Ohio History Journal

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Ohio Valley Hist

Ohio Valley Hist. Assn, Fifth Annual Meeting.          101


that will stop short of nothing that is humanly possible.  China is

arousing herself to a new national life that contains possibilities of the

most tremendous scope. America and China are natural complements

to each other. The Yangtse and Mississippi Valleys have more in

common than any other two equal tracts of country in the world.

The concluding paper of the morning was read by George

Cowles Lay of New York. The portion relating to the Ohio

Valley reads as follows:






By the Federal Constitution, the States are prohibited from enter-

ing into any treaty, alliance or confederation, or any agreement or

contract with another state or with a foreign power without consent

of Congress and in any case from engaging in war, unless actually in-

vaded or in imminent danger.

The states are thus debarred, in case of disputes, from the remedies

of diplomacy or the resort to arms, while acting under the Constitu-


Alexander Hamilton in the Federalist, with prophetic insight, antici-

pated "many other sources, besides interfering claims of boundary, from

which bickerings and animosity may spring up among the members

of the Union."*

So the history and development of the country have produced

many kinds of controversies, which among foreign states might have

resulted in wars and treaties but which have been happily settled by

judicial decisions. These disputes have arisen between States as far

removed from each other as South Dakota and North Carolina, and

as New Hampshire and Louisiana, over liabilities on State bonds, but

have chiefly affected adjoining states, whose citizens have been subject

to injuries affecting commerce, navigation and public health.

Where the health or material prosperity of inhabitants of a state

have been threatened by contamination of its waterways by diversion

or unreasonable use of navigable rivers flowing through several states,

by embargoes against passengers and freight in times of epidemic, or

by obstructions to commerce, the interference of the Supreme Court

has been sought in several cases of interest.

The principles governing this class of cases are the same as those

regulating the rights and remedies of individuals. The complaining


*The Federalist, Vol. LXXX.