Ohio History Journal



Archaeological and Historical















The ancient church of the Unitas Fratrum, the United Breth-

ren, or Moravians, as they became widely known from their

original home-land, was all but utterly destroyed by the persecu-

tions that accompanied the Thirty Years' War. Fleeing their

native fields, the Moravians turned to Saxony and Silesia, where

greater liberty of conscience was permitted; in the year 1722

emigrants arrived at Berthelsdorf, upper Lusatia, on the estate

of the noble Zinzendorf. Here, through the liberality of their

new-found protector, the exiles built Hutberg, the colony later

receiving the name Herrnhut; this was the first congregation of

the renewed church of the United Brethren.*

*Unless specially indicated my sources of information for this

chapter are: [Benj. La Trobe] A Succinct View of The Missions Estab-

lished Among the Heathen (London, 1770), G. H. Loskiel, History of

the Mission of the United Brethren Among the Indians in North Am-

erica (London, 1794), John Holmes, Historical Sketches of the Missions

of the United Brethren (Dublin, 1818), and John Heckewelder, A Nar-

rative of the Mission of the United Brethren Among the Delaware and

Mohegan Indians (Philadelphia, 1820).

Vol. XXI--1.            (1)

2 Ohio Arch

2        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

In the year 1731 Count Zinzendorf attended the coronation

at Copenhagen of Christian VI., King of Denmark. While in

the Danish capital the Count's servants became acquainted with

a negro from the island of St. Thomas in the West Indies, who

expressed the desire of himself and sister to find the way of sal-

vation. This report coming to Zinzendorf revived a hope for-

merly entertained by him that the Unitas Fratrum would one

day be able to send the Gospel message to foreign shores. The

enthusiasm of the Brethren knew no bounds. The negro came

to Herrnhut from Copenhagen to repeat his story, and, learning

that in order to be of genuine service among the West Indies

slaves it would be necessary to labor with them, two Brethren

offered to go and even to sell themselves into slavery if that

were necessary.

Within a short period missionaries were sent out from the

six hundred Brethren to St. Thomas and St. Croix, to Green-

land, Surinam, Rio De Berbice, North and South America, Lap-

land, Tartary, Guinea, Africa and India. The heroism shown at

New Herrnhut (1733) was reproduced further south in Green-

land at Lichtenfels (1758) "Rocks of Light," and Lichtenau

(1774) "Meadows of Light."-as it was half a century later in

Ohio at Lichtenau on the Muskingum. The Light of the

World, through these six hundred exiles in Saxony, was to

shine far and wide on rocks and meadows. In far Labrador

was founded Hopedale (1752), Nain in United Harbour (1770),

Okkak (1775), a second Hopedale (1776). In South America

Pilgerhut on the Rio De Berbice was occupied in 1738, Sharon

built on the Sarameca in 1747, Ephraim in 1759 and Hoope, on

the Corentyn, in 1765, Bambey, "Only Wait," on the Sarameca

in 1773, New Bambey on Wana Creek in 1785, Paramaribo in

1767 and Sommelsdyke in 1765. The Danish West Indies were

first entered when Dover and Nitschman went to St. Thomas

Island in 1732; when Zinzendorf visited the new Herrnhut of the

West Indies seven years later he found a worshipping congre-

gation of negroes numbering eight hundred. St. Croix was vis-

ited in 1734, resulting in the founding of Friedensthal, Friedens-

berg and Friedensfield.  Brukker lived at Bethany on St. Jan

in 1754, and a church was erected in Emmaus in 1778.

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                  3


In 1737 George Schmidt, pilgrim to the heathen of Africa

from little Herrnhut, reached Capetown and erected a mission

station 120 miles to the eastward in Bavian's Kloof, "Baboon's

Glen". Later abandoned, it was renewed in 1792 and in 1801 the

name was changed to Gnadenthal, "Vale of Grace", indicating

the result of the decade of work. A mission was later estab-

lished in far Gruenekloof- 1700 miles from Capetown behind

"the great Nomaqua." Gnadenthal, "Vale of Grace" beside the

Sonderland was typical of Gnadenhutten "Tents of Grace" in

both Pennsylvania and Ohio; the spirit of the faithful Moravians

was unaltered whatever the clime or nation.

Catharine of Russia in 1764 invited the Unitas Fratrum to

establish a mission on the Volga, and five missionaries went

thither a year later among the Kalmucks and built Schoenbrunn

hard by the high road to Persia, two thousand miles from St.

Petersburgh. Like Schoenbrunn-on-the-Muskingum, this mis-

sion was uprooted by war, but was re-established. In 1815 mis-

sionaries were sent out to the far Torgot clan of the Kalmucks -

where the demand was so great for the recently translated gospel

of St. Matthew that as many as thirty copies were given out

in one day.

Other missions were established in Lapland (1734), Guinea

(1737), Algiers (1739), Ceylon (1740), Persia (1747), Egypt

(1752), Nicobar Islands (1759), and Tobago (1789).

In November, 1734, a number of brethren under the leader-

ship of John Toltschig, Anthony Seiffart and (afterwards)

Bishop Spangenberg, left Herrnhut for North America, as the

result of Count Zinzendorf's being offered a tract of land by

the Trustees of Georgia; the purpose of the Trustees was to

have the gospel preached to the neighboring Creeks, Chicka-

saws and Cherokees. The missionaries arrived at Savannah

in 1735 and were soon at work. Unsettled conditions, due to

the Spanish activities against the Colony, resulted in the Mo-

ravians migrating to Pennsylvania in 1740. The activity of

Spangenberg, who had visited Pennsylvania, in arousing interest

in the mission to the American Indians determined several de-

voted men to proceed at once to the great field of work in Amer-

ica. One of these, Christian Henry Rauch, arrived in New

4 Ohio Arch

4        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


York in July, 1740. The line of least resistance for this notable

missionary enterprise was found to be through the early-planted

settlements of Germans in Pennsylvania and Dutch on the Hud-

son in New York. Rauch found in New York City some visit-

iting Mohican Indians* from western Connecticut; proceeding

thither by way of the North River, missions were established

at the Indian towns Shekomeko and Pachgatgoch, where several

missionaries including Gottlieb Buttner and Martin Mack and

others labored for many years.

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, became the headquarters of the

Moravian Church in the new world. The initial step was taken

toward location at this point by the Rev. George Whitfield, who

invited the immigrants from Georgia to settle on the Leheigh

on a tract of land he had purchased in the expectation of found-

ing here a free school for negro children; he had already laid

here the foundation of a stone house and had named the place

Nazareth. The Moravians, however, purchased from a Phila-

delphia gentleman a tract of land to which they gave the name

of Bethlehem. In 1743 they also purchased the manor begun by

Whitfield and completed the stone building. From this center,

as from a city set on a hill, shone out at once a great light

through the wilderness to the north and west of unparalleled

grandeur. If the nobility of the heroism of the Jesuit and

Recollect fathers of Canada could be excelled, that of the

Moravian missionaries proceeding from this center had done

so; and among the latter role you will find none who sacrificed

a tithe of spiritual power for worldly power; not one of them

furthered, by a single act or glance, any temporal interest, except

only the cause of freedom represented by the Revolutionary

struggle which gave birth to our Republic; and today above the

staid, quiet streets of our own American Bethlehem "shineth

the everlasting light."

Zinzendorf, patron of the missions of the Moravian Church,

visited America and in 1742 made three journeys from Bethlehem

among the Indians, the first to the Schulkill by way of Clisto-

wacka and Pochapuchkung and returning by Meniolagomekah,

the second to Shekomeko and the third to Shamokin on the Sus-

* Moravian Records, 1, 36, 108, 141, or Ohio State Arch. and Hist.

Soc. Pub. XXI (Jan., 1910).

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                5

quehanna, returning by way of Otstonwackin and Wajomick.

On another occasion he visited Tulpehokin, Berks Co., Penna.,

with Conrad Weiser and on the journey fell in with an embassy

from the Onondaga and Cayuga nations of the Iroquois Con-

federacy returning from Philadelphia. These invited the Count

and his brethren to visit the Iroquois land. In 1741 Christopher

Pyrlaeus, a graduate of Leipsic, had arrived in Bethlehem. In

1743, after three months with Conrad Weiser at Tulpehokin

studying the Mohawk language he went with his wife "into the

interior part of the Iroquois country", writes Loskiel, "and took

up his abode with the English missionary in Juntarogu". Here

and at other points he acquired sufficient knowledge of the

language to conduct in Bethlehem, the year following, a class

of missionary candidates for work in the Iroquois land. Fred-

erick Christian Post and David Zeisberger were of this class

and in 1745 these secured an opportunity to put their learning to

a test by making a journey to the Mohawk Valley; seized by

the suspicious English they were taken to Albany, and impris-

oned, but were later freed. In 1750 Zeisberger returned to the

capital of the Onondaga nation with Bishop Frederick Cammer-

hof who had come to assist Bishop Spangenberg superintend the

American missions; two years previous Cammerhof had gone

to Shamokin with a view to seeking an entrance of missionaries

into the land of the Six Nations, but did not proceed onward

at that time. The route was by way of the Tioaga tributary of

the Susquehanna. On June 19th they reached Onondaga on the

"river Zinochfoa," Onondaga Creek. Ziesberger served as in-

terpreter as the two journeyed about in the Long House, suffer-

ing the abuse of drunken savages, the women worse than the

men; permission was secured from the Grand Council "that two

Brethren should have leave to live either in Onondaga or some

other town to learn their language." Between 1745 and 1750

two Indian mission stations were established in Pennsylvania,

Friedenshutten (I) near Bethlehem, and Gnadenhutten, near the

junction of Mahony Creek and the Leheigh, tents of peace and

grace, such as the brave emissaries of this Church had founded

on the other Continents, to which many of the converts from

Shekomeko removed thither as the French War disturbed the

6 Ohio Arch

6        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

New England frontiers. In 1751 Zeisberger and Gottfried Rundt

left for Onondaga, conformably to the stipulations agreed upon

during the former visit. After a sojourn of some four months,

during which time they paid a visit to the Tuscarawas and Cayuga

nations, they returned to Bethlehem. Zeisberger returned the

year after with Henry Frey and spent six months; he was com-

pelled then to return owing to the war-clouds which filled the

sky. Good progress had been made in the work nearer home

in these years but the Old French War now brought terror and

despondency; the story of these desperate years, when the Iro-

quois, who were allied with the French cause, threw their raiding

parties into Pennsylvania is a pitiful one. Many of the con-

verts flocked to Bethlehem; later the mission town of Nain was

established nearby. The brave Post, driven from his work at

Wyoming and awaiting opportunity for future service at Beth-

lehem, now went on his peace missions to Fort Pitt for the gov-

ernment of Pennsylvania, and achieved signal success.

Upon the cessation of hostilities in 1763 Zeisberger visited

Machiwihilusing on the Susquehanna and later took up his abode

there as resident missionary, but was recalled on the outbreak of

Pontiac's Rebellion. Another period of suffering and horror

ensued, lasting until Bouquet put an end to the last flickering

flame of rebellion. With returning peace the important mission

station of Friedenshutten (II) was established on the Susque-

hanna opposite the mouth of Sugar Run and the work at large

was once more renewed. In 1766 Zeisberger again went into

the Iroquois land at the invitation of a Cayuga chieftain. To

settle a dispute which had arisen Zeisberger returned to Beth-

lehem for instructions and was promptly sent to Onondaga for

information, arriving there October 26th, where the misunder-

standings (relating to the settlement of Friedenshutten) were

satisfactorily explained and the missionary returned. "In this

year" writes Loskiel, "a solemn embassy arrived in Friedens-

hutten, sent by the Delawares in Goschgoschuenk on the Ohio

[Allegheny], the Delamattenoos* and Gachpast, for themselves

and thirteen other nations. They proceeded by way of Zeninge

to Onondaga, and thence home again. Their view was to es-

* Wyandots. + Probably Iroquois.

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                  7

tablish a general peace among all the Indian nations". Possibly it

was from this source+ that a call came to the Brethren to send

a missionary to Goschgoschuenk, a Monsey town at the junction

of Tionesta Creek and the Allegheny in Venango Co., Penna.

This journey which Zeisberger now made in answer to the sum-

mons marks the entrance of the Moravian missionaries into the

trans-Allegheny country, marking a new epoch in the great work

of evangelization fostered by this noble Church. The Allegheny

proved but a stepping-stone into the Ohio Basin, and in Ohio

was the largest success, from many points of view, achieved.

This birds-eye view of the almost unparalleled record of

missionary endeavor on three continents, however meagre, is

necessary to give the reader a little knowledge of the circum-

stances under which the Moravians came to be a prominent factor

in the history of the Middle West. The interested reader will

find in the formal histories of the Moravian Church the de-

tails of this great missionary story. As the succeeding Records

appear the advance of the movement will be indicated, as the

diaries, journals and reports carry us onward into Ohio, Indiana

and Canada.                   ARCHER BUTLER HULBERT.

Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio, Apr. 14, 1911.

+ See Notes 55, 59.

8 Ohio Arch

8         Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.





20th TO NOV. 16th, 1767.

[The first movement of the Moravian missionaries toward "Ohio,"

as the trans-Allegheny region was generally known in the middle of the

eighteenth century, was David Zeisberger's visit to the Monsey town at

the mouth of Tionesta Creek on the Allegheny River in 1767. This

journey paved the way for the advance to the Muskingum River five

years later, when Ohio proper became the scene of the greatest missionary

endeavor among the American Indians attempted in the United States

by any Protestant church authorities in that century. As the accompany-

ing notes show, the interpretations of the record which is now published

in full for the first time, are drawn largely from the Pennsylvania

Archives and Records, De Schweinitz's invaluable Life and Times of

David Zeisberger, the various histories of the Moravian missions, here-

tofore noted, and Charles A. Hanna's monumental reference work The

Wilderness Trail. The reader will recall that the bloody days in the

Allegheny Valley of Pontiac's Rebellion were but just passed, and will

do well to review that story as told in Parkman's works. It should be

stated that the titles of these manuscripts were not given to them by

the authors but by those at Bethlehem into whose hands they came for

circulating and filing in the Archives. To these titles, given by Church

officers, we adhere throughout. Notes concerning persons, places, etc.,

mentioned more than once are often given in the first instance only; the

index will always direct the reader to the explanations and interpreta-

tions of any proper name.]

Report having come a year ago, though of somewhat un-

trustworthy nature, that there were along the Ohio1 Indians

desirous of hearing the Gospel, it was thought proper, in view

of the fact that the Moravians are not very well known in that

region, to arrange for a tour of investigation, in order to learn

whether anything could be done there. Hence it came about

that on September 20th I started on a journey thither, in com-

pany with the Brethren John Bonn2 and David Zeisberger3. In

the evening of that day we reached the second range of the Blue

Mountains, called the Wolf Range4, where we spent the night.

On the 21st we traversed the Great Swamp5 and reached the Sus-

quehannah on the 22nd, where we met with Br. Marcus6 from

Friedenshutten7. In his company I journeyed up the Susque-

hannah on the morning of the 23rd, John Bonn and David Zeis-

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                9


berger returning. I reached Friedenshuetten on the 24th. Br.

Anton8, who was the first to see me as I entered the town,

greeted me very cordially, as did all the other inhabitants of

the place.

I found Brother and Sister Schmueck9 very well, and we

were very happy to be able to see each other. On the 25th Br.

