier George Crook; they don't reply.--Love

to all.

                     Affectionately ever,



               CAMP RUSSELL, VIRGINIA, December 18, 1864.

                           Sunday morning before breakfast.

  DEAR MOTHER:--We have as yet received no orders as to

winter quarters. I begin to suspect I shall not get home during

the holidays.


  We are feeling very happy over the good news from the other

armies. Salutes were fired yesterday and the day before in all

our camps in honor of General Thomas' victory at Nashville.

  We are living on the fat of the land now. The sutlers are

now again allowed to come to the front and they bring all manner

of eatables, wholesome and otherwise, but chiefly otherwise.

  I wish you could visit our camps. I know what you would

exclaim on coming into my quarters, "Why, Rutherford, how

comfortably you are fixed. I should like to live with you my-

self." I am getting books and reading matter of all sorts against

rainy weather. Unless the weather is atrocious, I take a ride

daily of a couple of hours or more.  We yesterday had an in-

spection of my brigade. The Twenty-third was in the best

condition.  Notwithstanding our heavy losses, we have managed

to get so many new men during the summer that the regiment

is about as large as it was in the spring. It is larger than it was

at this time last year.

  A large number of men and officers who fell into Rebel hands,

wounded, are now coming back, having been exchanged. They

are all happy to be back and full of determination to fight it out.

  I have been made a brigadier-general, but it is not yet officially

announced. It was on the recommendation of Generals Crook

and Sheridan.

                   Affectionately, your son,




                                        December 20, 1864.

  DEAR UNCLE: -- We broke camp at Camp Russell yesterday

at early daylight and marched to this place on the railroad from

Harpers Ferry towards Winchester. It rained, snowed, "blew,

and friz" again. Awful mud to march in and still worse to

camp in. But today it is cold and none of us got sick, so far as

I know. Our First Division took cars to join Grant. It is said

we shall follow in a day or two. This is not certain, but I shall

not be surprised if it is true. I prefer not to go, and yet one

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          551

feels that it is almost necessary to be present at the taking of

Richmond. I am content, however, to go. I believe in pushing

the enemy all winter if possible. Now that we have a decided

advantage is the time to crowd them. Things look as if that

were to be the policy.

  I like the new call for troops. What good fortune we are

having. If Sherman takes Savannah and then moves north, this

winter will be the severest by far that our Rebel friends have had.

  I received today your letter of the 14th enclosing Uncle

Austin's about the sad fate of Sardis. I will do what I can to

get further information, but we are no longer with the Nineteenth

Corps and may not again see them.

  I am sorry to hear you have a severe cold. I am getting more

nervous when I hear of your taking cold. Don't try to visit

Lucy or anybody else in the winter.

  I am afraid I shall not get to visit you this winter.


                                                R. B. HAYES.

  P. S.--There is a short but tolerably fair account of the

battle of Winchester in Harper's Monthly of January. It is

written by somebody in the Nineteenth Corps. You will hardly

read it with such emotion as I do. The writer calls our force

"the Eighth Corps."  When  you read on the 199th page his

account of our battle-yell as we advanced, and of the Rebel

musketry which met it, you will remember that I led the advance

brigade of the advance division, and that perhaps the happiest

moment of my life was then, when I saw that our line didn't

break and that the enemy's did.

  23d. -- It is pretty certain [that] we do not go to Grant; prob-

ably in a week or two to Cumberland or West Virginia.


  Thursday, December 22, 1864. -- Last night the worst of my

experience. A new camp; slight shelter; very cold; tent smoky.

In all respects we are badly fixed. Issue a ration of whiskey

to all.


  Friday, 23.--A clear, cold, fine winter day. Began to move

into a house; changed back. Visited Mr. Joseph Jolliffe, the only

man who voted for Lincoln in 1860! A brother of Mr. Jolliffe

of Cincinnati. Read with great pleasure the story of Thomas'

victories and Sherman's great march.

  Saturday, 24.--A fine day; a pleasant chatty Christmas eve

with the gentlemen of my staff in the hospital tent of the ad-

jutant: viz., Captain Nye (R. L.), Captain Delay, Lieutenants

Turner and Stanley -- all of Thirty-sixth 0. V. I. and good men.

  Sunday, 25.--A  pleasant and "merry Christmas."  A  good

dinner. Captain Nye, Lieutenants Turner and Stanley, Dr.

Webb, Majors Carey, Twenty-third, and McKown, Thirteenth.

Wine, oysters, turkey, etc., etc. Read through [General Win-

field] Scott's "Autobiography." Weak and vain beyond compare.

  Monday, 26.--A dull, foggy day; snow thawing rapidly.

Savannah captured by Sherman on the 21st, Hardee making a

hasty retreat across the river to South Carolina.  Some im-

portant captures. Salute of one hundred guns fired. We expect

to go to New Creek soon.

  Tuesday, 27. -- A bright, warm day; snow turns to water and

mud; mud everywhere! Rode into Winchester with Captain

Abbott and Dr. Joe. Hastings in good plight and heart, but

improving so slowly. General Crook says he has written for

my missing appointment as brigadier-general. No increase of pay

till it comes. No news today.

  Wednesday, 28. -- Thawing and muddy.  General Crook and

staff go by railroad to Cumberland. We hope to follow soon.

Rain this eve. Attack on Fort Fisher by Porter, etc.; no results

as yet. We hope Wilmington will be closed--but?

  Friday, 30. -- A cold morning, but ground thaws during day.

March seventeen miles to Martinsburg. Men in fine spirits.

Camp in the snow!

  Saturday, 31. -- Staid at Mr. Allen's, Martinsburg, last night.

At 9 or 10 A. M., [the] Thirty-sixth and Thirteenth by cars to

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          553

Cumberland. With staff at 3 P. M. to Cumberland. Supper and

good time at Cumberland. Winter quarters here.

                  CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, January 1, 1865.

  DEAREST:--We  reached here last night.  We  shall build

winter quarters and soon settle down. I shall apply for a leave

of absence as soon as we are all fixed, and then to see the

dear ones!

  On the 30th we were marching from Stephenson's Depot to

Martinsburg.   I often thought of the twelve-years-ago day

[wedding-day], and of the happiness my darling has been to me

since. I do hope I shall see you soon. -- Love to all.

                     Affectionately, your

  MRS. HAYES.                                             R.

  Revere House, Cumberland, Maryland, Monday, January 2,

1865. -- A fine day. Rode to camp, out one mile north of rail-

road, east of town. Men all busy getting up huts. Scenery,

mountains, etc., around the "Mountain City" very pretty.

  Eagle adopted as our badge. Red Eagle for my division.

Army of West Virginia in three divisions; General Duval, the

First; Kelley, Second; Stephenson, Third. I have First Brigade,

First Division.

  Tuesday, 3.-- Bright day.  Walked up Wills Creek to the

Narrows.   Received appointment  as brigadier-general, dated

November 30, to rank from October 19, "for gallantry and

meritorious servies in the battles of Opequon, Fisher's Hill, and

Middletown." Put on shoulder-straps worn by General Crook in

Tennessee.   Changed  quarters  from  Revere  House  to St.


