Ohio History Journal

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1. Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryant to F. D. R. (New York,

1955), 23.

2. Paul Keith Conkin, Tomorrow a New World: The New Deal Community Pro-

gram (Ithaca, N.Y., 1959), 12-13.

3. Ibid., 23-25; William H. Issel, "Ralph Borsodi and the Agrarian Response to Mod-

ern America," Agricultural History, XLI (April 1967), 155-156. One of the clearest ex-

pressions of this agrarianism was I'll Take My Stand, a ringing manifesto published in

1930 by twelve men associated with Vanderbilt University. The group included Donald

Davidson, Andrew Lytle, Allen Tate, John Crowe Ranson, and Robert Penn Warren.

Though not one of these Southern Agrarians, the Ohio novelist Louis Bromfield also

represented the agrarian viewpoint.

4. Dayton Daily News, March 7, April 25, 1934. Himself the product of rural life

and values, Ford spoke favorably of achieving widespread self-sufficiency on small farms

and in rural communities, after which industry would follow people to the smaller

towns and "many of our problems will be solved." By avocation a gentleman-farmer,

Roosevelt cherished the ideal of finding a new "balance" between country and city. A

brief account of subsistence homesteads and of Roosevelt's interest in them is in Arthur

M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (Boston, 1959), 361-368.

5. Conkin, Tomorrow a New World, 35.

6. Council of Social Agencies, What We Do and Why (Dayton, 1933), 19-21; Council

of Social Agencies, Social Service Directory for Dayton and Montgomery County, Ohio

(Dayton, 1938), 17, 21.

7. Dayton Daily News, April 9, 15, 1933; Dayton Review, January 27, 1933; Ralph

Borsodi, "Dayton, Ohio, Makes Social History," Nation, CXXXVI (April 19, 1933), 447-

448. A contemporary comparative study of production units in Dayton and elsewhere is

L. H. Grinstead and Willis Wissler, Barter Scrip and Production Units As Self-Help De-

vices in Times of Depression (Columbus, Ohio, 1933), 46-66.

8. Dayton Daily News, October 12, November 22, 24, 1933.

9. Ralph Borsodi, "Subsistence Homesteads: President Roosevelt's New Land and

Population Policy," Survey Graphic, XXIII (January 1934), 11-14, 48; "Meeting of Board

of Directors, May 24, 1933," Board and Budget Minutes, 1929-1934 (Dayton Community

Chest Association, typed, bound volume, courtesy of the United Fund, Inc.); "Minutes

of Unit Committee," January 3, 9, 14, 1933, Virginia P. Wood, recording secretary (Pro-

duction Unit Committee, 1933-1934, typed, loose-leaf volume, courtesy of Dayton Health

and Welfare Planning Council), hereinafter cited as "Minutes of Unit Committee." For

Borsodi's own account of his move to Suffern, see his Flight From the City (New York,


10. Conkin, Tomorrow a New World, 26.

11. Especially in Issel, "Ralph Borsodi and the Agrarian Response to Modern Amer-

ica," 155-166.

12. Ralph Borsodi, This Ugly Civilization (New York, 1933), xiii-xiv; Borsodi,

Education and Living (2 vols.; Suffern, N.Y., 1948), I, vii; Dayton Daily News, May 21.


13. Borsodi, This Ugly Civilization, 1, 7, 10, 33-39.