Schmueck and I had an interview with Anton concerning my

tour of investigation, since he had previously intimated that he

would be glad to accompany me on a trip in that direction:

Accordingly, I asked him whether he were still so minded.' He

immediately answered, "Kehella" (Yes, it is so). He was not

only willing but glad to undertake such a journey, and he, also,

told us that John10 would be very glad to go along, if he were

asked to do so. We summoned John and asked him concerning

the matter. He declared that he had long cherished the desire

to do something for the Saviour, if only the Brethren would

send him. Both men were at the time engaged in house-buildingll

and their corn was ready to be harvested, but they would suffer

neither the one thing nor the other to keep them back. When

the other members of the Indian congregation heard that these

men were to undertake this journey, they helped them not only

to build their houses but, also, to garner in their corn. In the

evening Conference was notified of the arrangements, and all

rejoiced in the hope that some good for the Lord's Kingdom

might result therefrom. I have indeed witnessed that our Indian

converts are very willing to lend a hand when something is to

be done in the service of the Saviour, and they do whatever is

in their power for the good of their nation. From the 26th to

the 29th I found much pleasure in visiting the Indians in their

dwellings. Many were engaged in building log houses. They

build very neat houses of hewn timber, with chimneys and glass

windows, and fit them up very tastefully. At the present time,

there are over forty houses here. It is unfortunate that there

is no proper pasturage near the settlement, for the Indians have

their cattle, hogs and horses. This will probably compel them

to start another settlement along the Susquehannah. They have

excellent land for corn and other plantation purposes, but they

are sadly in need of pasturage and hay-fields, because their herds

10 Ohio Arch

10       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

increase each year, and the chase yields less year by year to sup-

ply material for the most necessary clothing, which is little


We wished to start on the 29th, but a steady rain forced us

to give up the plan. On the 30th we were able to leave Friedens-

huetten and came late in the evening, wet through because of

continued rain, to the house of an Indian named Sind, with

whom we spent the night. His wife is a Mohican. We taught

them concerning the Saviour and His love for the children of

men. On the 1st of October we crossed the Susquehannah and

reached Tschechschequaningk13, where we met the Monsy [Mon-

sey] Chief, Echgohund, who could tell us nothing but evil of the

Ohio and declared that the people there lived wretchedly and did

nothing but drink to excess. Anton thought that the chief spoke

thus, because in his opinion there were enough Indians along

the Susquehannah to whom we could preach (for we had in-

formed him of the purpose of our journey) and it would not

be necessary for us to make so long a tour.

Inasmuch as the men of the place were all away, engaged in

the chase, and there were only the women at home, I saw that

there was nothing for us to do here and we continued our jour-

ney, passing Diaogu14 and coming in the afternoon, after we had

crossed the Tiaogu,15 to several Tutelar huts16 where we stopped.

They gave us something to eat, having shot many deer and bear

and being occupied in preparing a feast. We went on, meeting

many Indians from Wilawane17 who had been invited to the feast,

arriving in that village in the evening. This is a new town of

the Monsey Indians who moved hither last spring from Cayuga

Lake.18  Finding but very few people at home- some old people

and a blind man whom we instructed concerning the Saviour-

we continued our journey on the 2nd of October up the Tiaogu,

going through many flats where the grass and weeds were so

high as to reach above a man on horse-back, and our clothing,

in consequence, became thoroughly wet. In the afternoon we

passed Wenschikochpiechen19, a beautiful location for a settle-

ment. For the first time since our leaving Friedenshuetten

we spent the night in the woods. On the 3rd we passed, early

in the morning, through the so-called great Flat,20 about three

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                11


miles long lying along the Tiaogu, and were again subjected to a

thorough wetting. At noon we reached Assinissingk,21 where

the famous Monsey Chief, Jachcapus,22 had lived, who had burned

the settlement on the Mahoni,23 whose town was afterward

plundered and burned by the Mohawks, he himself being taken

prisoner, and who later lost his life in the late war.

Here there are curiosities to be seen, namely, pyramids of

stone that seem to have been built by hand of man.24 Hence, the

name of the place. The pyramids are of various sizes and forms.

Some are round, others oval, still others have sharp corners.

The largest are two or three stories high and built up to a very

sharp point. On the apex of most there seems to lie a flat stone,

as if put there to keep out the rain. The pyramids rise per-

pendicularly from a very steep mountain.25  They appear as

though built up of stones and clay, though they are not as smooth

as a wall. It seems to me that they are formed of rock, seamed

with veins, which can easily be taken apart because there is clay

in all of the veins. The stones are soft, as though they were

in a state of decomposition. Upon being broken open they are

seen to be hard within and are of a dark blue color. Whether

these pyramids are natural formations or have been reared by

human hands I leave to others to determine. The Indians whom

I asked about the matter had no information to give.26

At this place the Tiaogu divides, one branch extending north-

ward into the land of the Senecas, the other westward. We

proceeded along the latter. We passed Gachtochwawunok27 and

Noapassisqu,28 two old Indian towns, going over very wild and

rugged road, and spent the night on the bank of the west branch

of the Tiaogu. It rained on the 4th, yet we continued our jour-

ney, finding it difficult to keep to the trail, because often it

could not be distinguished. In the evening we had lost it alto-

gether, so that we did not know how to proceed, for Anton and

John did not know this region. We, therefore, pitched camp.

John walked, the same evening, some distance into the woods,

toward the north, to look for the trail. During the night, he

returned with the good news that he had found it again.29 On the

5th we met an Indian with two squaws, who had come from

Goschgoschingk30 and this was the eleventh day since they had

12 Ohio Arch

12       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

set out. We realized, then, that we had a longer road before

us than we had thought. We were indeed, glad to have met in

this wilderness a human being from whom it was possible to

learn something concerning the road, for my Indian brethren

did not know this country. Toward evening we passed again

through a flat and we spent the night on the blank of the west

branch of the Tiaogu. During the forenoon of the 6th we reached

Pasigachkunk,31 an old deserted Indian town, and the last on the

Tiaogu, where, in course of the last war, Post was stopped on his

journey to the Ohio and obliged to return, because the Indians

would not allow him to pass.32 Up to this point it would be possi-

ble to travel by water on the Tiagu. Proceeding from this pace,

we struck the wrong trail. When we found that we were going

too far to the south, John went northward through the woods in

search of another trail. Presently, he found one, which we

thought would take us in the right direction. We soon left the

Tiaogu altogether and, crossing a height whence the Tiaogu

springs, came into the great Swamp,33 in which we were obliged

to travel until it was pitch dark before we found water. We

had heavy rain. It is interesting that upon this ridge, as I

have several times observed to be the case farther north, all

land-rains come from the west and north-west, and rarely from

the east as is the case in Pennsylvania. Cause for this I take to

be not the ocean to the west of America but the Great Lakes to

the west and north-west.34

On the 7th it continued raining, nevertheless we started out

and crossed the so-called Zoneschio Creek,35 which runs into the

land of the Senecas, where I had formerly been with Br. Cam-

merhof,36 and thence empties into Lake Ontario. We pushed

on again until late at night, but found no water. We pitched

camp. John went a long distance in search of water, finally

returning with a kettle full, so that we were able to quench our

thirst. On the 8th, after crossing some rising ground, we came

to the source of the Ohio, which at that place has no greater

volume than the spring at Christianspring.37  Here, to my great

delight, I saw for the first time a pine forest in America. The

two Indians with me did not know what kind of wood it was,

for they had never seen the like.38 They had much trouble today

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                13


in keeping the trail because in places there is for several miles

no visible trace of its having been followed by man. Occa-

sionay, we came upon elk tracks (this is a kind of deer that is

found in Europe also) which have the appearance of a trail.39

We were misled by them into a terrible wilderness, so that it was

necessary to retrace our steps and stop until John had had an

opportunity to go through the woods and find the right trail.

We covered a considerable distance today and were very tired,

as both yesterday and today we had been obliged to work our

way through the wildest and densest woods imaginable (even

the two Indians, who are accustomed to the forest, were sur-

prised at the character of this wilderness) coming in the evening

to the bank of the Ohio, where the stream is already twice as

broad as the Manakosy,40 at Bethlehem, and where it is possible

to use the canoe. It seems that here, also, the Indians are accus-

tomed to make canoes to go down stream, for there was evidence

that both bark canoes and wood canoes had been made.41 The

most convenient way from Wyoming, therefore, would be by

water to Passiquachkunk, then two days journey over land to

the Ohio, where canoes could be made for the trip down stream.

On the 9th we traveled down the Ohio, with the shream to our

left. This evening we came out of this very dense swamp, in

which we had marced four days and which is incomparably wild.

It rained during the night. We came upon the first hut in the

forest, in which we spent the night, having been obliged thus far

to sleep in the open. On the 10th at noon we arrived in a Seneca

town,42 having the comfort of traveling on good road. The peo-

ple invited us to stop, which we did, and they gave us food. I

expected to be put through an examination, because I am quite

unknown in this region. The right parties for this, however,

were not at home, only the younger people who were very

friendly. But as we were about to go further a Seneca Indian

mounted his horse and rode swiftly, this very day, into the next

town, which is at least thirty miles from here. I could, there-

fore, conclude that I should not be allowed to go on without


At noon on the 11th we reached the next town, Tiozinosson-

gochta.44 A Seneca of respectable appearance stood before his

14 Ohio Arch

14       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

house (afterwards I learned that it was the chief) and we went

directly toward him. I greeted him in a friendly manner, but

he preserved a serious mien. Food was brought out for my

two Indian companions, while I was called into the house and

served there. The Indian sat down beside me and began to

question me as to whence I had come and whither I was going

I told him that I wished to go to Goschgosching to visit the

Indians there. He asked whether that were all. I answered,

"Yes, that is it and nothing else." He was silent for a while,

then he began again, saying, "but how comes it that you travel

such an unfrequented road, which is no road for whites and on

which no white man has ever come?" I replied that my business

among the Indians was very different from that of other whites

and that, therefore, my mode of travel was of peculiar char-

acter, since I came not for trade, or exchange, or of personal

gain, but only in order to tell the Indians great and good words.

"What kind of words are these ?" said he, "I would like to know

them also." I said, "I come to tell them words of life, how

they may believe in God and be saved. Are not these good

words?" "No," said he, "that is not for the Indians." "How

so?" said I, "do you not regard the Indians as human beings?

shall they not be saved? shall they be lost? and how shall they

be saved if they hear nothing of the Redeemer?" He answered,

"Yes, indeed, the Indians are men, even as are the whites, but

God has created them differently, he has given them game for

food, this they must hunt in the wilderness, wherever they can

find it, that is their calling; but of the Scriptures they know

nothing, for these He has not given them, they could not learn

them, as they are too difficult for them. To the white He has

given the Scriptures, and yet there are both among the Indians

and the whites bad people, who live in sin. How is that? Tell

me, in what respect are the whites better than the Indians,

though they know the Scriptures?" I said to him, "It is true

that the Indians must support themselves by the chase, for such

is their manner of life. They know nothing of the Scriptures

nor of God's word, and how they are to come to Him and be

saved. Therefore, these things must be made known to them

for they are intended not only for the whites but for the Indians

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as well; they, also, must know them, and herein is the purpose

of my journey. I will not preach to them that they must learn

the Scriptures, that would be difficult for them, especially for the

old people (the young people might yet learn them and it would

be a good thing were they to do so), I will say to them that they

ought to believe in God and learn to know Him, that is the main

thing and not too difficult for them." He said, "How can one

learn to know Him, as no one has seen Him, I have never heard

that anyone has seen Him."45 I said, "No one can see Him,

but we shall see Him some time, when I do not know, but it

is certain that we shall see Him. Whoever believes in Him feels

Him in his heart, thus one learns to know Him. That there

are among whites as well as among Indians those who live in

sin is due to the fact that they do not believe in God, although

the former know the Scriptures." I further asked him, "You

surely believe that there is a god, who has created heaven and

earth and men?" He said that he did. "But have you ever

heard," said I, "that the Creator of heaven and earth came to the

world and became a man like as we are, that He hung upon the

cross, shed His blood, died upon the cross, was buried, rose

again on the third day and then ascended to heaven? Consider

that our God and Creator has shed His blood and died on the

cross. What can be the reason for this and why has He done

so?" He thought a while and then answered, "That I have

never heard, and if what you say is true then the Indians are

certainly not guilty of His death, as the whites are." I answered

him, "All people on the whole earth, white, black and brown,

are the cause of these things. For after men were created they

did not remain as they were but fell into sin through disobedience,

and Satan has secured power over men, that they must be the

servants of sin; on this account God was obliged to come from

heaven, to become a man and shed His blood. Thereby He has

delivered us from the power of Satan, so that now all who be-

lieve in Him shall not perish but have everlasting life." "See,"

said I, "these are the words which I have to say to the Indians.

Do you think the Indians have been created for no other reason

than that they should chase deer, bear and other game in the

forest? Surely, they have been created for a nobler purpose,

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and, believe me, that it is God's will and good pleasure that they

shall be saved." Thereupon he asked me, what I should do, if the

Indians in Goschgosching would receive my words, whether I

should remain there? I said to him, "For the present I would

hardly remain there, for I only came to find out whether they

had ears to hear, and if I learned that they heard gladly, I should

probably return in a year's time."  Then he asked for my

name and when I gave him my Indian name, he looked at me

and smiled, called me his brother and said, that though he had

not seen me he knew my name and was glad that he had spoken

with me; for when he had received word the evening before that

a white man had come that way, he had thought much over the

matter and concluded that I had come to look at this land and

region, to learn about it, to make a survey of it and take the

sketch to the whites.46 Hence, he was glad to have learned of

my purpose and desired that I should not be surprised at his

having spoken so harshly with me at first. He told me, further,

that he believed that I should accomplish something among the

Indians at Goschgosching, because there was nothing but sorcery

among them, as indeed, among all the Delawares, and if they were

not well disposed toward someone, they did something to him

so that he died in a few days. He gave me several examples of

this supposed to have been based on fact, and said, "If anyone

were a good hunter and secured many deer, he might be envied

by another and something would be done to him so that he would

become blind in a few days." Thereof I should see examples,

and I should think of his words when I got to their land. Again,

if anyone wished to marry a woman and she refused, the woman

would have to reflect that she might be dead in a day or two.

He declared that there were many such sorcerers among the Dela-

wares, and even if one should think that one were dealing with

an honest man one would not dare to trust him for fear of losing

life through witchcraft;47 he wished, therefore, to warn me that

I might have some such experience. I told him that I was not

afraid of them, for they would not be able to do anything to me,

without the will of the God in whom I believed. The more nec-

essary, also, was it that they should hear of the Saviour, and if

they learned to believe in the Saviour they would give up their

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evil works. "Yes," he said, "they will probably say with the

mouth that they believe but in their hearts hold to their sorcery,

for this they will not give up. Among the Senecas there are,

also, sorcerers, but not so many." I said, "So you, also, have

such people among you; I had always heard that they were not

tolerated among the Six Nations, then you need to hear of the

Saviour as much as do the Delawares." At parting I said

to him that I had spoken with him of many things and knew that

he would not remember all that I had told him, one word, there-

fore, I wished to repeat, in order that he might not forget it,

namely, that our God and Creator had come from heaven and

become a man and had shed His blood for us. Of this he

should frequently think and he would find that it would touch his

heart. He promised so to do. After I had talked with him two

hours so that my Indian companions outside were wondering,

I parted from him in a friendly manner, and we continued our

journey. The chief's wife had listened to our whole conver-

sation and had been very attentive; all the time that I spoke she

did not take her eye from me.48

On the morning of the 12th, it rained and during the re-

mainder of the day, continuing until midnight, there was a heavy

fall of snow. The snow-storm came from the north-west and

was the first of the season. During the whole of this journey

we were generally obliged to spend the night out in the open

and to cover ourselves with our blankets as well as we could.

On this occasion we had a very rought, cold, uneven couch, in a

place where there seemed to be nothing but rocks. On the

morning of the 13th we came to another Seneca town.49 Here

I met two Onondaga Indians, namely, the brother of the speaker

in Onondaga and another who had seen me in Onondaga a year

ago and knew me.50 The former asked us to sit down at his

fire and served us with meat. Soon the men of the town gath-

ered about us, they were very friendly and had no objection to

offer to my journey. I was obliged, however, to submit to an

entertainment that was not so pleasant for me. They all pressed

me to remain with them for the day, in order to partake of a feast

they were preparing for the whole town. I wished to decline the

Vol. XXI-2.