  Thursday, 5. -- Fine winter day. All goes well at camp. Shall

call it Camp Hastings. Eve with Generals Crook [and] Duval

and doctors at Mr. Thurston's. The old gentleman a fine staunch

Unionist. Miss Tidball, a cousin of doctor's sang Secesh songs.

Pretty girl.


                 CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, January 5, 1865.

  DEAREST:--I am just in receipt of yours of the 21st.  It has

probably been on the hunt of me a week or more.

  I am very glad you are pleased to call the little soldier George

Crook. I think it is a pretty name, aside from the agreeable


  We are most pleasantly located here. In the midst of fine

mountain scenes, plenty of wood and water, and no duty for the

men. They are already in their new huts and are very jolly

over it.

  The publication of my appointment has been made. I have

not yet got the original document. It was missent to New York

City and will go from there to Chillicothe. If it gets there before

I do you will open it. It gives as the reason of the appointment,

gallantry and good conduct in the late battles in the Shenandoah

Valley and dates from the Battle of Cedar Creek, October 19,

1864. Aside from the vanity which goes always with brass but-

tons, I have other reasons for wanting the grounds of the ap-

pointment published. No flourish of trumpets, no comment, but

simply, "Colonel R. B. Hayes, Twenty-third Regiment O. V. I.,

has been apopinted brigadier-general" for (here quote the exact

words of the appointment). Show this to Uncle Scott and re-

quest him to have the paragraph published in the Chillicothe

paper when the letter of appointment gets there. I may be there

first, but it is still doubtful.

  The  doctor is very happy--young ladies, a pretty town,

parties, balls, etc.

  I hope to get home within a fortnight. -- Love to all.

                      Affectionately, ever,



                 CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, January 6, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--We are getting into very pleasant quarters.

The town is a fine one, plenty of parties, balls, etc., etc., for the

beaux -- fine mountain scenery -- good water and wood con-


             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          555

  There are still odds and ends of business to be finished, and

then no reason that I can see why I should not go home. I ex-

pect quite confidently to be at home within two weeks. . . .

  The reason for my promotion, etc., has been officially an-

nounced "for gallantry and meritorious services in the Battles of

Opequon, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek" and dates from the

Battle of Cedar Creek, October 19. All very satisfactory.


                                                R. B. HAYES.



                                             January 8, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I am now in our winter camp. All things

seem to be about as they should be. My leave of absence for

twenty days has been granted, and I shall start home in two or

three days. I shall probably not be able to stay with you more

than one day. I can't yet tell, but I suppose about the 25th I shall

get around to Fremont. I hope to reach Chillicothe on the 12th.

Yours of the first I got last night. I will stay with Mother one

or two days at Delaware.


                                                R. B. HAYES.

  P. S. -- My adjutant, Captain Hastings, is getting well.  He is

at Winchester and can't yet be moved from his bed. He will be

major of [the] Twenty-third and in two or three months can

probably ride. I have named my camp after him.


  Monday, January 9. -- Spent the day getting ready to visit

home, signing approval of applications for furloughs and leaves,

and reading Heine. His wit not translatable; ratherish vulgar

and very blasphemous.

  [Tuesday evening, January 10, Hayes started for Ohio by

railway. He reached the Ohio River the next day at Benwood


and there took a steamer, filled with "oil or petroleum specu-

lators," for Parkersburg. He arrived at Chillicothe January

12, where he found Mrs. Hayes afflicted with rheumatism. A

month was spent in Ohio with wife and children at Chillicothe

and in visits to relatives and friends at Columbus, Delaware,

Fremont, and Cincinnati. He was back at Cumberland, Thurs-

day, February 9.]

          CHILLICOTHE, Sunday morning, January 22, 1865.

  DEAR  MOTHER:--We  returned  here yesterday afternoon.

. . .I read your journal of the family and your early

times in Ohio to Uncle Sardis.  It was very interesting.  It re-

minded him of many things which he had entirely forgotten.  I

am very glad you wrote it. I shall always preserve and prize it.

I do not wish to impose any labor on you, but it would gratify

me very much if you would occasionally put down in the same

way anything you happen to think of.

  Aunt McKell's oldest son (a captain) returned from Sher-

man since I was here. He is out of service. His time was out

three months ago, but he remained to go through the Georgia


  One of our officers from Cumberland tells me he thinks we

shall see very little more hard service during the war. -- Love

to all.

                   Affectionately, your son,



                      CHILLICOTHE, OHIO, February 1, 1865.

  DEAR HASTINGS: -- I returned here from Cincinnati last night

and find your letter of the 23d ult. I am surprised and very glad

to hear of your arrival home. If the journey has not hurt you

it is a capital thing. I shall return to Cumberland in a few days

via Columbus. . . .

  You will of course be promoted. If the governor should re-

main fixed in his feelings against [Major Edward M.] Carey,

you will be lieutenant-colonel. I hear it said that you would

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          557

not accept. I can't suppose this is so. It surely ought not to be.

I shall ask Governor Brough to promote Carey. If he will not

do it, there is no propriety in your declining the promotion.

  My wife joins in regards to your sister and yourself.


                                                R. B. HAYES.


       Willoughby, Ohio.

                 CAMP HASTINGS, Sunday, February 12, 1865.

  DEAREST:--We reached here after a pleasant journey Thurs-

day evening on time.  No important changes here.  The remnant

of the unlucky Thirty-fourth is now in my camp to be consolidat-

ed with the Thirty-sixth. General Duval is quite unwell, and will

go to Cincinnati to be treated for troubles affecting his hearing.

General Crook has had a ball. I send you a ticket. He inquired

after you all, particularly Webb and George. He is in fine

health and spirits. He has become a convert to negro soldiers --

thinks them better than a great part of the sort we are now

getting. . . .

  It is cold, windy, and snowy. My tent groans, squeaks, and

flaps. The sleeping is not so comfortable as in a house these

days, but is more refreshing and invigorating. The Shenandoah

army is all gone. Part of Nineteenth Corps is at Savannah; the

Sixth at Richmond and the most of ours. I had a brigade drill

yesterday. The regiments are full, and in fine condition. The

First Veterans [Twenty-third Regiment] are rather the crack

men in appearance. Major Carey has resigned.

  Mrs. Comly is here, that is, in town. I have not yet seen her.

The cars upset with her near Newark, but she kept on this way

instead of going back home. Good stuff. -- Love to all.

                      Affectionately ever,



  Shriver Mansion, Cumberland, Tuesday, January 14.--Took

command of First Division today. General Duval gone to Cin-


cinnati for treatment of his hearing. Came down in a sleigh;

sleighing almost all winter.

                     Wednesday P. M., February 15, [1865].

  DEAREST:--You notice the last sentence.* Is it prudent or

possible even for you to drop little George for a fortnight?  I

have of course no fears about the boy.  His grandmother seems

to have the full charge of him, but will it do for you?  If so, you

come to see your husband at Cumberland. Washington is not to

be named. We are such little people that we can go "strictly

incog." Bring on two hundred to three hundred dollars -- no

care about dress--and we can manage it.

