Ohio History Journal

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1. See the author's "The Panama Canal Lobby of Philippe Bunau-Varilla and Wil-

liam Nelson Cromwell," American Historical Review, LXVIII (1963), 346-363.

2. Henry F. Pringle, Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography (New York, 1931), 305.

3. Philippe Bunau-Varilla Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C., Manu-

scripts Division. The author has made extensive use of these papers in the preparation

of this article. All references to manuscripts in the notes are to this collection.

4. Lucien Wulsin to Robert Batcheller, May 28, 1906. This is a copy of a letter

written to the secretary of the Commercial Club of Boston, in which Wulsin described

his association with Bunau-Varilla. Another copy of this letter was recently found

among the papers of the son of Lucien Wulsin. With annotations and an introduction

by Professor George B. Engberg of the University of Cincinnati, it was published

in the Bulletin of the Cincinnati Historical Society, XXII (1964), 186-192.

5. This fact is revealed in a series of letters exchanged between Baker and Bunau-

Varilla in 1898 and 1899.

6. Philippe Bunau-Varilla, Panama: The Creation, Destruction, and Resurrection

(New York, 1914), 174.

7. Bunau-Varilla to Wulsin and William Watts Taylor, December 12, 1900. There

is no record of any correspondence in the Bunau-Varilla Papers between Bunau-

Varilla and the Cincinnatians before December 11, 1900.

8. These included Baker, John Bigelow, former American minister to France,

who met Bunau-Varilla in Panama and became a close friend, and Frank Pavey, a

New York attorney.

9. Taylor to Bunau-Varilla, December 13, 1900.

10. Professor Engberg reaches the same conclusion from a study of the minute

books and correspondence files of the Cincinnati Commercial Club. Bunau-Varilla

was a man of some means, and, although he was a stockholder in the French Panama

Canal Company and profited from its sale to the United States, the author is convinced

that money was not the primary concern in Bunau-Varilla's campaign for the Panama


11. Asher C. Baker to Percy Peixotto, February 7, 1901. Peixotto was a mutual friend

in Paris to whom Baker described these events.

12. Bunau-Varilla, Panama, 179.

13. Bunau-Varilla to Sir Edwyn Dawes, December 24, 1900. Bunau-Varilla lamented

that he would have to express his ideas in a foreign tongue, but, in fact, his English

was quite good.

14. Taylor to Bunau-Varilla, January 28, 1901.

15. Ibid.

16. Wulsin to Batcheller, May 28, 1906.

17. Ibid.; Bunau-Varilla to John Bigelow, January 17, 1901.

18. Several mutual friends noted Bunau-Varilla's success: Wulsin to Bunau-Varilla,

January 25, 1901, and Bigelow to Bunau-Varilla, April 25, 1901.

19. Wulsin to Batcheller, May 28, 1906; Bunau-Varilla, Panama, 181.

20. Wulsin to Bunau-Varilla, March 15, 1901.

21. Baker to Peixotto, February 7, 1901.

22. Cyrus McCormick to Bunau-Varilla, February 14, 1901.

23. Gustav Schwab to Bunau-Varilla, February 28, 1901.

24. A. O. Elzner to Bunau-Varilla, April 14, 1901.

25. Bunau-Varilla to Taylor, March 20, 1901.

26. Taylor to Bunau-Varilla, March 17, 1901.

27. Bunau-Varilla to Hanna, March 20, 1901.

28. James Deering to Bunau-Varilla, March 23, 1901.

29. Isaac Seligman to Bunau-Varilla, March 27, 1901.

30. Bunau-Varilla, Panama, 184.

31. Ibid., 187.

32. Taylor to Bunau-Varilla, July 25, 1901.

33. U. S. House of Representatives, 62 cong., 1 sess., Committee on Foreign Affairs,

The Story of Panama: Hearings on the Rainey Resolution (Washington, 1913), 150-157;

Thomas Beer, Hanna, Crane, and The Mauve Decade (New York, 1941), 596-600.

34. Ameringer, "The Panama Canal Lobby," passim.

35. Bunau-Varilla, Panama, 187.

36. Bunau-Varilla to Charles de Lesseps, April 9, 1901.

37. Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, September 13, 1901.

38. On October 3, 1908, the New York World published a story which said that a

"Wall Street syndicate" was behind the United States acquisition of the Panama