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honor and said to them that I was anxious not to lose any time,

the winter being near and there being already so heavy a fall of

snow that I feared being snowed in. But they insisted that I

should remain with them, because it was the first time I had

come into their town. I was obliged to yield, therefore, doing

them a favor instead of their doing me one. We were, accord-

ingly, brought into the great house and given quarters there.

Two great kettles of meat were immediately hung over the fire

and the Indians of the town came in. They discussed and in-

quired about various matters, amongst the rest, the report that

Sir William Johnson was displeased with the Six Nations be-

cause they were going to war against the Cherokees.51 They

had heard of it and wondered whether I knew anything about it.

I replied that I had heard nothing of the matter, but that the

report was very probably true, because I knew that the governors

did not like it that they should wage war against the Indians

of the south. I, further, stated that I regarded it as their best

policy to put a end to their wars and live in peace and tranquility.

In the meantime, the food had been prepared. All dressed and

painted themselves in honor of the feast. The repast proceeded

in a quiet and orderly manner. So soon as the food had been

consumed they hung fresh meat over the fire, for they had about

six deer to consume. With the approach of night they pre-

pared for the dance, which might seem very terrible to one not

accustomed to the like. They stripped themselves of all their

clothing except the strowds girt about their loins and painted

both body and face. As soon as singing and the beating of the

drum - composed of a small tub with a deer-skin stretched across

began, they all went out, only to return shortly in terrible fury,

armed with clubs and tomahawks (hatchets), dancing and leaping

so that the earth trembled and the house was filled with dust and

ashes. The food that was being prepared, meat and soup, was,

in consequence, thoroughly spiced with ashes. Though they

were stripped, they sweat like horses and were obliged now

and then to go out and cool off. They went through all the exer-

cises of the war dance and, this over, began the singing of hero-

songs, the drum beating time, in which they celebrated all their

heroic deeds, including the claim that they had sometimes de-

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feated the English. When they saw that I wished to rest, they

asked me whether I wished to sleep. I answered, "Yes." Then

they brought the ceremonies to a close with another meal, after

which each one retired quietly to his own house. Thereupon,

I read the daily texts to my two companions by the firelight, and

we spent the remainder of the night in undisturbed slumber.52

With the break of day on the 14th we continued our journey

down along the Ohio, which here runs through a mountainous

region. Thus far we had not come upon any mountains on our

journey, but here they began and the further down stream we

went the higher they became. In places it was difficult to proceed,

particularly with horses, because it was necessary, in order to

skirt the mountains, to go very close to the edge of the river-

bank. The river runs in a west-south-westerly direction, so far

as I have followed it. Today we passed through the first flat

in this region, having thus far traversed only swampy ground.

On the 15th we should, according to all information we had

from the Indians, have reached Goschgosching by noon. After

we had proceeded briskly up to two o'clock in the afternoon and

then come to a cross-road, we became aware that we had gone

wrong. We did not know what direction to follow, for here we

had no knowledge of the country, and none of us knew where

Goschgosching lay. After some reflection and consideration of

the course we had taken during the day, from which we concluded

that we had gone too far to the right and thus passed the place

we wished to reach, we agreed to take the cross-road to the

left, the course of which appeared to be southeast, and marched

until evening without knowing where we were. This morning

we had consumed all the provisions we had taken with us, think-

ing to be at our journey's end in a few hours. That expectation

not having been realized, we were obliged to lie down to rest

hungry as we were, having gone all day without food and pushed

our way through wild forest on an unbeaten trail-later we

learned that it was an old warriors' trail leading to Venango, now

no longer used.53

It seemed as though on the morning of the 16th we should

be obliged to leave camp hungry, but a breakfast was providen-

tially provided, for at break of day a flock of wild turkeys came

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flying and settled down on the trees about us. Anton shot one

of them. We plucked it at once and found that its skin was

nowhere pierced. He had missed and the fowl had fallen so

that the dog could catch it. After thankfully consuming it, we

proceeded and in the early forenoon, rather sooner than we ex-

pected, got out of the mountains, so that we were able to see

the Ohio again and Goschgoschingk54 at no great distance before

us. We were very thankful. We found that we had gone

twenty miles out of our way and had nearly covered half the

way to Venango, formerly a French fort.

We were heartily welcomed in the town and given a lodging

in the house of one who was a close friend of John.55 The Ohio

is here already more than twice as broad as the Delaware at

Eastown56 and is a beautiful stream, navigable for canoes and

boats. Goschgosching consists of three towns. We had arrived

at the middle one, another lies two miles up the river and the

third four miles down the river. Before the day was out I

announced through Anton and John that I had come hither for

no other purpose than to visit them and asked them to assemble

the inhabitants of the three towns, for I had words to com-

municate to them.

Accordingly, messengers were sent out on horseback to in-

vite the Indians. As it was rather late, the Indians of the lower

town were unable to come on this day. Those of the other two

towns, however, met in the largest house in the place. Many

of the Indians knew me, even though I did not know them, for

they had formerly been at my meetings, when at the beginning

of the last war I had visited Wichilusing, which now bears the

name Friedenshuetten. They themselves, therefore, brought the

company to order, seating the men on one side and the women

on the other. These three towns were founded only two years

ago last spring. All the inhabitants are Monsy or Minissingk

Indians, who on account of the last war moved hither from

Wihilusing on the Susquehannah as well as from Assinissingk

and Passigachgungk on the Tiaogu. When all had gathered, I

addressed them in the following manner: "The reason for our

coming to you is no other than to bring you the great words and

good news of our God and Creator, how you may come to

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Him and be saved, if you will believe on the One who offered

His life and gave His blood for you. We have brought the

message of Jesus' death and the shedding of His blood to your

friends who dwell at Friedenshuetten. They have received it and

are now happy and thankful, because the Saviour has brought

them out of darkness into His light. We bring you, therefore,

the peace of God. The time has come, God, our Creator, who

died for us and gave His blood in our behalf, would visit you.

You shall no longer remain in darkness without Him but shall

know Him. Think not in your hearts, this is not for us, we

have not been created to this end, for He has died for you as

well as for other men and has secured for you eternal life

through His blood." I was happy to be among these people and

found joy in proclaiming to them the good news of the Saviour.

I felt that the word had found entrance into their hearts. When

I had finished, my companions began, explaining further the

meaning of the words. They spoke out of full hearts and boldly

witnessed for the Saviour, until late at night.57 The house

was quite full of people, all were attentive and conducted them-

selves in a quiet and orderly manner. On the 17th there was a

large gathering of the people of the three towns. While many

are at this time hunting, most of the old people are at home.

I met, also, Benjamin, the Mohican, son of Michael, in this place.

He has become rather wild. Among those who came to the

meeting there were various respectable personages, one an Indian

preacher.58  All gave us the hand, greeted and welcomed us in

a friendly manner and signified their pleasure at our visit. Dur-

ing the meeting they paid the strictest attention, as though they

would catch the words from one's very lips. I had the heart to

speak to them earnestly about the Saviour's love to the children

of men, to the Indians amongst the rest. They did not leave

after the sermon, and Anton continued the speaking. When

he finished John began, then I spoke again and thus it con-

tinued until evening, when they wished to hear another sermon,

although they had been spoken to all the day. I acceded to their

request and then they went to their homes. Those, however,

who live in the town here gathered again in our house during

the evening and Anton told them more of the Saviour, con-

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tinuing until ten o'clock. A blind chief and his wife, the father

and mother of our Rebecca in Friedenshuetten, showed us par-

ticular affection.59 Various of the older people, who had been

with us during the day, declared after the sermon, "Yes, it is

indeed as we have heard that is the right way of salvation."

Another said to us, "It is very good that you have come, you

tell us now beautiful words concerning the Saviour, but when

you are gone who will tell us anything? Then we shall hear

nothing and yet we need it so sadly." I replied, "If you are

anxious to hear about the Saviour, we will visit you again and

not neglect you."

During the morning of the 18th, after the day of meetings,

the Indian preacher came to us and asked that I should answer

two questions, namely, whether there were not two ways of sal-

vation and which might be the right one. I answered, "There

is but one way and upon this all must go, of whatever nation

or color they might be. The way to life in the Saviour Him-

self, and without Him none can be saved; we must all come

to Him as poor, lost sinners, seeking grace and pardon from

Hi.m Whoever looks for another way will perish." For the

time being he seemed to be satisfied with my answer and could

say nothing against it. I noticed, however, that there was some-

thing on his mind, that he wished to become more confidential

but did not quite trust to do so. He neglects none of the oppor-

tunities afforded by the meetings, seems to be glad to be with us

and asks many questions, for he would like to learn many things.

He exhorts the other Indians to come regularly to the meetings,

tells them he is glad to hear about the Saviour and that he

would like to be saved. Formerly, he lived in Assinissingk,

and at one time he came to hear a sermon that I preached in

Wihilusing, on which occasion he heard that all men are sinners.

At that time he said that he was no sinner but a righteous man.

I was very friendly toward him and spoke more to him than to

any of the other Indians about the Saviour, because he was

always about us.60

A difficulty that we have to contend with here is that the

people are scattered, but the nature of this region is such that

not many could dwell together in one place. There is, further-

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more, little harmony among them. Each one lives for himself.

There is no one who makes the preservation of order his par-

ticular business, as is customary in other Indian towns. The

chiefs appear to exercise little authority.61 The Indian preacher

had asked the Indians of the three towns to meet here on the

19th, as on this day he, also, wished to preach. When they

had gathered I went in and preached first. He sat down next

to Anton, with the intention of beginning when I had finished.

But he was disappointed, for when I had concluded Anton and

John began to speak in turn, continuing until late in the after-

noon, so that he forgot to preach. The people are very eager

to hear about the Saviour. They relish the message concerning

the death and sacrifice of the Redeemer, though it is new teaching

to them. It is with them as it is with all the Indians at the

beginning, they hear the word, can understand and comprehend

but little of it, yet they always ask to be taught more. They

cannot understand until spiritually roused, then their under-

standing is cleared and they are able to receive what is taught


After the large gathering had been dismissed, a small com-

pany met again in our house, among them the blind chief and his

wife, the parents of Rebecca. It was a matter of peculiar satis-

faction to speak further to these people, for they were respec-

table and it was evident that they had been touched by the mes-

sage. At parting, they expressed their gratitude for having

heard such good words, the blind chief being particularly thank-

ful. There are those here, too, who do not willingly listen,

but they can say nothing in opposition. The younger element

continues the heathen practices, going every evening to the dance.

None of the older people remonstrate, as the younger will pay

no attention.61 Yet there are among the latter some of better

character who make good use of every opportunity to hear what

is said of the Saviour. On the 21st after the early service we

had many visitors; our house was full of men and women all

day long. The blind chief spent the whole day with us, speaking

very freely about himself. He told us that he had long con-

sidered, without saying a word to anyone, how it would be

possible for him to get to Friedenshuetten. It seemed to him

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that he could no longer remain in this place, because he had

so little opportunity to hear the gospel message and the Indians

in these parts were so wicked. Yet it would be very difficult for

him to get away because of his blindness. I comforted him and

exhorted him to prayer, telling him that even if it should not

prove possible for him to remove to Friedenshuetten, there might

in future be more opportunity to hear the gospel message more

frequently. I said to him, further, that though he was outwardly

blind he might notwithstanding see and know the Saviour. He

answered that this was his desire. When his daughter appeared

in the evening to take him home, he said that he wished to

remain longer and hear more. When Anton told him that it was

already late and very nearly midnight, he was greatly surprised,

for he thought that it was still day. He, as well as others who

had visited us during the day, had much to say in regard to

there being none to tell them of the Saviour after we should

have left them. I replied that I wished to speak to them about

this matter before I left. To Anton I intimated that if he would

remain with me we might spend the winter with the people in

this place. He could not well do so on account of his wife and

children, and for that reason I did not feel like urging the plan

upon him. One cannot but be sorry for these people, for it is

hard to tell into what hands they may be delivered after our

departure. The preachers among the Indians, who have ap-

peared only within recent years, and the doctors and the sorcerers

are the apostles of Satan, who are desirous that the Indians

shall be kept in their darkness and conducted deeper into it.

I will mention a few things about these preachers, the one

who is here with us as well as the rest, for they are all men of

the same stamp. They employ every means to augment their

authority and invent all manner of lies, asserting, for example,

that they had had a vision of God or, indeed, had seen him,

spoken with him and received revelation from him. They pre-

tend to know everything, even future things. They may claim

to have met with a stag on the chase, which, when they were

about to shoot it, began to address the hunter, telling him that it

had something of importance to say. The Indians are told

that they ought not to have so much to do with the whites

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but cherish their own customs and not imitate the manners of the

whites, else it would not go well with them. At another time

they will declare that they had a revelation from God to the

effect that on a neighboring mountain there lay a heap of corn,

and to have found it to be so on investigation. In the same

manner, they declare that they have found corn, though every

one knows that none has ever been raised in this region.

Through such misrepresentations they seek to accredit themselves

among the people. In their sermons they endeavor to preach

what the Indians would like to hear. They say, for example,

that there are two ways to God, one for the whites and one

for the Indians. Thus it is easy for them to rid themselves of

the teaching of the whites. When Indians die, these men say

that they enter the first heaven, where they remain a hundred

years, enjoying a more comfortable life than they had upon

earth. After the lapse of the hundred years they enter the

second heaven, where they abide a like period, enjoying a still

better life. This period at an end, they come to God in the third

heaven, where it is most pleasant to live, there being deer and

bear in plenty and much fatter than here upon earth. God per-

mits them the choice between remaining with him and again re-

turning to the earth. In the event of their choosing the latter,

they are born anew in the world. Such preaching the Indians

enjoy. These men tell them, also, that if anyone would be

freed from sin he should drink beson (that is a concoction pre-

pared from medicinal roots and herbs) a different preparation

each day, then he would be delivered from sin. Or he should

take himself a scourge of twelve hooks and begin to flagellate

himself at the foot, continuing up to the neck, then throw away

the scourge and sin would escape from the throat, leaving him

clean and well pleasing to God. They have made themselves a

bible, consisting of a sheet of paper, on which there is a repre-

sentation of God, of the Whites, the Indians and the Blacks, of

the scale upon which the skins they obtain from deer, bear and

all manner of land and water animals are weighed, of various

plants, such as corn, beans, pumpkins, water-melons, trees and

the like, out of which they always find subjects to preach upon.

They constantly use the name of God in connection with their

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most revolting heathenish abominations. But of the God re-

vealed in the gospel they know nothing. Even if there are peo-

ple among the Indians, as is really the case, who long and seek for

something better, who groan under it all and eagerly wait for

deliverance from the power of these false leaders, such may not

make their feelings known for fear that their lives might be

shortened. I must confess that nowhere else among the Indians

have I found such desperate heathenism. Here Satan has his

power, he sits enthroned, here he is worshipped of the heathen

and accomplishes his work in the children of darkness. The

name of God is taken in vain and dishonored by these heathen,

in that they use it in connection with their most shameful abom-

inations, pretending to worship God and to do what they do

in His honor. If they were consciously using the name of the

suffering God in this manner, I should say that here nothing is

to be done. Yet there remains the mightiest weapon against such

heathenism. For when one preaches to them Him who shed His

blood for the sins of the world, their understanding has reached

its end and they are silenced, even though they may be hostile

to the message. Of this I can bear testimony.62 On the 21st

we conducted services morning and evening as usual. During

the hours between we had many visitors. My two companions,

especially Anton, who certainly is an apostle among his people,

testified boldly of the reconciliation for the world through Christ.