  Write soon so I can get the leave if you say so. -- Love to all.

                      Affectionately ever,



                CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, February 15, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER: -- We are jogging along in the usual style of

a winter camp. The thing about us which you would think most

interesting is the doings of our chaplain.  We have a good one.

He is an eccentric, singular man -- a good musician -- very fond

of amusement and as busy as a bee. He is a son of a well-known

Presbyterian minister of Granville, Mr. Little. Since I left he

has had built a large log chapel, covered with tent cloth. In this

he has schools, in which he teaches the three R's, and music, and

has also preaching and prayer-meetings and Sunday-school. The

attendance is large. The number of young men and boys from

the mountains of West Virginia, where schools are scarce, in my

command makes this a useful thing. He has also got up a revival

which is interesting a good many.

  * This refers to the last sentence of a letter to Hayes from his friend

Judge William Johnston, written from Washington, on the blank page of

which Hayes was writing. The sentence read: "Say whether you will

be here at the inauguration. I have sent home for my family to be here.

It will be the greatest demonstration the world ever saw, and I think

both you and Mrs. Hayes ought to be here."

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          559

  Since my return itinerant preachers of the Christian Commis-

sion have held two or three meetings in our chapel.

                  Affectionately, your son,



               CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, February 17, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I send for safe keeping my original appoint-

ment as brigadier-general. It was confirmed by the Senate a

few days ago.

  No movements here. It seems to be the expectation that Lee

will attempt something desperate to get out of the net forming

around him.  We are having a gay time.  Balls, etc., of the

fastest sort are common.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


                CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, February 19, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--Yours of [the] 17th received today.  I will

send you five hundred dollars by express tomorrow. It is in

interest-bearing notes. -Are they worth any more to you than

other funds? We are paid a good deal of it.

  A cripple of my regiment from Fremont goes home in [a]

day or two.  I think he is a first-rate man--Lejune.  [He]

captured twenty-five Rebels at South Mountain. He was badly

wounded at Antietam, and got well just in time to get awfully

hurt at Cloyd's Mountain.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


  Shriver Mansion, January 21. -- At 3:30 A. M. Captain Mc-

Neal and fifty or so of his band kidnapped Generals Kelley and

Crook from their hotel on Baltimore Street. Daring and well

executed. They inquired for me but on learning that I quartered

in camp did not look further.


                           CUMBERLAND, February 21, 1865.

  DEAR LUCY:--You will be sorry to hear that the Rebels got

General Crook this morning. A party of perhaps fifty or so

dashed into town in the night, went direct to the hotels where

General Crook (the Revere) and General Kelley (the St.

Nicholas) quartered, took them prisoners and hurried off. All

possible pains to recapture them have been taken, but I have no

confidence of success. No special blame will attach to anyone,

I suppose. General Kelley commanded the post and had such

guards posted as he deemed necessary--the same I suppose he

has had for the last year or more. The picket post was not

blamable, I think,--at least not flagrantly so. It is a very

mortifying thing to all of us. I have been in the habit of stay-

ing at my camp out a mile or so, and so was not looked for. The

fact was, I had received an order to get quarters in town and

was in town that night at General Duval's headquarters. But he,

having left as everybody knew a week before, his quarters were

not searched. A narrow chance for me. The only other officer

taken was Captain Melvin, adjutant-general of General Kelley.

The only possible danger to General Crook is the chance of his

attempting to escape and failing. -- Love to all.

                      Affectionately ever


  Shriver Mansion, Wednesday, January 22.--Sherman took

Columbia Friday, the 18th. Rebels evacuated Charleston Tues-

day, 15th. Today at noon national salute here and everywhere

 because "the old flag floats again over Sumter."

      CAMP HASTINGS, NEAR CUMBERLAND, February 22, 1865.

   DEAR MOTHER:--I suppose you have heard of the kidnapping

of  General Crook  and  General  Kelley. . . .   The  ex-

 change of prisoners is now so prompt that the matter is not

 regarded as a very serious calamity. General Crook's reputa-

tion is so good that it will not affect him much. Besides, such


             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          561

bold attempts may be successful in any town where a general

is likely to have his quarters.

  The success of Sherman's splendid operations give[s] us all

reason to hope that we are getting near the end of the Rebellion.

As long as Lee's fine army remains, there is, of course, a chance

that he may succeed in doing something that will postpone the

final blow. But no defeat or disaster now could long delay our

triumph. . . . .  Love to all.

                    Affectionately, your son,



                CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, February 23, 1865.

  MY  DEAREST:--. . .  As  to the visit to  Washington,

the capture of General Crook may change my chance of getting

permission to go there. The expense is of no importance, if it is

prudent in view of the state of your health. I think I can get

permission to go, but it is more questionable than it was. You

should start so as to reach here by the 28th (or first of March).

Stop, if you are not met by me or Dr. Joe, at the St. Nicholas,

Cumberland. Telegraph me once when you start, and again

when you are on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Captain

McKinley, Major Kennedy, and many other of your friends are at

the St. Nicholas, if I happen not to be there.

  General Crook is of course in Libby by this time. If he can be

exchanged soon, it will not, I think, injure him. His reputation

is of the solid sort. He is spoken of by officers and men always

in the right spirit.

  General Kelley had command of the town and of all the troops

on picket. I do not hear him censured in regard to it. He should

have had cavalry here, but I suppose it is not his fault that there

was none. The truth is that all but "a feeble few" are taken

to the coast from Savannah to Richmond, leaving these posts

to take their chances. I think it is wise policy, but at the same

time we are exposed to surprise and capture at any time.

  You need not be surprised to hear that the enemy are across

the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at any time. I have great faith


in my troops, my vigilance, and my luck, but I shall be much mis-

taken if the Rebels don't overwhelm a number of our posts dur-

ing the next six weeks or two months. Nothing but their ex-

treme weakness will prevent it.

  How gloriously things are moving! Columbia, Charleston,

Sumter! Lee must act speedily. I should think he would

gather up all the scattered forces and attack either Grant or

Sherman before Sherman gets within supporting distance of

Grant. But it is all guess. The next two months will be more

and more interesting with the hopes, at least, in our favor largely.

If Lee evacuates Richmond and moves towards Lynchburg or

Danville or North (?) it merely prolongs the struggle. The

evacuation of Richmond is a confession of defeat.

  General Stephenson temporarily commands the Department.

Well enough. If Lee leaves Richmond I shall then feel like re-

signing the moment things don't suit me. The war will be sub-

stantially over and I can honorably quit.--Love to all.

                     Affectionately ever


  P. S.--The Rebels inquired for me, but were informed that

I quartered with my troops. If it could be without stain I would

rather like now to be captured. It would be a good experience.


                  CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, March 2, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE: -- It is a rainy, dismal day. General Hancock

is in command of this Department. Sheridan has collected all

his cavalry, and it is on a big raid to cut and slash the railroads

west of Richmond, or to capture Gordonsville, or something of

the sort. I doubt whether we see any more battles. I shall con-

sider myself discharged as soon as my four years are up and

Richmond taken.  I shall be surprised if the latter does not

occur first.

