Ohio History Journal

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1. See Neil Thorburn, "William Dean Howells as a Literary Model: The Experience

of Brand Whitlock," Northwest Ohio Quarterly, XXXIX (Winter 1966-67), 22-35. Albert

Jay Nock was a frequent adviser, and portions of Whitlock's autobiographical, Forty

Years of It (New York, 1914), were serialized in The American Magazine, LXXV (Jan-

uary-June 1913). Whitlock corresponded often with Lincoln Steffens, Miss Tarbell, and

other prominent journalists. See the correspondence files ca. 1903-1910, Whitlock Papers,

Library of Congress.

2. Quoted in Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F. D. R. (New

York, 1955), 197-198. Cantwell's article, "Journalism--Magabines," can be found in Harold

E. Stearns, ed., America Now, An Inquiry into Civilization in the United States (New

York, 1938), 345-355.

3. Ibid., 200-201. The traditional interpretation of muckraking is C. C. Regier, The

Era of the Muckrakers (Chapel Hill, 1932); the best and most influential is Louis Filler,

Crusaders for American Liberalism (Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1961). See also Filler's essay

"The Muckrakers: In Flower and Failure," in Donald Sheehan and Harold C. Syrett, eds.,

Essays in American Historiography: Papers Presented in Honor of Allan Nevins (New

York, 1960), 251-270. More recent are David Chalmers, The Social and Political Ideas

of the Muckrakers (New York, 1964); Louis G. Geiger, "Muckrakers--Then and Now,"

Journalism Quarterly, XLIII (Autumn 1966), 469-476; and Stanley K. Schultz, "The

Morality of Politics: The Muckrakers' Vision of Democracy," Journal of American His-

tory, LII (December 1965), 527-547.

4. Judson A. Grenier, "Muckraking and the Muckrakers: A Historical Definition,"

Journalism Quarterly, XXXVII (Autumn 1960), 558.

5. In 1933 Whitlock wrote to his friend Julian Street, "It always irritates me to be

classed with reformers. I never was a reformer. I hate reformers, and most of the time

during the four terms -- eight years -- I served as Mayor I was engaged in a row with

them." Allan Nevins, ed., The Letters and Journal of Brand Whitlock (New York, 1936),

Vol. 1: The Letters, 537.

6. Brand Whitlock, "The City and the Public Utility Corporation," World Today,

XIX (September 1910), 957-964; and "Trust Men Go to Jail," Collier's Weekly, XXXVII

(July 14, 1906), 15, 24, 26. The first article later reappeared as part of Forty Years of It.

7. See for examples Ben B. Lindsey and Harvey J. O'Higgins, The Beast (New York,

1910); and Frederic C. Howe, "A City in the Life-Saving Business," Outlook, LXXXVIII

(January 18, 1908), 123-127, and "A Golden Rule Chief of Police," Everybody's Maga-

zine, XXII (June 1910), 814-823.

8. Brand Whitlock, "What Good Does It Do?" Everybody's Magazine, XVI (May

1907), 579-589. There are a number of letters from prison inmates to Whitlock in the

correspondence files ca. 1903-1910, Whitlock Papers, Library of Congress.

9. Whitlock, "What Good Does It Do?" 585.