As I have heard from the Indians, the Indian preacher recog-

nizes Anton's worth and is reported to have said that he believes

concerning Anton and myself that we know God. Yet we have

spoken quite plainly with him. As I saw that our time here was

at an end, and that we had done all that for the time being could

be done; as the Indians were about to go on the fall hunt (many

had postponed this on account of our coming); as, further, it

was late in the year and the winter near, we concluded to think

of our homeward journey. I asked all the adult males, therefore,

to meet us on the morrow to consider various things.63 Such a

meeting took place in the morning of the 22nd, after the early

service. Among the assembled were two, who had yesterday

returned from the chase, on hearing that we had arrived. They

were fine men who were glad that they had not missed us and

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would have some opportunity to hear the gospel. When they

had all come into our house, I told them that our brethren had

sent us to visit them, that is to say, we had been commissioned

to come to them by those who were a part of the true Church

that was being gathered from among all nations, many members

of which had settled in this land and many more dwelling across

the great water. All these were one people, for they believed on

the One who had shed His blood for the children of men. They

regarded all who had such faith, whether white, or black, or

brown as their brethren and sisters. Thus we had congrega-

tions of brown and black people in the south. In Friedens-

huetten, on the Susquehannah, we had a congregation of Indians.

In the far north in Greenland we had a congregation, where

there was the true faith. All these we looked upon as our breth-

ren and sisters. The congregation at Bethlehem had sent us to

visit them, for the purpose of proclaiming the gospel and in order

to see whether they would receive it, because the Lord had com-

manded His people to proclaim the Word of His cross to all

the nations of the earth. It was always a pleasure to us to find

people who would receive our message. We had now been among

them several days, had told them of the Saviour and how He

might be found, in order that they might be saved. We had be-

come convinced that there were many here who were anxious

to hear our message. I could not say that of them all, but of the

greater number, therefore, I had called them together to learn

whether they would welcome another visit, for we had concluded

to leave tomorrow. Now they would not hear anything further

about the gospel for some time. One after another spoke, each

one telling how he felt in the matter, signifying that it would

be very agreeable to them to have us visit them again. They

acknowledged themselves to be poor and in need of such a mes-

sage. The preacher, in the mean time, sat still and said nothing.

The others addressed him and inquired why he had nothing

to say. He maintained silence, however, until all had spoken.

Then being urged a second time to say something, he began

to dispute our words and to prove his own principles. He

stated that there were two ways of salvation, one for the white

people and one for the Indians. He symbolized his statement

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28       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

by means of a design, inscribed on the ground, showing the way

for the Indians to be much more direct. I had left the house

just as he began. When I returned he was speaking in a very

excited manner and with great show of authority. I noticed that

Anton did not know exactly how to answer him. I secured in-

formation about the whole of his discourse and then replied in the

following manner. "I told you clearly enough several days ago

that there is but one way of salvation, and the Saviour is Him-

self that Way. All men, be they white, black or brown, desirous

of being saved, must come to him, as poor lost sinners, who know

and feel that they are sinners and are seeking forgiveness." This,

however, he could and would not comprehend and insisted on

maintaining that the Indians had a separate way upon which

they would come to God, as he expressed it. I told him that he

was quite mistaken and was deceiving himself, if he held to such

a view. He said, further, that he knew that the Saviour was the

way of salvation, that he had known Him many years and had

had spiritual communication with Him. I asked him whether he

knew the Lord who had been wounded for our transgressions

and who had shed His blood. He replied, "No, I know nothing

of Him. Otherwise I know all things. I knew in advance that

you would come here, but that God should have become man

and shed His blood, as you say, of that I know nothing.

This cannot be the true God, since I know nothing of this." I

replied, "That is He, Who has created heaven and earth and

all that is upon the earth, even men. When the latter fell away

and through the deceit of Satan became the servants of sin, the

Creator of heaven and earth came down from heaven, became

man and released us from the power of Satan, not with gold

or silver, but with His own precious blood and His innocent

suffering and dying. That is the eternal, true God, there is none

beside Him. Him I preach. But what kind of a God have you,

and how do you know Him?" He bethought himself a while

and did not know how to answer. Then I said to him, "If you do

not know, I do know and will now tell you. The devil is your

god, whom you preach to the Indians, for you are his servant.

He is the father of lies and from him all lying proceeds. For this

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reason you can tell the Indians nothing but lies to deceive them.

You declare that you are concerned about God, but this is not

true. When you celebrate Kentekey (that is their feast) and

you stand before the stag (which is raised upon a stake with his

horns) and you pray, whom do you worship? It is surely the

devil; do not imagine that you have any part or communion

with God, for you must not think that He has any pleasure in

your pretended worship, since this is an abomination before

Him." He answered, though somewhat more quietly than be-

fore, "But I cannot understand your teaching, it is something

quite new and I cannot understand it." I answered, "I will ex-

plain that to you. Satan is the king of darkness and dwells in

no light, where he is there is darkness. He dwells within you,

him you feel and not God, as you say. For this reason your

understanding is so darkened that you can understand nothing

concerning God and His word. For several days I have been

preaching to you. I have endeavored to make the message

clear. Yet you cannot understand it. Were I to devote months,

even years, to preaching to you, you would not be able to under-

stand the gospel tidings, even though the words are not hard

words but may be understood by a child. But if you will turn

from Satan and his teaching (for your teaching is from the devil

and you do not preach that which is truth) and will give up your

Indian abominations and come to the Saviour as a poor, wretched,

lost man, who knows nothing (for you think that you know

much but you know nothing) and plead with Him for grace

and mercy, then He may have mercy upon you and deliver you

from the power of Satan. In that case it will be possible that

you will learn to understand something about God and His word.

Now it is impossible. Yet there is opportunity; if you will turn

to the Saviour help can be granted. But do not delay, make haste

and save your soul." These and other words I addressed to him,

and Anton translated them faithfully. For some time there was

silence. The words were indeed hard, yet I felt that I dared

not speak otherwise. During the whole time of our stay here

I had dealt tactfully with the man, thinking that it would

mean a good deal for this region if I should succeed in winning

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him. But when I saw he denied the merit of the Saviour and

His blood and wished to rob Him of His honor, I could no longer

bear it.64

After the lapse of some time the others present again ad-

dressed him, desiring that he should answer my first question, so

that they might come to some conclusion about the matter under

discussion. I replied, that I had heard their opinion, which was

sufficient for me, and that I needed nothing further. At last, he

replied, that he would be glad to hear because he was poor.

Thereupon they separated. The blind chief and several others

remained longer with us. They were quite satisfied that I had

spoken the plain truth to the man. There seem to be many here

who do not believe in his preaching, but they do not feel able to

oppose it openly. I spoke to them further, about their dwelling

in this place, pointing out that it was hardly a good place for a

settlement, (I) because they did not live together, (2) because

along this river they cannot be at peace, for it is the passage of

the warriors and much rum is taken through here, so that they

can neither prevent the war-dances of the warriors nor drunken-

ness. They immediately spoke of a proposition made to them

by the Seneca Chief, who had sent them word that it was not

good that they should dwell here, because the Ohio River, being

the route of travel of the warriors, was quite bloody, and that

it would be better for them to move to Venango Creek, a day's

journey by land, or two days' journey by water, as it is a day's

journey up the creek.65 It is said to be a fine part of the country,

a second Wajomik (Wyoming), and not used as a route of

travel by the Indians as is this place. As this is two days' journey

from Niagara, that is said to be only one day's journey, but it is

equally far from Pittsburg, viz., four days' journey. The land

of the Senecas continues down the river another day's journey

to Onengen, or as it is called on the chart, Venango. There the

country of the western Indians begins.66

A woman, who was a hundred and twenty years old or

more, the mother of old Eve in Friedenshuetten, was brought to

us today from the lower town, in order that she might hear

something about the Saviour. She is no longer able to walk but

is obliged to crawl as do the children. Otherwise she is quite

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well and in possession of her faculties. Her daughter, who has

entertained us here during our stay, is also a very old woman.

We told her much about the love of the Saviour and she listened

very attentively. In the evening there was a small company in

our house, composed of the better people of this town, none from

the other towns being present. I preached to them and some

among them were moved to tears.

On the 23rd we wished to make an early start on our

journey homeward, but the people of the other towns began to

gather and desired to hear one more sermon. I preached a fare-

well sermon, accordingly, admonishing them not to forget what

they had heard and felt. I can truthfully say that last evening

and this morning I felt most comfortable among them in deliver-

ing the gospel message. Manifestly the hearts of the people were

moved. The preacher was present, also, conducting himself

very humbly. We bade all farewell and then started. Many

accompanied us a few miles, and the leave-taking was for them

and for us rather painful. On the way we met Senecas in two

canoes. When they caught sight of us, they came nearer and one

of their number, who was an Onondaga Indian, presented a wild

goose he had shot.

On the 24th we met three canoes of Senecas, who were

going down the river hunting. In the evening we reached their

town, which is called Panawaku, and stayed for the night, oc-

cupying the same quarters as on our previous passage through

this town.67 There was no one in the town, except an old man

and an old woman, the rest having gone off on the chase. At

noon on the 26th we passed through Tiozinossungochta,68 the

middle town of the Seneca country. Here, also, there was no

one at home. On the 27th we met a party of Indians who

were hunting. They gave us meat and were very friendly. One

Seneca gave me half a deer, for which we were very grateful, as

we had no other provisions than corn with us. At noon we went

through the last Seneca town, Tiohuwaquaronto.69 Here we ex-

changed some of the meat for corn, so that we might have some-

thing for the horse on our passage through the great swamp.

On the 28th there was a heavy snowfall, but we continued our

march all day long and on the 9th reached the Forks, and on

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the 30th the end of the Ohio. In the evening of the 31st we

came to Passigachgungk on the West Branch of the Tiaogu, and,

therefore, to the waters of the Susquehannah. John left us this

morning to hunt and did not return to us until evening, when

we had already encamped for the night. To our joy, he had shot

a bear and had brought the two flitches of fat. We immediately

cooked a kettle full, for we were very hungry. Though we had

no bread to eat with the meat, we enjoyed the meal immensely.

On the 2nd of November we reached Assinissingk.71   John shot

a deer, so that, after a fashion we had bread with our bacon, for

venison may be eaten like bread. On the 3rd we came to Willa-

wane,72 finding that all the inhabitants were gone on the chase,

except the Chief Egohund, who asked many questions about

Goschgoschingk, how we had found conditions there and whether

the people there had received our word. On the 4th we reached

Scheschequaningk,73 where there were only a few women at

home. We wanted to go on, but were unable to cross the Sus-

quehannah on account of the high water. We had to remain

in the village for the night. Next day we succeeded in crossing

with a canoe and with our horse, reaching Friedenschuetten in the

evening. There I remained until the 11th, on which day I left.

On the 15th I reached Christiansbrunn and on the following day

arrived in Bethlehem.






[The preceding Journal, when read at a public meeting at Bethle-

hem, "caused," writes De Schweinitz, "a great sensation."75 It was im-

mediately decided that Zeisberger and Senseman should proceed to estab-

lish a mission at Goschgoschunk. Disturbed conditions on the frontier76

delayed their departure until April. John Ettwein, the author of the

following Report, was born at Freudenstadt, in the Schwarzwald, Wuer-

temberg, Germany, in 1721, the descendant of protestant refugees from

Savoy. Having joined the Moravian Church in 1739, he soon distin-

guished himself by his zeal and sound judgment. After filling various

offices in the Church in Germany and England, he came to America, in

1754, where he found a field of labor for which he was particularly

qualified. He served with unwearied energy in various places and

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capacities, among whites and Indians. During the stormy period of the

Revolutionary War, he was the commanding spirit at Bethlehem, Penna.,

and the accredited representative of the Moravian Church to the United

States Government. He had extensive acquaintance and correspondence

with public men. In 1784, he was consecrated a Bishop, and stood at the

head of the Moravian Church in America until his death in 1802. Gottlob

Senseman was one of the faithful coadjutors of David Zeisberger.

He was born of Moravian missionary parentage. His father labored

among the Indians in New England and Pennsylvania, and, among the

negroes of Jamaica. His mother perished in the massacre at Gnaden-

huetten on the Mahoni, Penna. The son worked with Zeisberger in

Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and Canada. For a time he ministered

to the whites in eastern Canada. They were so impressed with his

energy and eloquence that they selected him for service in the Canadian

Assembly. He declined this position as irreconcilable with his missionary

duties. He died in Canada, while still engaged in active service. The

concluding portions of the Report, while not concerning the pilgrimage

to the Allegheny, are of value from many points of view, giving a vivid

picture of a Christian Indian settlement, the ways and means of life,

travel and development. The references to Zeisberger, especially to his

singing are interesting and help explain his power and popularity.]

On the 15th of April we started from      Bethlehem and on

the following day from Christiansbrunn.77  Nathaniel Dencke and

David Zeisberger, Jr., accompanied us to the Bushkill.78       By

the evening of the 26th we had gone a mile beyond Wequetank.79

When we had reached this point a thunderstorm came up and

we built a hut of bark for shelter.

Early in the morning of the 27th we climbed Wolf Moun-

tain, or as it has been called, the Thuernstein,80 having a good

view of the various gaps or openings in the Blue Mountains.

Soon thereafter we came to a well, about six feet deep, which

our Moravian Indians had cut through solid rock. At noon we

rested on an old plantation, where the Indian Augustus had

formerly had his hunting ground. Before his time an Indian

woman, with two boys, had lived upon it many years, completely

cut off from other Indians. She had been obliged to do this,

because the Indians had sought her life on account of some

offense. Having lived in solitude and in hiding for a long time,

it is said that her sons became so shy and wild that they fled

like deer the first time they saw other Indians.81

Vol. XXI-3.

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34        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

At noon we came into the swamp, which is reckoned to be

from fifty to sixty miles long, stretching from north-east to

south-west.82 I had imagined it to be a wet, low ground, such

as is generally described by the word swamp, but I did not find

it to be so: it is simply a very dense forest upon and along the

sides of the mountain range, never penetrated by the sunshine,

and, therefore, always damp and wet. The numerous great

roots, stones and the fallen trunks of trees make the passage of

this tract very difficult. Indeed, it is a matter of surprise that

men have sought and found a way through at all. Three creeks

run through the swamp. These are the main branches of the

Lehigh. In the second and third creeks, not far from the trail,

there are high waterfalls, in one place water plunging down

a full thirty feet with terrific roar. On this day we reached a

point five miles beyond the Swamp and camped by the side of a

small stream.83

On the 28th our way led, first of all, across a long level pine

ridge, then we came to a deep, dark valley, where it is necessary

to climb down the steep side of one mountain and up the equally

steep side of another. We passed several more small creeks

of the Lehigh and, at the last, came to the Wajomik Mountain.84

When we had ascended it and begun to go down the other side

we noticed a hug pile of stones, and I was told that as many

Indians had scaled the mountain as there were stones in the pile

In the afternoon at 2 oclock we reached the house of Mr.

Ogdon, the trader, in Wajomik.85  He received us in a very

friendly manner and entertained us hospitably. Only a few

hours before our arrival various Chiefs of the Cherokees, who

had been in Friedenshuetten, had left here. They had published

everywhere peace with the Cherokees and renewed friendship

with the English.86 During the afternoon we inspected Wajomik

and called to mind all that had here happened since Zinzendorf

had been in the place. Of the Shawanese not a single one is left

along the Susquehannah. Their burial-places in the caves of the

rocks, whose entrances are guarded by great painted stones, it

is still possible to see.87

As we found that our two horses would not be able to carry

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everything to Friedenshuetten by land, we begged the trader for a

canoe, and he gave us one that belonged to Friedenshuetten.

In the early morning of the 29th it looked as though it would

rain heavily during the day. The trader persuaded us to remain

About nine oclock in the morning the Indian Marcus,88 one of our

Christian Indians, arrived with his son. They were on their

way home from the beaver hunt. In a short time it cleared up

and at noon we started with them. I went with the one Indian

by land, while the other Indian assisted my companions on the

water. We travelled along the east side of the river, over a

long flat stretch. The other side of the Susquehannah was cov-

ered for many miles with a beautiful oak forest. We had nine

miles to go in order to reach Lechawahnek,89 where until the year

'55 there had been an Indian town, in which the Rev. and Mrs.