  Great preparations are making  for the inauguration.       If

nothing disastrous happens to our armies, it will be the greatest

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          563

thing of the sort that ever has been witnessed in the country.

Write often.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


                  CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, March 2, 1865.

  DEAR HASTINGS:--Glad to get yours of the 27th and to find

you are sound on the question of promotion. There is some

danger that your absence over sixty days may in the War Office

induce your discharge, but the chances are that it will not be

known. I want you to get the new title at least. The commander

of a scow on the canal is called captain, but colonel is the best

sounding title I know of.

  Yes, General Crook's capture is a great loss, as well as an

especial calamity to all serving in this command. General Han-

cock takes the Department of West Virginia and General (brevet

major) Carroll formerly of the Eighth Ohio, the District of


  General Sheridan, with an immense force of cavalry, is on a

raid towards Gordonsville or Charlottesville, or somewhere--

probably to distract the attention of Lee. We are all in suspense

as to Sherman and Grant. I look forward to the capture of

Richmond as my discharge from service. . . .

  A great many staff officers are in a state of mind about these

days; also divers brigadier-generals "of whom I am not which."

Webster is often quoted--"Where am I to go?"--in a very

despondent way. General Lightburn, Colonel Comly, and Cap-

tain Sweet are running an examining board as usual, much to the

disgust of the Thirteenth. Mrs. Comly is here with a fine boy.

The colonel makes a pretty fair "nuss."--My regards to your



                                              R. B. HAYES.


      Willoughby, Ohio.



                     DEPARTMENT OF WEST VIRGINIA,


  DEAR SIR: -- I am just in receipt of yours of the 25th. As to

going to Washington, if it is so important to our friend's suc-

cess, I must strain a point to get there.

  The kidnapping of our two generals and the state of things

growing out of Sheridan's absence with all the mounted men of

this region makes it imperative that I should for the present

stay where I am. A few weeks will probably change all this --

possibly a few days. Who am I to look to for the truth when I

get to Washington? I think you told me that Barrett was both

friendly and well informed in these matters. I have written to

him today on this supposition.

  Write to me frequently and fully and oblige.

                          Sincerely,           R. B. HAYES.



           Columbus, Ohio.

                   CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, March 5, 1865.

  DEAREST:--General Sheridan has got together all the four-

footed beasts of this region and mounted his last trooper. They

are gone to try to destroy railroads and stores if possible all the

way to Lynchburg. We are thinking of nothing else just now.

The only danger is the mud and high waters from the rains and

melting snows. He is reported to have had a good little success

at Woodstock, taking four guns and four hundred prisoners.

  A few weeks will probably produce great changes in the situa-

tion. Even a considerable disaster to our arms now will hardly

enable the Rebels to hold Richmond much longer.

  Judge Johnston was here yesterday morning. He did not take

his family to the inauguration. As things now are, I am glad

you did not come. The railroad is in a wretched condition and

our forces are so weak that we are liable to interruption at any

time. General Duval will return, it is supposed, in a few days,

when I can be better spared, if I wish to go anywhere.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          565

  I do not see any notice of Mitchell's appointment or confirma-

tion. I fear the announcement was premature.

  Wager Swayne lost a leg in South Carolina and is promoted

to brigadier-general. General Hancock takes General Crook's

place.  We rather like the new regime. General Carroll takes

General Kelley's shoes. We all like him, so far, very much.

He takes to Dr. Joe almost as much as Crook did. -- Love to all

the boys and Grandma.

                     Affectionately, ever,



                              CUMBERLAND, March 5, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--We are feeling a good deal of anxiety now

to hear from our cavalry. General Sheridan with all the mounted

men of the Department left last Monday to make a raid on the

Rebel towns south of us. If successful, he will do much to-

wards compelling the evacuation of Richmond. The rains and

swollen streams are regarded as the chief danger.

  So many troops have left us that those who remain are kept

almost constantly on duty. The men never were so cheerful

when overworked before. They all think the end is so near that

they can stand anything during the rest of the struggle. . . .

                  Affectionately, your son,



  Monday, March 6. -- Sheridan last Monday with a large cav-

alry force went towards Staunton, Charlottesville, and Lynch-

burg to destroy stores and connections with Richmond. Mud

and water his chief enemies.

  Tuesday, 7. -- Sheridan whips Early near Staunton, takes

eleven cannon and over one thousand prisoners. "The boy Jube

ran away from the subscribers."

  Wednesday, 8. -- Busy replying to letters from divers office-

seekers. They come by the dozens.


                          CAMP HASTINGS, March 11, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--Nothing of interest in this particular local-

ity. As part of Sheridan's command, we feel a good deal of

interest in his cavalry raid. He has already sent back about

fourteen hundred prisoners. We hope to hear further.

  Major-General Hancock is now our immediate commander.

He is a very large, noble-looking man--not less than six feet

three inches high, and very large.  All his new arrangements are

very satisfactory to our division.  He will hardly be so great a

favorite as General Crook, but is making a most favorable im-



                                              R. B. HAYES.


                         CAMP HASTINGS, March 12, 1865.

  MY DARLING:--I am very glad to have heard from or of you

several times during the last week.  While your rheumatism stays

with you I naturally feel anxious to hear often.  If you should

be so unlucky as to become a cripple, it will certainly be bad,

but you may be sure I shall be still a loving husband, and we shall

make the best of it together.  There are a great many worse

things than to lose the ability of easy locomotion. Of course, you

will have to use philosophy or something higher to keep up your

spirits. I think of Mrs. Little as giving more happiness to her

household by her cheerfulness and agreeable ways than most of

the walking women I know off.

  It is lucky you didn't come to the inauguration. The bad

weather and Andy Johnson's disgraceful drunkenness spoiled it.

  I have bought a "Gulliver's Travels" which I will give to

Webb if he can read it. I remember he was very fond of my

telling it, and with his sweet voice often coaxed me to tell him

about "the little people."

  We are under General Hancock now, and like him. He is [a]

noble man in his physical get-up -- six feet three and hand-

somely proportioned. So far as he has arranged, matters are

satisfactory to me. I keep my brigade.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          567

  Sheridan is still absent. Of course some solicitude will be felt

until he gets through.  The last accounts are favorable. . . .

  Hastings  is promoted  lieutenant-colonel,  Thompson, major.

Good!  McKinley and Watkins, Twenty-third, have gone with

Hancock to Winchester or somewhere else up the Valley. Dr.

Joe visits the "Pirates" (Semmes family, but intensely loyal),

but not with any reputed designs. -- Chaplain Little runs with

his wife all sorts of schools and is useful and a favorite with all

sensible people. . . .   Love to all.

                              Affectionately ever,



  Tuesday, March  14.--Sheridan tearing up railroads, burn-

ing bridges, and destroying the James River Canal very success-

fully; goes near Lynchburg, Gordonsville, and beyond Staunton.

I hope he will in spite of high water get over James River and

cut the Danville Railroad and join Grant.

                           CAMP HASTINGS, March 17, 1865.

