Ohio History Journal

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    The three decades preceding the American Civil War appear in retrospect

    as an era of intellectual as well as political turbulence. Everywhere the forces

    of romantic subjectivism were gaining ground at the expense of long-

    established modes of thought and behavior. In religion the revivalist spirit

    placed the heart above the head and swept away the discipline imposed by

    ecclesiastical formalism; in philosophy the mechanistic sensationalism of

    Locke yielded to more intuitive approaches to the problem of human con-

    sciousness; legal concepts of guilt and responsibility trembled before a

    mounting pressure to redefine the limits of rational activity; novelists and

    poets extolled the solitary hero who enforced his own set of values against a