Schrueck,90 Chr. Seidel91 and David Zeisberger had visited and

preached at various times. John Papunham92 and others, who

now belong to our people, had lived there. It is a beautiful place

and good ground for an Indian settlement, but now it is entirely

deserted, just as Wajomik is. Along the road there is a burial

place, in which it is possible to distinguish clearly some thirty

graves. There we found Joshua, Sr.,93 and Gabriel, who were

on their way home, the first named had already walked forty

miles this day. Both were very hungry and were glad that we

were well supplied with bread. I regarded it as providential

leading that our Indian brethren had come to Wajomik several

days sooner than they had expected to come, for otherwise I

should have been obliged to travel by land alone and would have

tried, according to the directions given me, to ride on the shore

of the Susquehannah a considerable distance, from a point about

two miles above Lechawchaek, because otherwise there was no

trail. Joshua saw at once that the Susquehannah was too high,

took me in his canoe and sent Marcus with the horse a long de-

tour through the woods and over the mountains. I soon saw

that near a projecting rock I would have gotten into a strong

current of water from six to eight feet deep and was thankful

for the Providential deliverance. In the evening we all met at

Anton's former dwelling-place94 and spent the night there. Here

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I was informed that from Lechawachnek to this point two strong

savage Indians had followed the late Bishop Cammerhof, with

the intention of beating him severely because of the baptism of

Anton.95  One of these two is now a valued member of our

mission at Friedenshuetten.

On the 30th at noon we all stopped at Segapuch, meaning

the island where there are many cherries-that is small cherries

that grow on little plants along and in the water between the

rocks.96  After that we crossed the Tenkannek (meaning the

little river), at this time a swollen raging stream. Besides we

were obliged to go down so steep a mountain that the horse

trembled unless it was held by the tail. Then we crossed several

high hills until we came to Oppening (meaning, where there were

many potatoes).97 Here we met Job Chelloway and Christian with

their families, who had come from Friedenshuetten where they

had been boiling sugar and making canoes. In the evening there

was a heavy thunderstorm and much rain, in the midst of which

the canoes arrived. Job gave up his tent to us, for which we

were grateful on account of the rain.

In the morning of May 1st the canoes could not proceed

on account of the strong wind, besides our horse had run away.

Abraham and Gabriel succeeded in bringing back the horse

about two o'clock in the afternoon. With Marcus I, then, hur-

ried off in order to reach Friedenshuetten, if possible, before

night. We crossed five or six high mountains, from the last

of which we were able to see the place lying about three miles

before us.98 We reached it safely in the evening at about eight

o'clock. There was a meeting of the congregation at this hour.

Schmueck addressed the people in the English language and An-

ton translated. After that I presented the greetings of our peo-

ple in Bethlehem and Nazareth, feeling particularly happy in the

presence of this congregation. The meeting over, the first thing

I heard was this, that two messengers from   Coschcosching

[Goschgoschunk] had already been there eight days. These had

come to inquire how soon somebody could be sent to them.

They had wished to leave several days ago and were now ready

to start early in the morning. I immediately had them asked to

remain the next and await the arrival of David Zeisberger. I

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had occasion again to recognize Providential leading, otherwise

I should not have arrived today and the two messengers would

have left without knowing anything about any of our people

visiting them again.

Early on the 2nd of May several of the people here went

to meet the canoes, in order to help them over some of the water-

falls in the Susquehannah, below Friedenshuetten.  At noon

all arrived safely.

We soon had a conference with the Schmuecks concerning

various of the people here who might accompany Zeisberger and

Senseman. Afterwards we broached the matter to Anton and

his wife and Abraham and his wife, who received the proposal

with joy. The son-in-law of the latter, Peter, and his wife, Abi-

gail, announced themselves as glad to go along. We were pleased

at their willingness to go, the more so because Peter is a good


In the evening there was a helper's conference, in which

the members were informed of the proposed journey, and there

was discussion, also, as to what should be told the messengers.

At an early service on May 3rd Schmueck read the Rev.

Nathaniel Seidel's99 beautiful letter to the Indian congregation

here with reference to the journey to Coschcosching and their

interest in the same. Thereupon David Zeisberger, Anton and

several others spoke to the two men from Coschcosching (one

of these had entertained the three visitors from here during the

whole time of their stay and his appearance made as favorable

an impression as that of any of the baptized Indians at Friedens-

huetten). They repeated their message once more and then

were told who would go to live among them. They related, fur-

ther, that this spring five families had wished to settle in another

place but that they had not reached an agreement where to set-

tle; that Samuel who lived on the Ohio had died; that various

individuals from afar had signified their intention to visit them in

case Moravians should again come among them; that an Indian

preacher had inquired about the teaching of the Moravians and

begged to be informed in case the teacher who had visited them

last fall should return, since it had even been revealed to him in

a dream that the Indian preachers, himself included, did not

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preach the truth and that Zeisberger might have the true doctrine.

They offered of their own accord to see to it that planting should

be done for those who were to come, before their arrival, and

they declared that the people were willing to meet the newcomers

with canoes, provided they knew when they were coming. They

expected to accomplish the return journey up the Ohio in order

to meet the Moravians thirty days from this date, at a point

where they would come to the Ohio, or to go to meet them in

the Swamp.

On May 4th the two messengers left us in good spirits.

A number of our people accompanied them to the water. In

company with Schmueck I visited the families of the settlement

On May 5th I examined carefully the situation and sur-

roundings of Friedenshuetten.

On May 6th the first Shad100 were caught, and a seal was

vainly followed for about seven miles in the Susquehannah,101

The boys brought us in these days plenty of fish, trout, pickerel,

salmon and other varieties.

On the 7th there was a solemn and happy celebration of the

Holy Communion.

On the 8th there were various services, one arranged par-

ticularly as a farewell service for the men and women who were

to leave. The good that the settlement of Friedenshuetten had

enjoyed during the three years of its existence was brought

to remembrance. In that period of time forty-nine persons had

been baptized in this place (among the rest, Abraham and Salome,

and Peter and Abigail).

On the 9th it was recalled at the early service that it was

three years to the day that the people had reached this place

from the Barracks.102  Parting hymns were sung and soon there-

after the travellers started, all the inhabitants of the village ac-

companying them to the water. There were many tears when

farewells were said. Zeisberger and Senseman had a canoe for

their effects, the Antons had one, the Abrahams and Peters had

one together, and in a fourth I travelled with two Indians as far

as Tschetschequanik,l03 because several families there had re-

peatedly begged and invited the Moravians to come to them and

preach the Word of God. Some twenty people from that place

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The Moravian Records.                 39


had been here on a visit. These, also, accompanied us, so that

we counted ten canoes and thirty-six persons. This evening

we reached a point above Masasskung104 and on the evening of

the 10th we arrived at Tschetschiquanik. The Chief Achgo-

hunt105 was not at home. Jo Pipi received us at the water's

edge and conducted us to his house, the largest in the village, as

our lodging place. In the evening many of the people gathered

about us. I said to Anton that we should like to have a service

for our members (about fifteen in all) and that the rest were

welcome to remain. The answer came unhesitatingly, "0, yes,

that is what we wish, we would be glad to hear the words of the

Saviour in this town." Zeisberger sang some Delaware hymns

with our members very effectively. I spoke in English and An-

ton translated.

During the forenoon of the 11th a sermon was preached at

the request of the people of the village. Anton translated. It

was evident that the Word was gladly received. In the evening

Anton delivered a spirited and hearty address. Afterwards, we

conversed with the people. The Nanticok Chief and several

other strange Indians who arrived here yesterday were also at

the meeting.

After breakfast on the 12th Zeisberger preached. The ser-

vice over, Jo Pipi, James Davis, Sam Davis and James held a

short council, to which they invited Zeisberger and myself. They

said to me, "Dear Brother, we have already taken counsel to-

gether and wish now to tell you our mind that you may take our

words to Bethlehem. You see that we are here four families,

we, our wives and children, anxious to hear God's Word. It

is true that we often go to Wialusing106 to hear, but we cannot

always be there. We would be willing to move thither, but we

have much cattle and large families. In Wiahlusing there is not

much pasture for cattle and it is harder to make a living there

than here, where we have much good land and many meadows.

Therefore, we wish that Moravians might dwell among us and

preach the gospel to us. Zeisberger asked, "But how is it with

the other families who are not of your mind, do they not arrange

dances? will they not disturb you and hinder you?107 Answer:

"The four or five houses across the run did so until lately, but

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the Chief, who is, also, of our persuasion, has forbidden such

practice and we look upon them as an eagle on a branch near the

water, which, if it sees anyone approach, flies away. So will they

when the Word of God comes to us to move away one after


I promised to report their words to the authorities in Beth-

lehem. They would welcome this message and serve them as

far as possible. Soon thereafter our party left for the Ohio.108

From here they had eight or nine miles to go to Tiaogu

where our Susanna Nitschman ended her martyrdom     twelve

years ago.109 Three Indians are helping our party from Fried-

enshuetten to the middle of the swamp between the Tiaogu and

the Ohio. The people of this place, also, are furnishing two men

to help for one day's journey, as the canoes are heavily laden

and two or three must go with the two horses and the cattle

over land. Tschetschequanik consists of twelve houses or huts ;110

meadows and good land run from this place along the one shore

of the Susquehannah to Tiaogu. A trail leads from here to the

West Branch. On one occasion Bishop Spangenberg traveled on

it with David Zeisberger on the way to Onondaga.111

I returned with my companions to Friedenshuetten, favor-

able wind and stream enabling us to accomplish the distance

of some thirty miles in six hours.

On the 13th and 14th, all the inhabitants of Friedenshuetten

were busy planting, they had been the whole past week. I

had the opportunity of conferring at length with Missionary

Schmueck and his wife.

On the 15th I had the opportunity of conducting the Sunday

services, the reverence and attention of the Indians here are very

edifying. The singing of this congregation is not as hearty as

it once was, owing to the death of so many of its members dur-

ing the stay in Philadelphia.

The place has a good name among the Six Nations and

elsewhere. Many Indians happen to hear the gospel here and

think well of the manner of life and the discipline of the


On the 16th after the morning-prayer services I left this

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The Moravian Records.                41


place which had become very dear to me. Nearly all the inhab-

itants accompanied me to the water, thanked me heartily for the

visit and sent hearty greetings to Nathaniel Seidel and his wife,

Anna Johanna, and all the Moravians in Bethlehem and Naza-


Marcus and his son, Abraham, brought me in a canoe to

Wajomik, where we arrived on the 17th. On the 18th we came

to the Swamp, on the 19th I reached Nazareth, and the 20th I

arrived safely and well in Bethlehem.

A brief inscription of Friedenshuetten may be added.

This place in its situation and surroundings is very similar

to the last Gnadenhuetten, except that in the case of the latter

the river, Lecha, does not run in such a winding course.112 The

Susquehannah runs past Friedenshuetten in a broad semi-circle,

or like a Latin C. In the middle of the curve lies the village.

There is one long street lined by two rows of houses. The latter

stand some eighty feet apart. In the middle of the place is the

congregation house or meeting hall. Toward the west of this,

on either side of the street, ten lots are occupied. This is the

case, also, toward the east. Toward the north a new street has

been laid out. Each lot is thirty-two feet wide, and each house

stands by itself. Between each two lots there is an alley, ten

feet wide. The depth of the lots is according to the wish of

the owner to have a large or a small garden. There are already

eighteen nicely weather-boarded log houses, and others are to

be built.113 Outside the curve and over against the village run

the mountains. In the river, opposite the village, a little to the

south, there is a small island and beyond this there is a narrow

opening in the mountains, through which a small creek comes in

from the south.

Between the village and the water and up along the river

lies the clear corn land, about sixty roods broad and a mile and

a half long, very good land. According to my reckoning, there

must be about two hundred acres of cleared land and a hundred

acres of bottom land, very good but not cleared, stretching

along the Susquehannah up to Wialusing Creek, where they have

meadows. Stretching down along the Susquehannah from the

village there is a narrow strip of low land (like the land from

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Sangipak to Gnadenhuetten). This is covered with trees, the

largest water-beeches and sugar trees one may see anywhere.

Kindling wood they are obliged to get from quite a distance.

If, according to usual Indian fashion, they were to use only the

branches and twigs, they would not.have enough. Hence, most of

the people here chop up the entire tree trunks. Their good fences

were a source of wonder to me. They have from three to four

miles of fencing about the place and their cultivated land. This

fencing is so well done that it could be called lawful among the

whites. Fencing they need on account of the hogs, of which

they have a great many.114 They are, also, well supplied with cat-

tle and horses. They usually make their hay six or seven miles

from the village, up the Susquehannah. From that point they

bring it down by water. Practically every family has its canoe.

These canoes, as they lie together in the river, make an imposing








[Responding to the clear call from the Allegheny, Zeisberger and

Senseman and two converted Indian families proceeded to Goschgo-

schink in May 1768. The following pages record the incidents of the

journey and the "diary of the Brethren in Goschgoschuenk on the


From many standpoints the story of the founding of this mission

is of superlative interest. This was an important year in western his

tory; the treaty between the Six Nations and Cherokees was negotiated

as well as the famous Treaty of Fort Stanwix which gave western

Virginia and Kentucky to Virginia and completed the repudiation of the

King's Proclamation of 1763. In these years succeeding the failure of

Pontiac's Rebellion the ancient order of things gave way; this diary,

more plainly than any other document, shows the unrest and distrust of

those last days of Indian supremacy.

The fact of the purchase of western land, as completed at the

Treaty of Fort Stanwix, had long been under discussion with the Six

Nations, as noted herein, is not mentioned elsewhere.  And it ap-

pears also that the progress of the Moravians into Ohio was being

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                43


negotiated as early as the summer of 1768. The Wyandot ownership

of eastern Ohio comes out very plainly in this document.]


On the 9th of'May we started with our whole company,

namely, Anton and his wife, Johanna, Abraham and Salome,

Peter and Abigail and the boy Christian, the grandson of An-

ton,1l5 from Friedenshuetten, partly by water and partly by land.

Bishop Ettwein, who had accompanied us hither from Bethlehem,

journeyed with us to Schichschiquanuenk,116 where we arrived

on the 10th and remained during the 11th.

On the 12th we took leave of Bishop Ettwein, who returned

to Friedenshuetten. We had wished that he might accompany

us to the Ohio. Starting on our journey we came at noon into

the Diaogu [Tioga], where we had to make our way against a

swift current. In the evening we encamped in the woods. A

number of Indians were with us on their way to Wilawane.

The last named place we reached on the 13th, at noon. We

found very few at home, the most were at work on their planta-

tions. We tarried a few hours and then proceeded several miles

further, to where Salome's brother lives quite alone on the

Tiaogu, his house being the last house. Here we remained for

the night. But we had hardly arrived when some twenty Indians

of the principal people of Wilawane followed us in order to spend

the night with us. I thought, at first, that they had come to hear

the gospel, but they had something very different in mind. They

held a council, to which they invited our Christian Indians. To

the latter they presented a Belt of Wampum with the words: "It

is not good that you go to the Ohio, it is contrary to the wish of

the Six Nations and, especially, to the Chief of Cajuga117 that

the Indians should move away from the Susquehannah to the

Ohio, where they ought to remain content. Therefore, turn back

whence you have come, for your way is not good." Anton came

and told me all. Thereupon, I went to them in order to com-

municate our wish and intention; that we did not go to the Ohio

for the reason that we were not satisfied here, or that the place

was not good enough for us, or because we hoped to find con-

ditions better, which probably was the reason that other Indians

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moved thither. These considerations were by no means the oc-

casion of our journey, for we were well satisfied with Frieden-

shuetten. We had no other purpose in going to Goschgoschink

than to preach the gospel to the Indians who had called upon us

to come and do so. We were bound to do this, in view of the

command of God to bring the good tidings of our God and

Creator to all men, whether white, or black or brown, that

through Him they might be saved. In this matter we could not,

therefore, obey them; they did not understand our motives, and

for this reason we would not take it so much amiss that they were

opposed to our journey. We would, therefore, continue our

journey on the morrow, and as far as the Chief in Cajuga was

concerned arrangements had already been made to give him

notice and information about the undertaking. Herewith we re-

turned their belts. They mentioned that they had always hoped

that the Indians in Goschgoschink would return and settle here

again, but now since we were going there they would have to give

up such hopes. We answered that if these Indians had had any

intention of returning hither they would surely not have invited

us to come to them. I stated, further, that while on this very

journey an invitation had come to us, also, from the Indians

living in Schechschiquanuenk, who had received the Word, and

that I did not doubt that a missionary would be sent to them to

preach the gospel. I should think, further, that it would be good

for them to think over the matter of what they wanted to do.