  MY  DARLING:--. . .    You will feel relieved about Gen-

eral Crook. General Kelley is here. General Crook is at Balti-

more and will return here in a few days. They were treated in

the kindest and most liberal way by the Rebels. The only ex-

ception was old Early; he was drunk and insolent. They were

furnished with all the money they needed. Crook had no money.

His pocketbook was left under his pillow where I found it. Their

captors were civil and accommodating. The people at Richmond

are whipped and confess it. The West Virginia Rebels at

Richmond couldn't do enough for the generals and in fact, all

prisoners there now are courted by the Secesh.

   It is an early spring here.  We are now enjoying ourselves

very much.--Love to all.




  March 18.--Great fun--a fine bright night, wind rose un-

heard of and blew down several hundred tents, etc., etc. Billy's

kitchen, Uncle Joe's hat, etc., etc., still "absent without leave."


                          CAMP HASTINGS, March 18, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE: -- I have very little care or responsibility. My

command is exclusively a fighting command. I have nothing to

do with guards, provost or routine duty connected with posts.

Mine is the only movable column west of Winchester. If an

enemy threatens any place, I am to send men there when ordered.

My time is wholly occupied drilling and teaching tactics and the

like. My brigade furnishes details for guard and provost when

needed, but I am not bothered with them when on such duty.

My regiments are all large; nearly four thousand men in the

four, of whom twenty-five hundred are present at least. General

Crook is again out, and we hope he will return to this command.

We like Hancock very well. He behaved very handsomely with

Crook's staff, and all of the troops and officers which [that] were

particularly favorites with Crook. We were all left in our old

positions, although some pressure was brought against it.

  I see gold is tumbling. If no mishap befalls our armies, the

downward tendency will probably continue. Then debtors must

look out. It will not be so easy to pay debts when greenbacks

are worth eighty to ninety [cents] on the dollar. My four years

are up about the first of June.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


                         CAMP HASTINGS, March 21, 1865.

  DEAREST:--You would have boiled over with enjoyment  if

you had been here today. General Crook came out to my

quarters. Both bands were out and all the men. We had about

forty rousing cheers, a speech from Chaplain Collier, a good

talk from the general, a little one from me, and lots of fun. It

is four weeks today since the capture.

  We are having the finest possible time. The Twenty-third is

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          569

not camped with me now. It is two and one-half miles off in the

prettiest camp they ever had the other side of town. But the

brigade is a unit now. The mountain scenery is glorious; the

men happy and well behaved. Chaplain Little and his wife get

up something good at the log chapel daily. . . .



  We have an old fellow, hard-looking and generally full of

liquor, who brings in our wood and builds fires--of the

Thirteenth. He says, "I was glad to see old Uncle George."


                           CAMP HASTINGS, March 24, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE: -- Crook was all right with Grant, but Stanton

was angry. Grant however rules matters where he really at-

tempts it. Stanton refused to make an effort for a special and

privileged exchange. Grant, however, had it done. Crook

stopped at Grant's headquarters. Grant wanted him to stay and

take an important active command in his army before Richmond.

Crook told him he wanted to be restored to the Department of

West Virginia, if for only one day, to show the public that he was

not in disfavor. It was accordingly so arranged. Crook returned

here, took command, came out to my camp and had a happy

meeting with the men, and the next day left for Grant's Army.

It is supposed he will take the cavalry of the Army of the Poto-

mac. It is probably better for his reputation that it is so.

  Hancock is a very fair man, but nervous, excitable, and hasty.

Would not act badly except from want of reflection.

  Your suggestion as to Mother is, I think, correct. She is

probably happier than her letters would indicate. As people get

along in life, their feelings and mode of talking and writing get

into channels; they have habits of talking, etc., which do not

mean much. If mother was perfectly happy she would write in a

strain of melancholy. She is in the habit of thinking that she

would like to be with her grandchildren all the time. This is a

mistake. Their noise and childish acts and talking would in one

week weary her into greater discomfort than she is now in for


want of them. For a litle while she enjoys them very much. My

only effort is to treat her affectionately and try to turn her

thoughts in some incidental way into pleasanter paths. If I

were keeping house, I know she would soon become more tired

of my home than she is now of Mrs. Wasson's. Her intellect is

twisted into a habit of thinking and meditating too much on her-

self instead of occupying her mind with external affairs. It

can't be helped. Indirectly we may do a good deal to con-

tribute to her happiness, but scarcely anything in the common

way.  Suppose I should say. "What do you prefer as your mode

of life?" and she should reply, I would do her no favor by com-

plying exactly with her wishes.

  I shall try to go to Washington [for] a few days soon.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


                         CAMP HASTINGS, March 25,  1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--We have had a sudden and severe change

of weather. For the first time this month the ground is white

with snow, and the mountains look like midwinter. The wind

blows our tents down once in a while, and makes a little trouble.

In other respects the change does not trouble us much.

  General Crook has been exchanged and given a command under

Grant before Richmond. He was placed in command of his old

Department a few days to show that Grant had not lost confi-

dence in him. He came out to my camp, where the troops gave

him a most enthusiastic reception. . . .

  We are ready to move from here at any time. It is not known,

I think, by anybody where [and] when we shall go. . . .

                   Affectionately, your son,



                            CAMP HASTINGS, April 3, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--. . .  I am to have a new command in

Hancock's Corps. Either veterans or a brigade of new Ohio

troops. I shall probably prefer the latter, as it is not likely to

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          571

continue a great while. I leave Cumberland tomorrow. The

new command is near Harpers Ferry. Letters addressed to me

via Harpers Ferry will reach me.




                            CAMP HASTINGS, April 3, 1865.

  DEAR COLONEL:--That sounds better, don't it? Your com-

mission was sent three weeks ago, as I was told by Harry Thomp-

son. There has been some oversight or negligence. I know

Colonel Comly would not purposely withhold it.

  The Twenty-third is in a nice camp near town, doing provost

duty. You could enjoy yourself with them as soon as you can

hobble about a little.

  General Crook has command of the cavalry of the Army of

the Potomac. Just for the name of the thing, he took command

of this Department for a day or two. He came out to our

camp. We gave him a regular jolly mass-meeting sort of recep-

tion, which he and all of us enjoyed. I think it better for him

as it is.

  We are all ready to move. The talk is that we shall go soon.

Hancock has at Halltown about ten thousand to fifteen thousand

men, six or eight new Ohio regiments of the number.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


      Willoughby, Ohio.

                NEW CREEK, [WEST] VIRGINIA, April 5, 1865.

  DEAR LUCY:--I am assigned to a new command of cavalry,

infantry, and artillery--mostly West Virginia troops.  I hated

to leave my old command and at first was disposed to rebel. I

am ordered to take command of an expedition through the moun-

tains towards Lynchburg. It is over awful mountain roads,

through a destitute country, and is in all respects a difficult, if

not impossible, thing to do. I hope that Lee in his retreat will

take such a direction as will make it plainly useless. If so, it will


be abandoned, I trust. There will be little danger or hardship

to me, but great hardships for the men.  I will write you often

till I start.  I am to make my headquarters here while getting

ready.  I am to start from Beverly in Randolph County.  Warm

Springs, Staunton, and Lexington are named as points.--Love

to all.

