Ohio History Journal

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1 Dictionary of American Biography, VII, 578.

2 Thus Richard Bardolph in The Negro Vanguard (New York, 1959) makes six references to

Scarborough (pp. 116, 120, 124, 133, 135, 215).

3 The Dictionary of American Biography, XVI, 409, gives the middle name as Saunders, the

form which is used in the printed Library of Congress authors' cards. Other convenient sum-

maries of his life are in the National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, XII (New York,

1904), 55, and in the Journal of Negro History, XI (1926), 689-693.

4 Manuscript autobiography; Who Was Who in America.

5 In 1850 Georgia's free colored population of 2,931 included 1,930 males between 20 and

30 years of age. J. D. B. De Bow, Statistical View of the United States (Washington, D.C., 1854),

63, 70. The legal restrictions were such that "the lot of the free Negro must have been a difficult

one legally, and many must have wished to have responsible white men to look out for them."

W. McDowell Rogers, "Free Negro Legislation in Georgia Before 1850," Georgia Historical

Quarterly, XVI (March 1932), 35.

6 The main line was from Macon to Savannah. It was made unusable for a time by the

destruction wrought by Sherman's men, but the line was restored by the end of 1866. C. Mildred

Thompson, Reconstruction in Georgia (Columbia University Studies in History, Economics, and

Public Law, LXIV, New York, 1915), 106. The elder Scarborough served the railroad until

his last illness. He died in Macon in 1883, after a second stroke of paralysis. See also Peter S.

McGuire, "The Railroads of Georgia, 1860-1880," Georgia Historical Quarterly, XVI (1932),


7 The boy had a cousin named Matilda Thomas. Whether J. C. Thomas had some undisclosed

relationship to the Scarborough family is not revealed. The Journal of Negro History, XI, 689,

says that Thomas was a "native white of the bitterest type, reputed as intensely hating Negroes."

8 Carter G. Woodson, The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 (New York, 1915), 161, 167.

9 For a discussion of the role of the railroads, see Robert C. Black, III, "The Railroads of

Georgia in the Confederate War Effort," Journal of Southern History, XIII (1947), 511-535.

10 See B. H. Liddell Hart, Sherman: Soldier, Realist, American (New York, 1958), 231-307.

11 See also "The Stoneman Raid" and "General Wilson's Capture of Macon" in Captain John A.

Cobb, "Civil War Incidents in Macon," Georgia Historical Quarterly, VII (1923), 282-284.

12 The adjustment in general was severe. In Macon during December 1865 about five hundred

Negroes died, more than twelve times the normal number. Thompson, Reconstruction in Georgia, 46.

13 Ibid., 103.

14 D.A.B., V, 406-7, and X, 597.

15 See Alfred J. Hanna, Flight Into Oblivion (Richmond, Va., 1938), 101-102.

16 Scarborough saw Davis only once thereafter, following the latter's liberation from prison,

when he made a speech in Atlanta.

17 For the general reaction in the South, see E. Merton Coulter, The South During Recon-

struction, 1865-1877 (Baton Rouge, La., 1947), 119-138. See also Thompson, Reconstruction in

Georgia, 171-198.

18 For early activities of the bureau in Georgia, see George R. Bentley, A History of the

Freedman's Bureau (Philadelphia, 1955), 68-69.

19 Turner came to Georgia in 1867. President Grant appointed him postmaster at Macon in

1869, but he had to resign because of "persecution." Carter G. Woodson, History of the Negro

Church (Washington, D.C., 1921), 232. Professor E. Merton Coulter refers to Turner as

"Georgia's negre terrible" and quotes a letter from a carpetbagger to Charles Sumner (October 5,

1868) characterizing him as "a licentious robber and counterfeiter, a vulgar blackguard, a sacri-

legious profaner of God's name, and a most consummate hypocrite." Coulter, The South During

Reconstruction, 60, 98-99, 146.

20 During this period the Freedman's Bureau usually provided buildings for schools, for which

aid societies like the American Missionary Association provided the teachers. Thompson,

Reconstruction in Georgia, 125. For references to Mrs. Ball, see Henry L. Swint, The Northern

Teacher in the South: 1862-1870 (Nashville, Tenn., 1941), 194.

21 Swint, The Northern Teacher in the South, 35-142. In 1866 the influential Macon Telegraph

had expressed admiration for the altruistic zeal of the teachers, but by 1868 opinion had hardened,

the retiring teachers were greeted with, "Here comes Hell," and there were threats to burn their

rented house. Ibid., 109, 98-99.