I had gone through these parts during the preceeding fall and

investigated whether they would not, also, gladly hear of God,

but had learned of no such desire. They ought not to be the

last. Later several of them came over to our fire, for we were

spending the night out in the open, the house being too small;

Anton continued to speak to them in this strain and preached the

Saviour to them very earnestly.

Early in the morning of the 14th our whole company was

served with tea and bread and butter by the brother of Salome,

whereupon we took leave and continued our journey, without any

one's attempting further to dissuade us.

On the 15th we came to Assinissink and spent the night in

Gachtochwawunk,118 on the first fork of the Tiaogu.

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                45

On the 16th we proceeded up the Branch westward, the

other comes from the north out of the Seneca country, and at

noon we came to the second fork, where we took the Branch to

the right.

On the 17th we found the water becoming very shallow, so

that it was difficult to get ahead with the loaded canoes. Those

of our party who were proceeding by water quite unexpectedly

caught two bears and a deer. We immediately cooked, roasted

and ate and then continued our journey. Those proceeding by

land went, today as yesterday, through nothing but woods and

fire. They found the air very hot and quite filled with smoke.119

In the forenoon of the 19th we came to Passikachkunk,120

there our journeying by water came for some days to an end.

Since we had left the last fork, the stream had become so small

that it had not even the volume of the Manakesie, at Bethlehem.

For the last three days we had been obliged to drag our canoes

through the shallowest places. We were thankful that we had

made the trip safely thus far. In the driving of the cattle (we

have three head with us) we did not experience as much difficulty

as had been anticipated. A family of Indians from Wilawane

has been traveling with us. They are, also, going to Gosch-


On the 20th two of the Indians, who had accompanied us

thus far, returned to Friedenshuetten. I wrote to Bethlehem,

and then we took about half our baggage part way into the Great

Swamp,121 meeting here again in the evening.

On the 21st we broke camp and made our way some

distance into the Swamp, stopping at a Creek, called the Pemid-

hannak, which runs into Canada. Up to this time, our course had

been W. N. W., but today it changed and we sent W. S. W.

On the 22nd we fetched up our baggage and in the afternoon

continued our journey some distance. It happened today that

our company was alone, the others having remained behind to


On the 23rd we came to the Pemidhanek,122 a great creek

which between Lake Erie and Ontario empties into the St. Law-

rence, in the neighborhood of Niagara, and which is half way be-

tween the Tiaogu and the Ohio Rivers. A day's journey down

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46       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

this Creek there is a large Seneca town of a hundred houses, and

a day's journey further on lies Zoneschio, which I visited on one

occasion with the late Bishop Cammerhof.

During the 24th and the 25th we rested because the Indians

were thoroughly tired from carrying the heavy burdens, Anton,

particularly, was very weak. They built themselves a sweating-

hut, in which they took a rest-cure.123

We proceeded on the 27th, meeting at noon the Wilawane

family, which had gone ahead yesterday. They had shot a bear,

so that we had a good noon-day meal. We reached today the

source of the Ohio, which is a great spring.124

In the evening of the 28th we came to the first Fork, where

it is possible to use the canoes in the Creek, whereof we were

very glad and thankful, for the most difficult part of the journey

had been passed. Another cause of anxiety, however, was that

our provisions were used up, every one of the party had given

up his store for the common good. The women gathered herbs

and cooked them. Although boiled in water, they tasted very


On the 29th we went several miles down the Creek to the

Second Fork. We had hardly reached this spot when Anton

shot a very large pike with a bullet. Here the Creek had grown

to be quite a stream and it was easy going in the canoes. On

the way we found a sign on a tree made by the two messengers

from Goschgoschink, who had gone ahead from Friedenshuetten.

From this we saw that they had made the journey to this point

in twelve days and must, therefore, have arrived at their destina-

tion in good time.

As no canoe had yet arrived and we could not expect any

for the next three days, we went to work and made several

canoes of bast for the trip down the stream. Our food consisted

of herbs and fish, the latter secured by the Indians with their

rifles. Among the fish there are suckers, but much larger than

any I had ever seen before. Another variety of fish caught is

the so-called Buffalo-fish, named thus because of the cattle-like

lowing attributed to them. These fish are broad, have large

scales and fins and are very good to eat. As two of the Indians,

Henry and a stranger, were preparing to take a hunting trip

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through the forest back toward Friedenshuetten, I wrote letters

to Bethlehem.

On the 31st we started down stream. Several of our com-

pany proceeded by land, driving the cattle. At first the Ohio

flows toward the north, then turns more southward, sometimes

flowing due south, so that the general course is south-west. In

the evening it rained and we built huts for ourselves, as we had

already built a number in course of this trip. At this time of

the year it is a great comfort that it is possible to put up such

huts very quickly in this forest.

On the 1st of June we reached the first Seneca town. We

were invited to spend the night, which we were very glad to do,

because it continued to rain heavily. The men of the town, of

whom a few were at home, the majority being off hunting, met

in the evening and asked me to tell them concerning the intention

of our journey. This I did, telling them that we had been invited

by the Indians of Goschgoschink to visit them and tell them the

words about our God and Creator. Among those present there

was an Indian from Zoneschio, who had seen me in that town

eighteen years ago. He was about to return to his home and

asked me what he should tell his chief concerning me, for he

would be glad to know why I had come into this region. I re-

plied that there was no other reason for our coming into these

parts than to proclaim the gospel to the Indians who had desired

us to do so, that for the present I could say no more, but that

later when we had spoken with the Indians at Goschgoschink and

learned their wishes we would inform him further by messenger

concerning our intentions. In the meantime, he should announce

to Chief Hagastaaes,125 that I had come hither, for he knew me.

With this the Indians were satisfied. As the Senecas are among

the most brutal and savage of the Indians, not at all friendly to

the cause of the gospel, it is a very delicate matter to deal with

them. We bought some corn for salt. The latter commodity is

very rare here and much desired. They gave us some things also,

so that we had something to fall back upon, in case no provisions

should be brought toward us from Goschgoschink. We found

that there were two white women and a girl in the neighborhood,

but they did not come near enough so that we could have spoken

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to them. From the Indians I learned that they had come either

from Maryland or Virginia. They had been brought hither as

captives and were so well pleased with their conditions that they

did not desire to return.

On the 2nd of June we continued our journey, having se-

cured provisions of baked bread and pounded some corn. As it

had rained heavily during the preceding night those of our com-

pany who were going by land had difficulty in getting ahead with

the cattle, because of the swollen creeks across which it was

necessary to swim. In the afternoon we met the canoe expected

from Goschgoschink. There were three young Indians in it, who

brought us provisions and tobacco. They had been on the way

four days and had expected to reach the Fork, where we awaited

them, on the morrow. They did not look very peaceful, for they

were painted black and red, as though they were going to war.

On the morning of the 3rd we sent the three Indians ahead

with our heavy baggage in the heavier bast canoe. We used their

canoe. Toward evening we passed the second Seneca village,

where there were only four huts, most of the Indians having

moved away in the spring.

On the 4th we made but a short distance, as the road turns

away from the river, and it is hardly possible for the two parts

of our party to encamp for the night separated from each other.

During the 5th and 6th we remained in camp, because of the

heavy rain, coming steadily from the west. Abraham shot a deer

and, also, a large sea-tortoise. Over the latter the Indians were

amazed, for they had never seen the like.126 Here the wolves

disturbed us during the night with their music. Because we

were encamped in a thicket, they came quite near to our fire,

so that the Indians threw fire-brands at them.

On the 7th we broke camp and went on. The Ohio runs

a very winding course here, with nothing but high mountains

on either side; there are, also, water-falls and rocks of consider-

able size. At noon we reached Canawaca, a Seneca town, where

we stopped several hours. Before coming to the town we passed

several plantations, where the Indians called to me, asking

whether I were not Ganosseracheri.127 They followed us to the

town. Most of the people knew me, because a year ago I had

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on two occasions spent the night here. The men of the town

immediately gathered and I had to tell them the purpose of our

visit, as I had previously been obliged to do in the first town.

They were all very friendly toward us and when we left they

stood on the bank, watched us and saluted us with several rifle-

shots. We would have remained here for the night, had we not

feared that our cattle might cause damage in their plantations,

for their land is not fenced in.

Toward evening, on the 9th, we reached Goschgoschuenk,

stopping at the uppermost town. To our surprise the Indian

preacher took us into his house, which is the largest, until we

should be able to put up a hut for ourselves. He lodged his

family elsewhere and turned the house over to our service. We

were welcomed in a very friendly manner, and we could see

from their expressions of joy that we were very welcome to

most of the people if not all. The middle town, two miles down

stream, is almost entirely deserted and the Indians have scat-

tered up and down the River. The blind chief, with whom we

had much to do last year, is on his way to Friedenshuetten.

There is great confusion here, as there is neither unity nor a

social spirit among the people. Each is for himself and the in-

habitants are scattered over a distance of a whole day's journey

along the River. In this part of the town there are but fourteen

houses together. It will not seem strange if we put up our

house somewhat apart from the others. Our evening prayer

service was attended by four of the Indians from the town.

On the 10th of June we had the house full of visitors all

day long. As many as had heard of our arrival came up stream

to visit us. We met, also, old Sarah, the sister of Samuel who

died in the spring, and her daughter Elizabeth, the wife of

Zacharias. They had heard that Moravians would come hither

and, therefore, moved to this place, arriving only several days

ago. They had lived nine days' journey distant from here on

the River, where Post128 was, a little above Tuscarawi.l29 Ben-

jamin, the Mohican, is here also. Toward evening we held a

very largely attended meeting. Not half the people had room

in the house. Most stood outside. All were very attentive and

Vol. XXI - 4.

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50       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

it was a great privilege to deliver the gospel message. We began

by singing one of our Indian hymns, as there are a number here

who know them. I announced, among other things, that we would

have services morning and evening, so that they could make their

arrangements accordingly. A Minque [Mingo], or rather Cajuga

Indian, who knew me eighteen years ago and with whom I had

lodged in company with the late Bishop Cammerhoff in Gan-

atocheracht,130 on the Tiaogu, visited me and told me that he

wished to make his home here. He had come some days ago

from Bedfordl31 and would be glad if I should remain, so that

I could teach his child. He intimated that he loved the good

and would be glad to hear about the Saviour. Another Indian

had already proclaimed to the people "that the worms will de-

stroy all your corn because these people have come;" he and

some others are great enemies of the gospel.

On the 11th, after the early service, we went out with sev-

eral Indians (who wished to give us some clear land for plant-

ing) in order to look at some land, which, in part at least, is

about two miles from here. Each one has his plantation where

it pleases him. They have no fences, so that their corn is liable

to be damaged by cattle. The character of the land is such that

they could not well have their plantations close together, and,

therefore, not a good locality for a town or settlement. We had

thought that it would be too late for planting after our coming,

but the people here have only begun their planting, because it is

not yet summer, and the weather is still very cool. This region

must lie farther north than Pennsylvania. In part, they have

begun planting for us. With a trader from Loyalhanning,132

who passed here and who is the first ever to have come here, I

sent a letter to Matthew Hehl at Lititz. He knows Post very

well, for he has traded in Tuscarawi. Because I learned that

he would soon return and wished to bring along rum, I arranged

that he should be dispatched with my letter publicly and that it

should be forbidden him to bring the rum. He promised not

to do so. Our services today were again well attended. We have

all manner of listeners, red and black painted faces, heads dec-

orated with plumes of feathers or of fox-tails. This seems to

be very much in vogue here among the young people, I have not

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.                51


found it worse or even as bad among the Six Nations. After

the service Anton continued speaking to the people, explaining

the message further to them. A woman, who was ill, wished

to be baptized. Though she was sick unto death, it did not seem

to me to be right to comply with her request, for she was hardly

able to speak any more and had never heard anything about

the Saviour until the present time, when Salome had visited and

spoken to her.

On the 12th several Indians from the lower town, six miles

from here, came to the service. Among these were a Chief

and a Shawnee. Afterward we visited outside the town, meeting

with an Indian, who told us that it had occurred to him during

the sermon that he had stolen two sheep and a chicken from the

whites but otherwise he could not remember to have committed

any sin. I replied that I would tell him of a greater sin that he

had committed and was still committing, viz., that he did not

believe in the Saviour who had shed His blood for him. Old

Sarah told us of the distress and unrest of her heart, adding

that she was very much plagued by Satan who had twice ap-

peared to her, so that she had been unable to remain in the town

among the Indians where her home had been, but had retired

into the forest alone with her daughter, until her brother Samuel

had died. Then they came hither, having heard that the Mo-

ravians were coming into these parts. At the evening service

there were again many from outside the village. The sick woman

died today, and there was, according to Indian custom, great

wailing and lamentation.

On the 13th we planted corn. The Indians of the village

are helping us very industriously. Five Senecas came from

Onenge, or Venango,133 among them a Chief, who was dissatis-

fied and very angry over the fact that the Indians here should

suffer whites-meaning us-among them.      He spoke very

bitterly. When we returned from the plantation, I wanted to

go to them and talk with them. But the Indians of the town

dissuaded me, saying that they wished first to speak with these

people again, fearing, lest, in the heat of discussion, they might

do me an injury. They promised to call me after they had

spoken with them. But the Indians had already gone. At this

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they were very much embarrassed. Therefore, on the 14th, we

conferred with them and told them what we thought ought to

be done in the matter, namely, send a message to Zoneschio to

the Seneca chief, whereby the matter might once for all be

settled. We would assist them in every way possible, as I had

already, for, in passing through the three Seneca towns, inti-

mated that some matter of the kind would be referred to them.

As it rained and we were obliged to remain in the house, we

had many visitors. Anton and Abraham witnessed for the Sa-

viour with great zeal. We heard of an Indian town down the

Ohio where they expect to build a meeting house, observe the

Sabbath and have the Indian preacher conduct meetings. There

are others who begin to celebrate the sixth day. All these preach-

ers trace the beginning of their efforts to the Quakers, claiming

that these had told them that they were on the right way and

that they should continue therein. It is hardly credible that the

Quakers should have had such an influence among the Indians,

since they have not come among the natives. If only these

preachers had the Word of God ! Unfortunately, all their preach-

ing is heathenism and idolatry.

On the 17th we made known to the people that we would be

glad to build a house somewhere for ourselves, because it was

necessary that we should live alone, inasmuch as our cause and

heathenism, viz., their dances and Kentekeys, or feasts, did not

harmonize. Whoever would, then, gladly hear about the Saviour

might come to us, and whoever would rather see and hear

heathen practices could come hither. We went, therefore with

several of them a little distance from the town to select a place

and then went into the woods to peel bast for the roof of the

house. The people assisted us. One of the messengers, who had

been in Friedenshuetten, announced forthwith that he and his

family would settle with us, when we had determined on a

dwelling-place. The evening service was conducted by Anton,

who exhorted the people very earnestly that it was not sufficient

to be glad to hear about the Saviour but that it was necessary

that they should allow the Word they heard to exert its influence

of power and truth in their hearts,

The Moravian Records

The Moravian Records.               53

On the 18th I received word through several strange Indians

that a certain chief, Glikkikan135 my name, wished very much to

see me. He is reported to have said that if I could teach him to

make powder he would love me very much. He had wished to

come hither but could not on account of the illness of his wife.

