Ohio History Journal

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270                                                         OHIO HISTORY


No. 7820; Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1907), I, 406. Howe

notes that his son's death almost broke the father's heart.

30. Letters Patent No. 6775, October 9, 1849. See also "Personal Recollections of

Early Springfield," Told by Squire J. J. Synder, Yester Year in Clark County (Spring-

field, 1948), II, 22-23.

31. Howe, Historical Collections, I, 406. See illustration, p. 206.

32. "Personal Recollections of Early Springfield," 23.

33. Letters Patent No. 34,150, January 14, 1862. A very brief analysis of the wheel

may be found in James E. Frankart, "The Industrial Rise of Springfield, Ohio," Seminar

paper in Ohio history, Miami University, 1961. Leffel received a re-issue of the original

patent in 1864; it involved minor improvements, Letters Patent, Reissue No. 1,791,

October 11, 1864.

34. Howe, Historical Collections, I, 406.

35. "Personal Recollections of Early Springfield," 23; see also comments of H. P.

Bradbury in Yester Year in Clark County (Springfield, 1949), III, 23.

36. Springfield News, May 3, 1862. For a brief comment on Kindleberger, see Abram

Ludlow's recollections in Yester Year in Springfield (Springfield, 1948), II, 5, 6.

37. Springfield News, May 3, 1862. For specific details on the performance of the

wheel, see James Leffel's Hydraulic Note Book, Leffel Papers.

38. Ralph H. Gabriel, The Epic of Industry (New Haven, 1926), 121.

39. James Leffel, Hydraulic Note Book.

40. Letters Patent No. 34,150, January 14, 1862.

41. Statement of J. Robert Groff, President and General Manager, The James Leffel

& Company, July 14, 1966.

42. Ibid.

43. Springfield News, July 14, 1862.

44. Ibid.

45. Ibid., December 27, 1862.

46. Ibid., March 3, 1863.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., December 24, 1863.

49. Ibid., February 27, 1864.

50. Ibid., March 8, 1864.

51. F. M. Bookwalter to A. F. Sparks, January 20, 1922. Leffel Manuscripts Collec-

tion, The James Leffel and Company, Springfield, Ohio.

52. Beers, History of Clark County, 472, 543; William M. Rockel, 20th Century

History of Springfield, and Clark County, Ohio (Chicago, 1908), 518.

53. Bookwalter to Sparks, January 20, 1922.

54. Order Book, Leffel Collection, Springfield.

55. For comments on durability of the wheel, see Illustrated and Descriptive Pam-

phlet, 72.

56. Ninth Census of the United States, Schedule 4, Production of Industry, Clark

County; in State Library of Ohio.



1. A source of information often relied on for the early history of the Germans in

the United States is a German-language periodical, Der Deutsche Pionier, published in

Cincinnati from 1869 to 1887. A series of articles which it ran in 1875 under the title

"Die Deutschen Pioniere des Scioto-Thales" has proved, however, to be at times

untrustworthy. In reference to the War of 1812-14 passage used by Albert B. Faust in

The German Element in the United States (Boston, 1909), I, 423-424, the information

given appears likely to be incorrect.

2. The statements concerning German families in Chillicothe are based on data

derived from the manuscript census returns, available on microfilm made from the

original returns in the National Archives. The census of 1850, which was the first to list

place of birth, shows 1,298 families in Chillicothe, of which by actual count, 403, or 31

percent were those whose head was born in German-speaking countries. (The figure

403 does not include French and Swiss families, the great majority of which bore

German names.) Of these 403 families, 290 contained one or more children not born

abroad, virtually all of them having been born in Ohio and, presumably, the greater

proportion in Chillicothe.

In 1910, out of a total population of 14,508, Chillicothe had 424 German-born and

1,255 native-born whose parents were both born in Germany. Thirteenth Census of the

United States, 1910: Population, III, 420.

The following is a graphic picture of the population breakdown. Information pertain-