Ohio History Journal

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NOTES                                                                         69


quiries into the Communist conspiracies of the 1950's prompted the Cincinnati National

League club to change its totem from "Reds" to "Redlegs."

17. De Witt's Base Ball Guide, 1871, 94.

18. Ellard, Baseball in Cincinnati, 154-158; Chadwick, Scrapbooks, VI, 21-24.

19. Ellard, Baseball in Cincinnati, 161-162.

20. Harper's Weekly, July 3, 1869, July 2, 1870; Cincinnati Commercial, July 1, 2, 3,


21. Cincinnati Commercial, August 27, 28, September 1, 3, 6, 1869; Ellard, Baseball

in Cincinnati, 166-169; Chadwick's Base Ball Manual, 1871, 96.

22. Wright, Note and Account Books, I; Harry Wright, Correspondence of Harry

Wright, Baseball Manager, Volume V 236-237 Spalding Collection New York Public

Library; Chadwick, Scrapbooks, I, 26; Reach Official Base Ball Guide, 1894, 79-85.

23. Cincinnati Commercial, October 29, 1870.

24. Voigt, American Baseball, 32.

25. Ellard, Baseball in Cincinnati, 189, 190-195; Cincinnati Commercial, June 15,


26. Ellard, Baseball in Cincinnati, 210-213; Sporting Life, January 23, 1884; Hy

Turkin and S. C. Thompson, The Official Encyclopedia of Baseball, (New York, 1956), 6.



The author gratefully acknowledges the encouragement and guidance of the late Dr.

Harvey Wish of Case Western Reserve University in the preparation of this paper.

1. Hiram House's more serious rival for the designation of Cleveland's first social

settlement is Goodrich House. Mrs. Samuel Mather financed the building of this social

settlement in Cleveland under the auspices of the Old Stone Church; ground was broken

in April 1896. Henry E. Bourne, vice-president of the first board of trustees, in The First

Four Decades: Goodrich House (Cleveland, 1938), 13, writes in regard to the founding:

Probably no one would push back the date to April, 1896, when the building it-

self was begun. It is doubtful whether anyone would insist that it began only on the

date of formal opening, May 20, 1897. Of course, the legal terminus a quo was May

15 [1897], when the Settlement was incorporated .... The first meeting for organiza-

tion occurred on December 9, 1896, when also a Board of Directors ... was chosen.

Actual settlement work had begun two months earlier [October 1896], when Mr.

Chadwallader came to Cleveland to take charge.

Cooperation was good between the two settlements. George Bellamy served for a time on

the Goodrich House board while Mr. and Mrs. Mather contributed heavily to both. A

third Cleveland settlement, Friendly Inn, claims 1874 as its founding date, but this is

the date of establishment of the Inn's parent organization.

2. Autobiographical notes, George A. Bellamy Papers, Western Historical Society.

3. Membership list of the New England Society of Cleveland and the Western Re-

serve; see also Roland Wolcott to Bellamy, December 8, 1944, Bellamy Papers.

4. Address delivered by Bellamy before the National Federation of Settlements, May

26, 1926, Bellamy Papers. Taylor, in turn, credited Jane Addams with influencing him

to begin settlement work.

5. Historical Report of the Sixteen Years of Hiram House (Hiram House, 1912), 5.

6. Second Annual Report (Hiram House, 1898), 19.

7. Louise C. Wade, Graham Taylor: Pioneer for Social Justice (Chicago, 1964), 82.

The best secondary source for relating the settlement movement to the progressive era

is Allen F. Davis, Spearheads for Reform (New York, 1967). Davis' book contains a

number of examples of settlement workers attempting through studies and political

activities to bring about various reforms. Two outstanding book-length examples of

early settlement house studies are: Residents of Hull House, Hull House Maps and

Papers (New York, 1895) and Residents of South End House, The City Wilderness

(Boston, 1898).

8. George A. Bellamy, "City Housing with Special Reference to Cleveland," Decem-

ber 28, 1901, Bellamy Papers.

9. Oscar Handlin, in The Uprooted (Boston, 1951), illustrates the many ways in

which the immigration experience placed strains on family life, often altering tradi-