                     Affectionately ever,


  General Crook had the advance of Sheridan [in] the late

movement at Petersburg.


               NEW CREEK, [WEST] VIRGINIA, April 8, 1865.

  DEAREST:--The glorious news is coming so fast that I hardly

know how to think and feel about it. It is so just that Grant,

who is by all odds our man of greatest merit, should get this

victory. It is very gratifying too that Sheridan gets the lion's

share of the glory of the active fighting. The clique of showy

shams in the Army of the Potomac are represented by Warren.

We do not know the facts, but I suspect Warren hung back,

and after the Potomac fashion, didn't take hold with zeal when

he found Sheridan was to command. So he was sent to the rear!

General Crook wrote me the day before the battle that the men

were in superb condition and eager for the fray, but that some

of the generals were half whipped already.  No doubt he meant

Warren. Crook commanded the advance of Sheridan's attack.

No doubt his strategy had much to do with it.

  Personally, matters are probably as well as they could be, con-

sidering that we are in the hands, as Joe says, of the Yankees.

The fall of Richmond came the day before we all left Camp

Hastings. We had a glorious time. All the men gathered, all

the bands; Chaplain Collier and I talked. I did not then of

course say good-bye, but I said about all I would have said if

just parting.  The Thirty-sixth is about as near to me, the officers

possibly more so, than the Twenty-third. I am in a command

of all sorts now, a good regiment of cavalry, the old Pennsylvania

Ringgold Cavalry, two batteries of Ohio men, one of them Cap-

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          573

tain Glassier's (the old Simmonds Battery), one of the veteran

West Virginia regiments (Second Veterans), and a lot of others

of less value. It was intended to send me in command of about

five thousand men, quite a little army, by mountain routes towards

Lynchburg.  We are still preparing for it, but I have no idea now

that we shall go. I wish to remain in service until my four years

is up in June. Then I shall resign or not, as seems best. If

matters don't suit me, I'll resign sooner.

  Now, if things remain here in statu quo, would you like [to]

come here? It is a most romantic spot. I have Captain Nye and

Lieutenant Turner of Thirty-sixth as part of my staff, Charley

Smith, Billy Crump, and two other Twenty-third men as order-

lies. We have speedy communication by rail and telegraph and

with a little more company it would be very jolly. -- Love to all.




   NEW CREEK, [WEST] VIRGINIA, April 9 (Sunday), 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--The good news is coming so fast and so

much of it that I hardly know how to think or feel about it. I

expect to see no more fighting with any part of my command, and

in all quarters the severe fighting must, I think, soon cease. I

was assigned to the command of an independent expedition

through the mountains towards Lynchburg some days ago. We

are still preparing for it, but I now think it will not go. In the

meantime my headquarters are temporarily at this place. I do not

much care where I am during the short time I shall probably now

remain in the army.  I want to stay a little while longer until

the smoke of these great events blows away enough to let us

see what the Rebels will try to do next. I expect to see many

of them give up, but the Rebel organization will hold on I sus-

pect some time longer. My four years is up in June; after that

I feel at liberty to resing.  Sooner if matters [don't (?)] suit.

   Write me at this place for the present.

                    Affectionately, your son,




                   CUMBERLAND, MARYLAND, April 10, 1865.

  DEAR JUDGE: -- I am told that my application for leave has

come back without approval. I am sending it again today. At

this rate it will be ten days before I see it again. The War De-

partment wants to know my business. They mustn't be too

crotchety or I'll get naughty on their hands.

  I hope this cruel war is over. I shall resign probably in about

six weeks.


                                              R. B. HAYES.



                NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 12, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I am just beginning to fully realize and en-

joy our great victories. I am more glad to think my fighting days

are ended than I had expected. Grant deserves his great vic-

tory. Crook, too, had a conspicuous place. It was his immediate

command which captured the wagon train, Armstrong guns,

prisoners, etc., which figure so largely in Sheridan's reports.

  I am still preparing for my expedition, but I am confident it is

given up and will never be undertaken; it is rendered useless.

I think it not improbable that there will be an extra session of

Congress; if so, I go out of service then, of course. I am pretty

well pleased with matters now.  Pecuniarily, I shall gain by stay-

ing in service as long as possible. That consideration aside, I

am ready to quit now almost any time. Address me at this place.


                                              R. B. HAYES.


                NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 12, 1865.

  DEAREST:--I wonder if you feel as happy as I do. The close

of the war, "home again," darling and the boys and all to be

together again for good! And the manner of it too! Our best

general vindicated by having the greatest victory. General Crook

too. Did you see, it was his immediate command that captured

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          575

so much, which Sheridan telegraphs about -- the wagons, Arm-

strong guns, etc., etc. ? All most gratifying.*

  My expedition into the mountains will no doubt be given up, al-

though we are still preparing.

  I am well satisfied with present matters personally, and think

I am rather fortunate, all things considered.  I decide nothing at

present. I wish you to be ready to join me on very short notice.

It is not likely I shall send for you, but I may do so any day if

you would like to come.

  My notion is that an extra session of Congress soon is a likely

thing to occur. That will be known in a week or two. -- Love

to all. "So much."

                             As ever


  P. S. -- My pictures being in demand, I have got another.


  New Creek, Saturday, April 15.--8  A. M. startled by report

that Lincoln, Seward and ----- were assassinated.  Somehow

felt it was true.

                  NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 16, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I am in receipt of yours of the 11th.  My

mountain expedition is given up.  If I go at all from here, it

will be directly up the valleys to occupy Staunton. In any event,

I think I shall see no more active campaigning.

  I have been greatly shocked by the tragedy at Washington.

  * Dr. J. T. Webb writing to his mother from Winchester, April 13,

1865, says:--"It must be pleasant to those worthies who put on so much

style to reflect that while there was fighting to be done here in this

valley, Sheridan and Crook were here; now that the fighting has been

transferred to Richmond, they [the worthies] are sent here and Crook and

Sheridan taken off down there. It's all style and airs--very offensive

to sensible people, but as the war is about over, it matters but little who

commands. Were there an enemy in our front, I should not fancy our

generals. As it is they are very good for fuss and feathers, great on

revers, etc.,--about all they are suited for."


At first it was wholly dark. So unmerited a fate for Lincoln!

Such a loss for the country! Such a change! But gradually,

consolatory topics suggest themselves. How fortunate that it

occurred no sooner!  Now the march of events will neither be

stopped nor changed. The power of the Nation is in our armies,

and they are commanded by such men as Grant, Sherman, and

Thomas, instead of McClellan, Hooker, or, etc., etc. Lincoln's

fame is safe. He is the Darling of History evermore. His life

and achievements give him titles to regard second to those of no

other man in ancient or modern times.  To these, this tragedy

now adds the crown of martyrdom.


  S. BIRCHARD.                                             R.

      NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 16 (Sunday), 1865.