He lives six days' journey from here. I asked them to say to him,

that I could not teach him to make powder for I could not make

it myself, but that, if he would come, I would tell him something

much more precious, I would show him the way to the Saviour

and to salvation.

On the 19th the Sunday service was attended by a good

many from beyond the village. These people always inquire

when it will be Sunday, for during the week distance prevents

their attending our meetings. Anton and Abraham explained

further what I had said in the sermon.

On the 20th the people helped us to get the wood and other

things needful for the building of the house. As we have wood

nearby, we resolved to build a blockhouse. We can finish this as

quickly, if not more quickly than an Indian hut, for which we

would need bast that would have to be hauled over a mile. Even

the younger element, which is very coarse, showed a willingness

to assist us and is apparently not inimical toward us. They, also,

brought corn for us from all the plantations, without and within

the town, so that we have enough to eat. It is the custom among

the Indians that the recipients of such gifts should signify their

gratitude by the presentation of a Belt of Wampum. But as we

had come to proclaim the gospel among them and they did not

expect us to express our thanks in such a manner, we took the

opportunity after the evening service to make due acknowledge-

ment of their readiness to help and to wish for them rich bless-

ing from the Lord. In the evening Anton witnessed vigorously

against heathenism. The occasion for doing this was that some

had told him that it was rumored that in a certain patch of woods

in the lower town they had corn that spake of an evening. No

one could understand its speech, though it seemed to them to be

English. He said to them in effect, "you wonder at that which is

not true, for how can corn speak; why do you not wonder at this

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that God, the Creator of heaven and earth, has come into the

world and shed His blood for us and given His life as a ransom."

He preached a long sermon.

On the 21st we moved our effects into a hut that we had put

up at the place where we are erecting our house. We, also, began

laying the log walls. The place we have chosen is near the river,

where there is a spring, about half a mile down from the town.

Thus we are located somewhat apart from the village and will be

able to conduct our meetings undisturbed. For the present no

other arrangement can be made than that we should all dwell in

one house. Most of the people of these villages are away for the

summer hunt, the houses are almost deserted, only some of the

older people are at home. In the evening we held a service in our

hut, some of the people from the villages attended. It is a very

happy circumstance that all the members of our company dwell

together in peace and happiness and seek each to lighten the

burdens of the other.

Early in the morning of the 22nd Sarah came to us, declaring

that she had not been able to rest all the night because of sorrow

for her unfaithfulness to the Saviour. We finished putting up

the walls of our house. Several of the Indians who had remained

at home and not gone on the chase helped us very industriously.

I asked the Chief who lives six miles from here to visit us, in

order that we might with him and the Indians here confer about

our business with the Senecas. At our service this evening there

were many strangers. Anton and Abraham preached to them.

The 23rd and the 24th we spent in working on our house.

As the Chief whom I had asked to visit us is unable to come on

account of illness and there is no one here who can act in the

matter of our dwelling here without offending the Senecas, we

considered seriously whether Anton, Abraham and I should un-

dertake a journey to the Seneca Chief, because I feared that we

might draw hard words from the Senecas upon ourselves, which

would injure our work. We concluded that it would be better

to wait for the present. In the meantime matters may clear

themselves up on all sides. A baptized Jew, who had been in

New England, discourages the Indians from attending our serv-

ices by declaring that whoever believes and is baptized becomes

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the servant of the whites. He adds that in New England and in

Friedenshuetten he had observed that the baptized Indians were

obliged to become the servants of the whites.136

On the 25th we had many visitors all day long in our hut.

Anton and Abraham preached to them constantly. The women

in our company spoke to the female visitors. The people here

surely are sufficiently instructed. The question is whether they

understand and obey. Many hear gladly and seem to understand.

In them the fruit of our labors will appear in due time.

On the 26th a large number appeared at the services. The

Sunday meetings are always better attended. During the week

many who would be glad to come are unable to do so because

of the distances they have to travel and because they are obliged

to attend to their plantations. The Indian preacher who lives

here visits our meetings quite regularly. Yet he continues to

assert that he had seen God and knows Him, and he assures the

Indians that he has been at God's side. He has not seen fit to

discuss the matter with us. He keeps quiet so far as we are con-

cerned and we have not disturbed him. Since our advent he has

not preached. Whenever he thinks that sin is stirring within him,

he resorts to blood-letting or takes a purgative and then fancies

that he is rid of the evil and acceptable to God.137 He does not

see the need of a Redeemer. So great is the blindness and the

power of darkness over these people, that when they hear a

heathenish sermon they understand and comprehend. Toward

the gospel their understanding is darkened, so that they are in-

capable of anything good.  Another Indian preacher, living not

far from here, alleges that he has been in heaven and so near to

God that he heard the cocks of the heavenly city crow. There-

upon he turned about and came back, so that he had not actually

seen God.

On the 28th one of the families of Indians built a hut near

our house. Their own place was too far away and they wished

to attend our daily services. Old Sarah visited us again and

told us more of her distress. We can do little for her so long as

she does not dwell nearer our settlement. Both she and Eliza-

beth are constant attendants at our meetings. An Onondago In-

dian, who knows me, came to the town with a message. As there

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was no one here who could speak with him, I had to act the in-

terpreter. He brought a String of Wampum from a Minque

[Mingo] Chief, who since last fall had been hunting two days'

journey from here. He is not able to return to his home because

of the illness of his wife. They ask for some corn, as they are

entirely out of provisions.

The Indian visited me again on the 29th and I made him an

Indian calendar, so that he might know when it was Sunday, for

he was baptized at Gachnawage, in Canada, by a Frenchman.

The Indians here gave him several bushels of corn, which they

had collected. The Chief who lives six miles from here came,

also. He has been in our meetings at various times. He gave

us his opinion in the matter of sending a message to the Seneca

Chief, at Zoneschio. He regarded it as unnecessary that we

should make the journey thither, because the Chief of the Senecas

expected soon to come here, then we should hear how the matter

stood, and whether the Indians could dwell here longer or would

have to move farther on. The Senecas seem to have in mind

the selling of this land to the English and then moving further

west themselves. Sir Wm. Johnson having long desired them

to do this.138 He intimated, further, that there would soon be

another treaty at Pittsburg, on which occasion all the governors

of the neighboring provinces would assemble.139 We can hardly

believe the latter statement to be well founded, except it be that

the English have in mind establishing a large settlement along the

Ohio.140 He, also, brought the news that the Delamattenos,141

whose territory borders on this, and the western Indians were

anxious to begin war again and that in three Indian towns up

along the Lakes they had already killed all the traders. The

latter rumor we have heard every year in Friedenshuetten, so

long as that settlement has been in existence. God grant that

their counsels may come to nought, and may peace be preserved to

us. This evening there was a total eclipse of the moon, over

which the Indians were much exercised, because they believed

that it foreshadowed some evil. Many came and asked what this

phenomenon signified, and when we told them that it was some-

thing quite in the usual order of events and that it certainly pro-

tended no evil, they were comforted.

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On the 30th we moved into our newly built house. It stands

in the open and meaures 26 ft. x 16 ft., so that ordinarily we will

have room enough in it for our meetings. The Onondago Indian

visited me again. I discussed various matters with him and

asked, among other things, what had led him to allow himself to

be baptized. He replied that the priest who had baptized him had

said that if he would be saved he must be baptized. I asked him,

further, whether he now believed that he would be saved. He

replied that the priest had always told them that whoever would

live a good life and avoid evil would eventually attain to heaven;

for this reason he was keeping himself from all that he believed

to be evil. I told him very plainly that he needed a Saviour and

that his baptism would avail him nothing without the Saviour.

He answered that both he and his comrade would be glad to hear

about the Saviour. The whole family has been baptized, and,

so soon as they are able, they intend to return to Onondago. He

seemed a very decent fellow, appeared to be very much attached

to me and took leave in a very friendly manner, as they ex-

pected to start early on the morrow. He hoped that he might

meet me again and have the opportunity of conversing further.

On the 1st of July we held a service in our new house.

Many Indians were present. Anton and Abraham spoke very

earnestly to the assembled.

On the 3rd of July the Indian preacher, who is, also, a

physician, arranged an Indian play in the town, for the benefit

of an ailing woman.142  For this reason very few came to our


On the 4th the Indian preacher visited us and once more

permitted himself to get into a discussion with us, this time con-

cerning his practices as a doctor. It seemed as though he were

not quite satisfied with the play he had arranged yesterday and

wanted to know our opinion. I told him very plainly that all his

medical practice and quackery were of the devil and an abomina-

tion to God, that he was unable to cure a single person of illness

so long as he did not forswear the devil and all his works, cast-

ing himself at the feet of the Saviour to beg for mercy and par-

don. Thereupon he went quietly away. An old woman of the

town, who is very hostile toward us, preaches industriously

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against us, persuading her people that whoever will go to our

meetings will be tempted of the devil and greatly troubled. We

have many enemies here, more than we had thought, particularly

among the women. These seek in every possible way to turn the

people against us, so that they may not attend our meetings.l43

Satan seems to have great power over the children of unbelief.

They say among other things, "What is this? they speak always

of the Saviour's blood; we cannot understand this nor know what

it is." Their hearts are truly darkened.144

On the 5th our Indians went out to hunt, returning in the

evening with two bears. Our evening meeting was very well


On the 6th several of those who attend our meetings regu-

larly came, complaining that their friends had turned against

them because of their friendliness to us. These had told them

that rather than go to our meetings they should go far away to

Gekalemukpechuenk,145 that is to the region along the River

where Post had lived. There they have four Indian preachers,

are building a meeting house and are doing their utmost to per-

petuate pagan customs and practices.146 Children are forbidden

to come to us. Our place is avoided by many, is hated by them

and a cause of vexation. Some old women in the town say,

"Why have these people come to us; let them return to their own

home, we do not want to hear about their God." Thus enmity

is being stirred up against the gospel. Many are afraid to visit

our house during the day-time and come only at night. Others

do not come at all, fearing disgrace. Yet we continue to hold our

meetings. There are always some present. Occasionally, our

meetings are so well attended that there is hardly room for all.

Will it be possible for the hostile ones to hinder the work of the

Lord? No, they will not succeed.

On the 8th several of our Christian Indians moved the hut

of an old woman, who wishes to attend our services and is not

able to walk any distance, next to our house. A Mohok [Mo-

hawk] who has fought four years in the war against the Chero-

kees and is now on his way back to Canatschochari,147 his home,

visited me. He told me that his occupation and activity for the

past four years has been nothing but the killing of men.148

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The Indian preacher who now begins to avoid our meetings,

visited Anton. He still contends that he has seen God, Who has

given him the power to heal, if he but breathe upon the sick.

Anton told him that if he did not know the God of the Cross, then

he had no God and knew nothing of Him.

Our service on the 10th was largely attended. From with-

out we hear of nothing but hostility. Many Indians down along

the River and here in the Town say that we whites should be

killed. Others declare that we should all be thrown into the Ohio

and sent to Fort Pitt, to the whites there. Those who are

friendly toward us fear that the enemies might some night attack

us and slaughter us all. While Satan is thus stirring up the

heathen against us, the eye of the Watcher over Israel is upon us.

Conditions here are very different from those along the Susque-

hannah, where the power of evil has been largely broken. At

the time of our arrival there was nothing but joy at our coming,

but now many would rather help stone us away.

On the 11th the old woman, who was moved next to us,

told us how she had been benefited by the gospel message. When

a year ago we spent some time two miles from here, she had

not been able to attend our meetings. But at the time of our

departure, as we had passed through this town, she had seen

us from a distance and had been very sad to see us go, because

she believed that we should be able to tell her the right way of

salvation. Since then she had always prayed earnestly that we

might return.

On the 12th our meeting was quite well attended. Many

stood without, so that their presence at the meeting might not

be noticed.

On the 13th Anton went into the lower town, six miles

from here to fetch corn which the people there had contributed

to us. There he saw a white woman, who had once been sent

to Fort Pitt. She had, however, immediately made her escape

and returned.

On the 14th Anton and Abraham went out to hunt. In the

evening they returned with a bear. The first named conducted

the evening service.

On the 15th various Indians returned from the chase and

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visited us at the time of our service. There are many men and

women here who declare that they have seen God and know Him.

These say that whoever believes in our God must become the

slave of the whites. It is said that the Indian preacher of this

place does not attend our services any longer because his sister

is ill, and she is reported to have said that if her brother con-

tinues to attend our services it will cause her death. She is

one of those who is very hostile to our work. If any of the

Indians would tell her anything about us or our God, they are

immediately bidden to be silent, as she declares that she would

die were she to hear anything about us or our meetings, because

the devil dwells in our house.

On the 16th we finished our work on the plantations. This

has occupied us for the whole week.

The text of the sermon on the 17th was the story of Thomas,

which I read to the worshippers out of the Delaware transla-

tion. Many seemed to be touched. In the afternoon we paddled

several miles up the River to a place where a large Creek empties

into the Ohio from the east. Just opposite the mouth of the

Creek there is a fine large island, which is separated from the

western bank by a narrow arm of the River. The soil of the

island appears to be very good for plantation purposes. Nearly

all the other islands, and there are many, are used for planta-

tion purposes. On this island there is but one family, which

would be very glad if we were to settle there. Indeed, the mem-

bers of this family have said that if we should move away they

would go along. On the east bank of the River, near this island,

there is a fine spring. This is a very important circumstance,

because in summer time the water of the Ohio is very bad. On

one side of the Creek there is, also, very fine low land for plan-

tation purposes. Wood there is in plenty, for the forest is very

thick. This suits the Indians, because they are not obliged to

go far for wood. Pasturage, too, is good. There would be

enough plantation land for sixteen or more families.149  The

reason why we have come upon the thought to seek a place for

ourselves here is this. We see no other course open to us.

Since our coming here I have urged that the Indians, at least,

those who are friendly to us, should send a message to the Seneca

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Chief, concerning our being here and concerning our future

dwelling-place. We have offered to go with them, but all in

vain. No one wished to take an interest in the matter. No one

wished to be troubled about it. We alone can not do it, for we

are too few. Furthermore, the circumstances have changed very

much. We are surrounded by the bitterest enemies, who would

any day put us out of the way if they dared to do it. Those

who are well disposed toward us look on to see what will happen.

As we see ourselves thus left to our own devices, our thoughts

naturally turn to some place where we might remain for a year

or two. It is necessary that we consider the matter now, because

further on toward fall it is much more difficult to build houses.

On the 18th, after the morning prayers, we had a conversa-

tion with Sarah and Elizabeth. In them the work of grace seems

to progress. They begged very earnestly that they might be per-

mitted to dwell near us, because it was impossible to live longer

among the savages. We resolved, therefore, to bring their hut

out of the town and put it up near our own. For this they were

very grateful. They had thought of moving to Friedenshuetten,

and this would have met with our approval. Finally, however,

they determined to remain here with us. Today we paddled

several miles down the Ohio, in order to examine another place

where there is some flat land. This will not suit our purposes,

because it is very limited in area and there is no water except

that in the River. The land between here and Onenge is of such

a nature that no town can be established. The Trader who had

been here a month ago, came again, this time from Loyalhanning.

This evening there arrived a String of Wampum together with

a red painted stick that had several notches, meant to signify a

rod with a leaden ball, besides the message: "Cousins who dwell

in Goschgoschuenk! you have cause to fear, for your position

is very dangerous." All were alarmed at the message. Fear

and terror seized the Indians. No one could think what this

could mean, nor whence it had come.

On the 19th Allemewi, the blind chief who had been on the

way to Friedenshuetten, returned, having heard on the road of

our arrival here. For this we were very glad, for he is the only

chief who has any influence here. We regarded it as most provi-

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dential that he had returned. He and his wife were glad to find

us here and spent the night with us. He was very sorry to hear

that so many Indians had turned against us and become hostile.

