Ohio History Journal

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1 Congressional Record, 51 cong., 1 sess., 5812. An analysis of McKinley similar to this may

appear in a projected volume titled "Crossroads to Twentieth Century America: Politics, Policies

and Problems of William McKinley," edited by Paolo Coletta.

2 In this narrative the term "currency" is not restricted to issues of paper money; it includes

emissions of coin.

3 1881-83, forty-seventh congress, Republicans 146, Democrats 138, Greenbackers 10; 1889-91,

fifty-first congress, Republicans 166, Democrats 159, with numerous silver advocates lacking an

official silver party label.

4 The political figures have been compiled by checking the Ohio Hundred Year Book, 1803-1902

against the Biographical Directory of the American Congress, and an aggregation of Ohio histories.

5 The other main issue was Negro suffrage. Ohio's political shifts, 1867-73, are traced in Eugene

H. Roseboom, The Civil War Era, 1850-1873 (Carl Wittke, ed., The History of the State of Ohio,

IV, Columbus, 1944), 457-485.

6 This act of February 4, 1868, left outstanding $356,000,000; this countered the February 12,

1866, law authorizing retirement of $10,000,000 of greenbacks within six months and up to $4,000,000

in any month thereafter.

7 A. K. McClure, Our Presidents and How We Make Them (New York, 1902), 208, 213-216. On

the twenty-second ballot Seymour, who had had no votes most of the time, got twenty-one, all from

Ohio, presumably cast by the anti-Greenback faction. This commenced a stampede which gave

him the nomination on that ballot.

8 Law of March 18, 1869. Grant's inaugural insisted upon gold payment, unless otherwise

stipulated in the contract.

9 Theodore Clarke Smith, The Life and Letters of James Abram Garfield (New Haven, Conn.,

1925), I, 471.

10 Congressional Record, 43 cong., 1 sess., 2835, 3078; veto of April 22, 1874. Secretary of the

Treasury W. A. Richardson, under depression pressures, had added $26,000,000 to the total

$356,000,000 outstanding under the 1868 contraction law.

11 Congressional Record, 43 cong., 2 sess., 319.

12 Irwin Unger, "Business and Currency in the Ohio Gubernatorial Campaign of 1875," Mid-

America, XLI (1959), 27-39.

13 Hayes's plurality was only 5,544 votes. For 1875 Ohio campaign inconsistencies, compare

Hayes's speeches, quoted liberally in Charles R. Williams, The Life of Rutherford Burchard Hayes

(Boston, 1914), I, 387-408, with the newspaper citations in Philip D. Jordan, Ohio Comes of Age,

1873-1900 (Carl Wittke, ed., The History of the State of Ohio, V, Columbus, 1943), 3648.

14 Canton Repository, September and October, 1875.

15 Congressional Record, 45 cong., 2 sess., 1605-1607.

16 The national platform lauded Republicanism as the defense against treasonable Democracy.

The Democratic platform demanded repeal of the resumption clause of 1875 and berated the

Republicans for failing to achieve specie payment sooner and by less alarming methods. McClure,

Our Presidents and How We Make Them, 249-252, 254-255.

17 Richard P. Bland's H.R. 4189 passed the house with ayes 167 and nays 53, Ohio contributing

two nays (Garfield and a Democrat, F. H. Hurd). Congressional Record, 44 cong., 2 sess., 172.

18 Bland's H.R. 1093 easily got suspension of the rules for quick action and passed with ayes 163,

nays 34. Congressional Record, 45 cong., 1 sess., 241-242.

19 Resumption repeal passed the house by the narrow vote of yeas 133, nays 120. Congressional

Record, 45 cong., 1 sess., 632-633. One Democratic and seven Republican Ohio congressmen, includ-

ing Garfield, voted nay.

20 See for example the Canton Repository of November 9, 16, 23, 30, December 7, 14, 21, 28, 1877,

judged by biographer Margaret Leech to be a faithful reflection of McKinley's views. In the Days

of McKinley (New York, 1960), 54.

21 Sherman to August Belmont, November 13, 1877, in John Sherman's Recollections of Forty

Years in the House, Senate and Cabinet: An Autobiography (Chicago, 1895), 606.

22 Canton Repository, January 25, 1878. The Democrats complained that the earlier resolution

"didn't have the effect desired upon John Sherman and the rest."

23 This was the only time from 1849 to 1911 that the Ohio opposition to the Democrats held

no senate seat.