  DEAREST:--When I heard first yesterday morning of the

awful tragedy at Washington, I was pained and shocked to a

degree I have never before experienced. I got onto the cars,

then just starting, and rode down to Cumberland. The probable

consequences, or rather the possible results in their worst im-

aginable form, were presented to my mind one after the other,

until I really began to feel that here was a calamity so extensive

that in no direction could be found any, the slightest, glimmer

of consolation. The Nation's great joy turned suddenly to a still

greater sorrow! A ruler tested and proved in every way, and

in every way found equal to the occasion, to be exchanged for a

new man whose ill-omened beginning made the Nation hang its

head. Lincoln for Johnson! The work of reconstruction re-

quiring so much statesmanship just begun! The calamity to Mr.

Lincoln; in a personal point of view, so uncalled for a fate!--

so undeserved, so unprovoked! The probable effect upon the

future of public men in this country, the necessity for guards;

our ways to be assimilated to those of the despotisms of the Old

World. -- And so I would find my mind filled only with images

of evil and calamity, until I felt a sinking of heart hardly

equalled by that which oppressed us all when the defeat of our

army at Manassas almost crushed the Nation.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          577

  But slowly, as in all cases of great affliction, one comes to feel

that it is not all darkness; the catastrophe is so much less, hap-

pening now, than it would have been at any time before, since

Mr. Lincoln's election. At this period after his first inaugura-

tion; at any of the periods of great public depression; during the

pendency of the last Presidential election; at any time before

the defeat of Lee, such a calamity might have sealed the Nation's

doom. Now the march of events can't be stayed, probably can't

be much changed. It is possible that a greater degree of severity

in dealing with the Rebellion may be ordered, and that may be

for the best.

  As to Mr. Lincoln's name and fame and memory, -- all is safe.

His firmness, moderation, goodness of heart; his quaint humor,

his perfect honesty and directness of purpose; his logic, his

modesty, his sound judgment, and great wisdom; the contrast

between his obscure beginnings and the greatness of his subse-

quent position and achievements; his tragic death, giving him

almost the crown of martyrdom, elevate him to a place in history

second to none other of ancient or modern times. His success

in his great office, his hold upon the confidence and affections

of his countrymen, we shall all say are only second to Washing-

ton's; we shall probably feel and think that they are not second

even to his.

  My mountain expedition is at an end. If I go on any more

campaigning, it will be an easy march to occupy some point

on the Central Virginia Railroad -- Staunton or Charlottesville.

I anticipate, however, an early call of an extra session of Con-

gress. In any event, I shall probably not see any more active


  I enclose my good-bye to my old First Brigade.* I now re-

gard the order separating us as not unfortunate. It must have

been soon, and could not have been in a better way.

  Direct your letters to this point -- Second Brigade, First Divi-

sion, Department West Virginia. -- Love to all.




  * See "Life," Vol. I, p. 269, footnote.



               NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 16, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--I am as much shocked as I ever was by

any calamity by the awful tragedy at Washington. Still I can dis-

cover many topics of consolation. It is fortunate that it did not

occur before. We are fortunate in now having such good men

as Grant, Sherman, and Thomas commanding our armies, for

there is the power in this country. Mr. Lincoln's fame is safe.

He is the "Darling of History" evermore. To titles to regard

and remembrance which equal those of any man in ancient or

modern times growing out of the events and achievements of his

life, his tragic death now adds the crown of martyrdom.




  Wednesday, April 19.--Sheridan evidently did the decisive

fighting at Five Forks; but for him it would have been a failure


                NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 19, 1865.

  MY  DARLING:--I have just returned from Cumberland to

meet Dr. Joe from Winchester and to see the funeral ceremonies,

etc., at department headquarters.

  Had a good time. I feel the national loss, but even that is

nothing compared to the joy I feel that this awful war is ended

in our favor. Joe and I moralized over it, and agreed that no

one man, not even so great a one as Lincoln, was anything by

the side of the grand events of the month.* We are to leave

  * Dr. Webb wrote his mother the next day (April 20) from Cumberland

as follows: --

  "We are all well. The time passes slow now that there is no work

in view. The Rebels all feel disposed to quit; the women, if possible,

more insolent than ever. It is a bitter pill for the First Families.

Most of the 'Gorillas' have signified their desire to quit, but the Union

people who have suffered from their atrocious acts, do not feel exactly

disposed to receive the murderers back into their arms. The Union

citizens who have suffered everything during this war feel outraged at

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          579

the service hereafter when things take shape a little, if possible

at the same time.

  I asked you in a late letter to be ready to come to me on short

notice. I, or somebody, will meet you at Parkersburg or some-

where. Come without much baggage ready to travel. We will

perhaps take a journey of three weeks or so when I quit. Joe

will go along and possibly two of my staff. Can we take Birch

without Webb?  Can you leave George?

  I am so anxious to be with you. Your letter of the 5th, which

I find here, is the first I have from you in a great while. I am

so happy in the prospect of being with you for good soon. --

Reply at once.

                      Affectionately, ever,



                 NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, April 21, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I am amused by your anxiety about General

Hayes being relieved. "Tardiness" in the presence of the enemy

was quite the opposite of my difficulties. Sheridan in one of his

dispatches, spoke of Crook "with his usual impetuosity." As

my command led in the affair, it meant me. There are five

General Hayes[es] in our service and two in the Rebel that I

know of. Alexander, a gallant officer killed under Grant,

William, who has charge of the draft in New York City, Ed of

Ohio, and Joseph who had charge of exchange of prisoners. He

is the tardy one who is reported relieved.

  My command is [the] Second Brigade, First Division, Army

of West Virginia -- a large brigade of calvary, artillery, and in-

the disposition evinced by the powers that be to take back as erring

brethren these fiendish villains.

  "While I think the President a good honest man, none better, I am

not so certain that his loss at this time is so great a public calamity as

many are disposed to think. He was entirely too forgiving. He appeared

to have forgotten the thousands of honest, brave, and true men either in

their graves or limping about cripples, etc.

  "So we go, the world moves on, one man succeeds another. This

country is too great, its aim too holy to fail at this period on account

of the death of any one man."


fantry. We are now busy paroling guerrillas and the like. All,

from Mosby down, seem disposed to quit and surrender. If the

feeling continues, we shall soon have peace throughout Virginia,

at least.


                                                R. B. HAYES.


                                 NEW CREEK, April 28, 1865.

  MY DARLING:--Yours came yesterday. I can't yet decide

anything, either as to your coming here, or as to my quitting

service. As soon as the Government, in any official way, says of-

ficers of my grade, or generally, are no longer needed in their

present numbers, I am ready to go.

  I am a little bored, at the same time that I am pleased, by the

doings of the Ohio soldiers of my old division.* I tried to stop

the proceedings getting into print, but am now told that I was

too late. I have letters from all the colonels of a very pleasant

sort, as to their feelings, etc., etc.

  I have a leave to go to Washington, and shall go there early

next week, to spend the week. I shall then probably decide all

matters as to your coming out or my going home. I think three

weeks will be long enough for your absence if you come.

