Ohio History Journal

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NOTES                                                                     273


mitted to the local postmaster until such time as the government, convinced of loyalty,

would issue a permit exempting it. Dual language coverage was expensive and cumber-

some and the law had as its specific purpose not so much censorship as the death of

certain papers. This fact becomes clear when it is realized that some papers had their

permits within weeks, and returned to German-language war coverage only, whereas

others never received them at all, often because they lacked the necessary "connections."

See Carl Wittke, The German-Language Press in America (Lexington, 1957), 262-291.

53. Unsere Zeit, October 19, 1917.



The author is indebted to the Rutgers University Research Council and to the Penrose

Fund of the American Philosophical Society for grants which, in part, financed the

research for this article.

1. John W. Davis to Newton D. Baker, July 5, 1932. Box 84, Baker Papers, Library

of Congress. Jouett Shouse to Baker, July 7, 1932. Ibid., Box 85. Joseph Proskauer to

Baker, July [?], 1932. Ibid., Box 192. On April 30, 1932, Edward M. House wrote Walter

Lippmann that "... I am sure that many of those close to the Governor [Roosevelt] feel

about Newton Baker as I do, that if the nomination does not go to our man [Roosevelt]

it should go to him [Baker]." Copy in Baker Papers, Box 116. See also, House to Ralph

Hayes, May 4, 1932. Ibid. Louis Brownlow was similarly convinced that Baker was the

most acceptable alternative to Roosevelt; see Robert Woolley to House, March 23, 1931.

House Papers, Yale University Library. Thomas J. Walsh of Montana, a Roosevelt

supporter, also regarded Baker as the logical alternative; Walsh to James R. Bennett, Jr.,

April 8, 1931. Box 382, Walsh Papers, Library of Congress.

2. William E. Dodd to Josephus Daniels, December 22, 1931; Daniels to Hon. W. A.

Ayres, November 28, 1931; and Cordell Hull to Daniels, February 29, 1932. Boxes 660

and 661, Daniels Papers, Library of Congress. Cordell Hull to William G. McAdoo,

January 21, 1932. Box 364, McAdoo Papers, Library of Congress. McAdoo to House,

January 10, 1931; Robert W. Woolley to House, October 6, 1931, House Papers. Raymond

Moley to Mrs. Malcolm L. McBride, May 11, 1932, Moley Papers, in Mr. Moley's


Hull, e.g., wrote Josephus Daniels on February 29, 1932, "I think the leadership of

the combined opposition to Roosevelt is and will continue to be in the Smith-Raskob-

Du Pont group, which according to my belief favors a virtual merger of the two old

parties except as to prohibition. Should they succeed in destroying the candidate far

out in front and who stands in their way [Roosevelt], they would then dominate all

further proceedings and nominate whomsoever they want." The result, Hull feared, might

well be the dissolution of the Democratic party after 1932. Hull, it will be recalled, was

then Senator from Tennessee and had been chairman of the Democratic National Com-

mittee for some time in the 1920's. Daniels was editor of the Raleigh, N. C., News and

Observer and had served as Wilson's Secretary of the Navy.

3. Moley interview, September 1963, tape recorded; Tom L. Johnson, My Story, Eliza-

beth J. Houser, ed. (New York, 1913), 126,139, 172-73, 251-56, and 259-61. The best

general works available on Baker's career are: Frederick Palmer, Newton D. Baker:

America at War, 2 vols. (New York, 1931); Daniel R. Beaver, Newton D. Baker and

the American War Effort, 1917-1919 (Lincoln, 1966); and C. H. Cramer, Newton D.

Baker (Cleveland, 1961).

4. "The Candidacy of Franklin D. Roosevelt," New York Herald Tribune, January

9, 1932.

5. Hayes to Baker, November 12, 1931. Box 115, Baker Papers. "Yesterday I had

luncheon with Lippmann," Hayes wrote, "who is brooding over how his space in the

paper can be most effectively useful to you."

6. George F. Milton to J. F. T. O'Connor, July [?], 1932. Box 370, McAdoo Papers.

Milton to McAdoo, February 26, 1932. Ibid., Box 366. William E. Dodd to Baker,

March 24, 1932. Box 87, Baker Papers. D. F. Houston to Josephus Daniels, March 8,

1932. Box 665, Daniels Papers.

David F. Houston, who in 1932 was president of the Mutual Life Insurance Company

of New York, wrote, "I do not care for Roosevelt as a nominee. I think he has very

limited ability and that he is enormously ambitious. In many directions he shows bad

judgment and lack of courage. He sadly failed to take a position of firm leadership in

the mess in this city [New York] due to the Tammany bosses. He seems to wish to

run with the hare and hunt with the hounds. If I had to select a candidate right now, I

think I should prefer Newton Baker."

7. Interview with Raymond Moley, September, 1963.

8. Franklin D. Roosevelt to Daniels, May 14, 1932. Box 15, Daniels Papers.

9. Daniels to William E. Dodd, April 16, 1932. Ibid., Box 664.