The Indians are still very much exercised over the message that

arrived yesterday. One of them came to our house twice during

the past night, bringing his Tomhak, imagining that he had al-

ready seen and heard some one who wanted to kill him. He

took refuge with us. On such occasions it can readily be seen

how faint-hearted the Indians are.

On the 20th we announced at the morning prayer service

that in future we would conduct the evening service earlier, by

light of day, because for several days the evening meetings had

been disturbed, which had given occasion for grave apprehension.

Though all may have been quiet at the beginning of the services,

the Indians had several times during the service made such a

noise nearby, that it sounded as if a whole regiment were being

cut down without mercy. All the men went down to the island,

two miles from here, with the Minquas who had brought the

message, in order to consider further the tidings that had been

sent. We went along and I proceeded immediately to converse

with the Mingoes, all three of whom knew me. Two of them

are Onondagos and one is a Cayuga. Last spring they had passed

through Friedenshuetten with the Cherokees, and now they had

come up the Ohio. They had received the message in Onenge

from a Seneca Chief and brought it hither. Whence it had come

we could not rightly learn, except that it had either come from

Wilawane, on the Tiaogu or from Cayuga. We saw clearly that

the message was meant for our Christian Indians. who had come

hither from Friedenshuetten. It was a warning to them. I

spoke at some length with the three Indians, telling them of the

purpose of our settling here. As I saw that the Cayuga was a

sensible man, I sent a message by him to the Cayuga Chief,

announcing to him my arrival here in Goschgoschuenk. I had

come hither because there were Indians here who wished to hear

the Word of our God, they having invited me to come, and,

because I could not speak their language and needed an inter-

preter, I had brought two families from Friedenshuetten with

me to assist me. They had not, therefore, left Friedenshuetten,

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because they did not like it there, but to serve the Indians here

with the gospel. He should not, for this reason, think that the

Indians of Friedenshuetten had any intention of turning from

his camp-fire; they would hold to it as heretofore, so long as

they were not driven away by war or other circumstances.

Allemewi, also, sent a message in our behalf to the Seneca

Chief, at Zoneschio, with the words " Uncle! I inform you here-

with that several of our friends have come to us with two white

brethren, whom we invited to come to tell us the good words

of our God and Creator. You have frequently sent us word

that we should lead a good life and hold to the good. This

we have thus far not observed. But now we are determined

to live otherwise, to put away heathenish practices, such as

feasts, dancing and drinking, and our brethren who have come

to us shall instruct us in the word of God. Recently, several

of your people traveled through here. They became very angry

and dissatisfied because we had invited whites to visit us, saying

that 'soon many will follow, in order to build a city and take

the land.' This we have no occasion to fear, for no more than

two will come to this place. In case you do not approve of

their being here and decide that the brethren who have come

to us shall not remain here, then they will return or go to some

other place. I and many of our people will follow them whither-

soever they may go, for it is our intention to believe in God."

The Cayuga to whom this message was delivered received it very

well, and in parting he gave the Indians earnest exhortation,

saying, that they were undertaking a great thing, viz., the mat-

ter of believing in God, that their intention was good, and that

they should attend the meetings regularly and give ear to my

instructions. Many of the Indians heard his words.

On the 21st this Indian came to me very early and related

that Allemewi had, also, given him a message to the Cayuga

Chief, one point of which disagreed with my message. I knew

nothing of this message, for I had not been present when it

had been delivered. The point in question concerned our Frie-

denshuetten Indians, viz., that those with me had all their friends

in Friedenshuetten and that they would be glad to welcome them

all here. He wanted to know which words he should believe.

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I told him that he should believe my words, for it had never

entered our minds that our Indians should remove from Frie-

denshuetten, except in case the Six Nations sold the land or in

the event a war should break out, so that they could no longer

live there in peace. I wished, however, to speak with Allemewi,

so that the message might be differently worded. I had them

meet and discussed the matter with them. Accordingly, the

message was made to read as follows: "Uncle! We have heard

the hard words, concerning which you may know whence they

come, viz., that we Indians in Goschgoschuenk had reason to

fear, because we were in danger. We know of no fear nor

danger, for only recently there has been a Treaty in Fort Pitt,

according to which all difficulties were settled and peace estab-

lished. We know, therefore, of nothing; perhaps you know

better, let us, therefore, also, know." Thereupon he continued:

"Last fall a white brother, whom you know very well, came

to us with two of our friends from Friedenshuetten, and they

have brought us the good words of our God and Creator. We

received these words and on that occasion invited them to come

to us again, in order to instruct us further. He, accordingly,

returned this spring and brought two of his friends with him,

because he is not able to speak our language. These two are

to be his interpreters. We are minded to believe, to lead another

life and agree entirely with our friends in Friedenshuetten. You

must not, therefore, think evil of it that two of our friends have

come hither. It does not follow that the others at Friedens-

huetten will likewise come to this region." With this the Cayuga

was satisfied and said that it was quite right. He had wished

to start today with his company. As he had, however, remained

so long on account of this business, he decided to remain for

the rest of the day. This being the case, we considered the mat-

ter of sending another message to the Seneca Chief, in regard

to our future dwelling-place, for which the land along the

Onenge had occurred to us. But as we saw that the Indians

rather hesitated and were inclined to wait for the present until

they should learn what answer the first message would bring,

we left the matter for the time being. At the same time they

spoke with the Cayuga about it and commissioned him to tell

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the Seneca Chief that this was not a good place for them, be-

cause they could not live together and could not attend the

meetings when they wished to do so. They sent, also, a String

of Wampum with the request that he should not permit his

people to bring rum hither, for they wished to be rid of all that

sort of thing. The Cayuga promised to deliver our messages

faithfully and to represent our cause before the Six Nations

as well as he could.

On the 22nd he left. As we now knew that we should be

obliged to spend the winter here, no other arrangements being

possible, we resolved to build another small house for ourselves,

so that we might sometimes be alone, for our large house is never

without visitors. I sent a letter by the trader from Ligonier, or

Loyalhanning to Matthew Hehl, in Lititz, as this trader intends,

after visiting his home, to go to Lancaster. I learned today that

the six sons of the chief in the lower town, six miles distant, had

taken counsel together to kill me. I must admit that I had pre-

monition of such a thing, and I have prayed earnestly that, if

such a thing were to happen, it might not be while a service was

going on. God be praised that these anxious days are passed,

things are better, even though we are surrounded by enemies.

On the 23rd the members of our company fished. They

caught many fish of a variety quite unknown to us.

The service on the 24th was well attended. Among those

present were several friends from Attike,150 not far from Pitts-

burg. They were very attentive.

On the 26th Allemewi had an interview with us. He de-

clared it to be his intention to live for the Saviour. He was

minded to resign his office as Chief, because he thought its func-

tions might prevent his carrying out his intentions. We coun-

selled him not to give up his office to another but to seek to serve

the Lord, while discharging its functions. We had witnessed in

his absence how evil flourished. Since his return our enemies

are more quiet, for they fear him. He tells everyone openly that

he is of the same mind as we are. Those who remained well-

disposed toward us but had at times lost courage, because we

were hated so heartily, are now of better courage and hope for

Vol. XXI - 5.

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better times. The Chief and his wife are with us every even-

ing, so that they may be able to attend the services. They live

on the island, two miles down stream.

On the 27th the Indians of the neighborhood had a spirits-

or ghosts-feast, on which occasion a hog was sacrificed.l51 Such

sacrifices are occasionally arranged by the Indian doctors, who

allege that the spirits are dissatisfied and must be appeased by

the sacrifice of a hog, a deer or a bear. The feast takes place at

night in a house that is entirely dark. In course of the feast,

the doctor converses with the spirits, gives them of the flesh and,

afterwards, declares that the spirits have been reconciled, where-

upon the Indians disperse. Allemewi had an interview with us. He

wishes to build a hut near us, so that he may always be with us.

He has many children and grandchildren, but they are not of his

mind, clinging to their heathenish practices. For this reason he

wishes to leave them and live near us. He would like best of

all to live with his daughter, in Friedenshuetten, who is married

to one of our Christian Indians there, Jacob by name.

On the 28th he moved into our house, where he will remain

until he can build a hut of his own. Twenty-eight warriors,

Cayugas and Senecas, passed through here on their return from

the war with the Cherokees. They had three scalps, which they

bore in triumph before them, fixed to a pole.

On the 29th our Indians brought the hut of Sarah and

Elizabeth out of the town and set it up near our house. Various

of the visiting warriors, who knew me, visited me, the son of the

Cayuga Chief, among the rest. With the latter I spoke at length

concerning our coming hither, explaining the reason therefore.

He said that in two or three years probably all the Indians along

the Ohio would be Christians. I heard, also, that he had spoken

with an Indian who understands their language and who attends

our services regularly, promising to make it a point to hear the

Word of God and go regularly to the meetings. He said,

further, that the Indians would do well to visit Cayuga in the

spring to talk over the matter with his father. The visitors asked

me to assist them in securing provisions for their journey. On

that account I went into the town to speak with the captains.152

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Provisions will be secured, and, as one of the visitors is ill, a

canoe was furnished as well.

On the 30th we began with the building of our house. We

pealed bark and fetched it to the building place.

On the 1st of August a great Bunch of Wampum (that is as

many Strings of Wampum as one can hold in the hand) arrived,

with the following message from the Seneca Chief: "Cousins,

who dwell in Goschgoschuenk and along the Ohio and you

Shawanose! I have arisen and looked about me, to find out what

is going on in the land. I have seen that somebody in a black

coat has arrived, beware of the black coat. Believe not what he

tells you, for he will pervert and alienate your hearts." In con-

clusion, he desired that we should let him know what our

intention was. Our message to him had not yet reached him,

the messengers having met on the road. It was well that we had

sent off our message before receiving his. Something of the kind

I had expected, so that I would gladly have prevented it, but I,

had not been able to do anything, as none of the Indians would

have anything to do with our affairs until the arrival of Allemewi.

We alone could do nothing; it was necessary that the Indians

should declare their intention, otherwise our word would signify

nothing. In his message the Chief would stir up all the Indians

along the Ohio, and even the Shawanose, who dwell two hundred

miles below Pittsburg, against us. May the Lord help us! for

we are here at His call and command.

Aug. 3rd. Yesterday and today we paddled several miles up

the River in order to make hay. Since the arrival of the message

of the Seneca Chief, many absent themselves from our meetings.

The Indian preacher shows now what is in him, for he goes from

house to house, forbidding the Indians to attend our meetings,

because the Minquas had forbidden it. If they had been ordered

to do something good, they would surely not have done it, but

since it is something that appeals to their evil passions, they are

in haste to obey.

On the 4th we were obliged to remain at home, on account

of rain. Anton and Abraham preached to the visitors we had

during the day. In spite of all the difficult circumstances we

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have been called upon to face, the courage of these men has not

faltered. Peter resolved to return to Friedenshuetten with his

wife, because they find it too hard and uncertain to remain here.

We do not try to dissuade them, because it is, indeed, hard for

any who have not been inspired with supreme confidence from

on high.

An Indian acquainted us with his desire to build a house

near to us, so that he might with his wife and children be able

to attend our services regularly.

On the 6th after the early service, I spoke to a small com-

pany of Indians, who are faithful to us, encouraging them to

believe that even though our condition was very precarious, it

was in the power of the Lord to change this very quickly. We

would pray to Him that He would give us a place where we might

dwell in peace. If the Minquas will not suffer our abiding here,

most of those who seek something different will move to Fried-


On the 7th the preaching service was disturbed by a couple

of young savages, who came before our house and made a great

outcry and noise. Abraham went out and spoke with them, tell-

ing them that we were conducting a service and that they should

desist from their disturbance. But they carried on so much the

more. We were obliged to close the service and separate.

On the 8th these fellows made it known that they would

kill any one of our number who would undertake to prevent them

in anything they did, and they made known other evil designs

against us. Today Gatschenis, husband of Anne Johanna's sister,

set up his house near us. He and his wife and brother, who

moves to our settlement, also, are concerned about their salvation.

Allemewi sent today a String of Wampum down the River, as

far as Pittsburg, with a message to all the Indians, that they are

to bring no rum hither. We both went down to the island to

our plantation. Abraham soon followed us and warned us not

to go alone in this fashion, because the two young savages had

evil designs upon us. He remained with us, until we went home.

We have discontinued our evening meetings until such time when

there will be more calm and quiet. The morning services we will

continue, as it is generally quiet at that time of day. One learns

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to appreciate here what a blessing it is to enjoy freedom of wor-

ship. We trust that the Lord will permit us to enjoy this favor

even here. For the present we close our diary and commend our-

selves and this whole region, where darkness rules, to the prayer-

ful interest and remembrance of the Church.




On the 9th of August we wrote letters to Bethlehem. Several

Indians met in a house in our neighborhood, among them the

Indian preacher. They called in Anton, Allemewi and myself, to

consider what was to be done about the two young savages who

had threatened to kill some of our number. We sent two men

out of the counsel to talk with these fellows in the presence of

their friends, letting them know that we would gladly live in

peace with them, not interfering with them, and that we hoped

that they might treat us in a similar manner. If ever they had

been engaged in the dance or in a Kentekey, we had not disturbed

them or made any trouble; would they not let us alone in our

meetings, within or without our own house? The Indians were

free people and the slaves of no one; they ought to allow to

each freedom in matters of faith, and to attend the dance or

Kentekey or to be present at our meetings. The two men re-

turned after a while, having succeeded in settling the difficulty.

The two young savages promised not to repeat their disturbances.

Inasmuch as all the Indians who were gathered on this occasion

were such as daily attended our services, except the Indian

preacher who does not attend any of our meetings now, they con-

sidered, further, the message of the Seneca Chief, which forbade

all Indians to come and hear me. They made the following pro-

posal: They would send a message to the two Delaware Chiefs

at Kaskaskank,l53 on the Beaver Creek, which empties into the

Ohio below Pittsburg, acquainting them with their desire to live

differently in the future and to hear the gospel which was being

preached to them by the brethren whom they had with them.

They did not doubt that they would gladly receive them and, in

case they received their consent, would move thither this fall.

These two chiefs are said to be peaceable, to avoid entanglement

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in wars, to listen to no Indian preachers and to be desirous of

leading a good life. The land in question, which is said to be ex-

cellent, was given by the Delamattenos to the Delawares to live

upon and lies three days' journey from here to the west-south-

west. It is possible to reach it by water, though in a very round-

about way. They asked me what I thought of the proposal and

whether it pleased me, for the Minquas never wished the gospel

to be preached here, hence they would rather move elsewhere so

that they might hear the Word of God without hindrance. I

answered that I had nothing against their sending a message to

these Indians, letting them know that the Moravians were here

and that the people would gladly become Christians and lead a

different life; indeed I said that it would be good to send such a

message. But concerning moving to another place I thought it

best to wait until we had had an answer from the Seneca Chief.

If this were not favorable to us, we might, then, consider this

matter further. They were persuaded to let the matter rest here

and were satisfied with my answer.

On the 10th Peter and his wife started back for Frieden-

shuetten, by way of Great-Island, on the West Branch of the

Susquehannah. Sarah and her daughter, Elizabeth, went with

them. The latter had been living near us for some time, but now

that an opportunity presented itself, they were glad to move to

Friedenshuetten. We had no objection to their doing so.

On the 11th a Seneca visited me. In the evening he was

present at our meeting. As feeling does not now run so high,

we have ventured to conduct our evening meetings again.

At the Sunday service on the 14th there were again a number

of strangers. Sunday is, with those who live near us and others

who are friendly toward us, a holiday. There are about twenty

who meet with us daily, others come now and then.

On the 16th there came a hostile message from Gekelemuk-

pechuenk, along the River where Post had formerly lived. The

message contained a threat that did not exactly concern us. They

did not know what the Indians here were doing. For their part,

they did not intend to desist from witchcraft until sixty of the

Indians living here were dead. Then they would stop. The

reason for this singular message was not given. In the opinion

The Moravian Records