  I have a long letter from Crook written soon after Lee's sur-

render. He thanks the guerrillas for his capture, as it got him

into active service. -- Sheridan by his personal efforts secured

the victory of Five Forks, which decided the fate of Richmond,

Lee, and all. -- Love to all.

                      Affectionately ever,



  Saturday, April 29. -- Johnston's surrender I regard as the end

of the war. Celebrate it by wearing a white collar, first time in

service, four years!

  * A meeting, April 20, which adopted resolutions urging the Union party

to nominate Hayes for Governor of Ohio. See "Life," Vol. I, p. 290.

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          581

                                WASHINGTON, May 5, 1865.

  DEAREST:--I am here in Judge Johnston's pleasant quarters,

established in a homelike way. Dined with Charley Anderson

at Governor Dennison's yesterday,  All talk of you. . . .

  I am yet undecided as to when I go out, etc., etc., but soon.

My trip with you is not any more probable, but keep ready a

little while longer. We shall be together very soon somewhere.

If at Chillicothe, you must get an extra room for a short time.

  I am meditating this, to quietly determine, for my own and

your knowledge, to quit public life as soon as my term in Con-

gress ends. That fixed, then at once either open a law office

in Cincinnati as soon as I resign, or prepare a home at Fremont.

Don't worry over it, but think of it and when we meet we will

confer.--Love to the dear ones.

                     Ever affectionately,



                               WASHINGTON, May 7, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--I am spending a few days very pleasantly

here. I have had two talks with the President. He strikes me


  The great armies are gathering here. Grant is here; also

Sheridan. Sherman is expected soon. I am waiting a little while

to see how the cat will jump. June early is still my time for

leaving--possibly sooner. I return to New Creek in a few



                                              R. B. HAYES.


                               WASHINGTON, May 7, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--. . .  The President impresses me more

favorably than I anticipated. He strikes one as a capable and

sincere man -- patriotic and with a great deal of experience as a

public man.

  The great armies are getting back from the South to this


city in great numbers.  Grant and Sheridan are here.  Sherman

is soon coming.  All think the war at an end. . . .

                  Affectionately, your son,



                                WASHINGTON, May 9, 1865.

  DEAREST:--I am here looking on at the closing scenes.  I

wish you were here with me. I shall know in a few days how

long I shall stay. If I am to remain long you must come here.

  I now think it probable I shall stay in service just a month

longer. If so, I will send for you. Otherwise, you will see me

at home within a fortnight.

  I could talk to you a great deal about things, but I don't care

to write them.

  I am a very little bored by having my name mentioned for

governor.  The answer is simply, I have accepted another place,

and that is reason enough for not looking further.

  I send you Bishop Simpson's excellent address on Lincoln.--

The foolish talk about your husband was not paid for I assure


                     Affectionately ever,



                         WASHINGTON, D. C., May 9, 1865.

  DEAR LAURA:--I suppose from what I hear of your gallant

husband that he will be here in a few days. I guess also that

after the grand doings of the army, when it gets here, that he

will resign, as I mean to do, and go home. Now, why shouldn't

our wives come after us? I hereby empower you to order Lucy

to come with you to Washington about the 20th or 25th. Write

me what you think of it.





             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          583

                                  NEW CREEK, May 12, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER: -- I have returned from Washington, and shall

start this afternoon for Chillicothe. I do not leave the army for

a few days until I know what is to be done with my favorite

troops. As soon as that is known I quit. I shall bring Lucy

here to await events. . . .

                   Affectionately, your son,



                             MARIETTA, OHIO, May 14, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--Having business on this end of the Balti-

more and Ohio Railroad, I came on this far to meet Lucy. She

will go back to New Creek with me, and remain as long as I

stay in the army--that is about two weeks.

  The weather is very fine, and I never saw the Ohio River and

its hills and bottoms looking so well. We shall probably go up

the Ohio to Wheeling, and thence by railroad back. I now in-

tend to leave the army so as to get settled up and ready for home

by the 10th to 15th of June. I shall go to Delaware and Fremont

before Cincinnati.

                   Affectionately, your son,


                 NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, May 20, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER: -- I got here safely with Lucy last night. I

have resigned to take effect the week after next, and will prob-

ably be at Delaware within three weeks to see you. We shall

travel about a few days before starting West.

  The soldiers are leaving for home very rapidly. They are all

in excellent spirits and glad to go. I have no idea that many of

them will ever see as happy times again as they have had in the

army. -- I shall perhaps return by way of Fremont.

                    Affectionately, your son,


                 NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, May 20, 1865.

  DEAR UNCLE:--Lucy arrived here last night with me from

Chillicothe. We expect to go to Washington in a few days, and


after a little run about, home probably by way of Fremont about

the 5th to 10th of June. I have sent my resignation, and shall

be out of service just four years after entering it. My chest

will go to Fremont by express; my horse and equipments, flag,

sword, etc., etc., start tomorrow with my orderlies. If they need

cash, please let them have it


                                              R. B. HAYES.


                NEW CREEK, WEST VIRGINIA, May 20, 1865.

  DEAR COLONEL:--My wife came here last evening.  I have

sent in my resignation and asked to be relieved. I hope to get

to Washington to the great doings to come off next week.

  I take "Old Whitey" home (to Fremont, Ohio,) and hope

you will be able to ride him again.

  It is not yet known when troops of the class of Twenty-third,

Thirty-sixth, and First West Virginia Veterans will be mustered

out. They are all now at Staunton and appear to enjoy it much.

  I have had the Cincinnati papers withdraw my name from the

candidate list. I am of course much obliged to the brigade, but

it would not be the thing for me to allow it.

  My wife says she is glad you have sound views on the treat-

ment of Rebels. She doubts her husband.

  If Sherman did it with an eye to political advancement, as

some say, of course it is bad, but if he thought to follow the

policy of Lincoln as indicated by Weitzell's programme (and this

I believe), he surely ought not to be abused for it.

  My wife sends regards to your sister and yourself. Excuse



                                              R. B. Hayes.


                        WASHINGTON, D. C., May 28, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--Mr. and Mrs. Phelps of Fremont joined us

here this morning. We expect to finish our trip together. I sup-

             IN GARRISON--END OF THE WAR          585

pose that week after next I shall start home, done with the war.

Laura and Lucy are enjoying themselves very much. General

Mitchell and myself have been busy a large part of the time,

leaving our wives to follow their own plans. We shall probably

leave here tomorrow to visit Richmond, and will come West

soon after. Mitchell will perhaps stay in service a few weeks

or months longer. -- Love to friends.

                   Affectionately, your son,



                              CHILLICOTHE, June 11, 1865.

  DEAR MOTHER:--We are once more all together in good

health. The three larger boys are all going to school and are

improving in their books. Little George is a very fine-looking

and promising child.

  We had a pleasant trip to Richmond. . . . I expect to

go to Cincinnati in a few days and will probably be at Delaware

to spend Sunday with you. I am now out of the army. Laura

and General Mitchell will come home soon. General Mitchell has

also resigned and will be out of the army in a few days.

  I am very happy to be through with the war.

                   Affectionately, your son,



                      END OF VOLUME II.

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