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Besides these there were five adults, one man, SCHAPPIHIL-

LEN, the husband of Helen, together with four women and thir-

teen babes not yet baptized, and the following members of the

Mission at Schoenbrun, who happened to be at Gnadenhutten,

to-wit: NICHOLAS and his wife, JOANNA SABINA, ABEL, HEN-

RY, ANNA, and BATHSHEBA, the last two daughters of Joshua,

the founder of Gnadenhutten; in all, twenty-eight men, twenty-

nine women, and thirty-three children. Two boys, Thomas and

Jacob, escaped.

I cannot better close this paper than by quoting the words

of Charles McKnight, who, in his centennial work entitled,

"Our Western Border One Hundred Years Ago," says:


"The whole massacre leaves a stain of deepest dye on the

page of American history. It was simply atrocious and execra-

ble-a blistering disgrace to all concerned, utterly without ex-

cuse, and incapable of defense. It damns the memory of each

participator to the last syllable of recorded time. All down the

ages the Massacre of the Innocents will be its only parallel."







The centennial is approaching of the greatest battle fought

on the soil of Ohio, the battle between the Indians and the army

under General Arthur St. Clair, November 4, 1791. It is well

to note in detail the important military posts in our State. An

examination of the map accompanying this article will show

that not many northwestern states have such a military record.

The accompanying sketches are compiled from so many

sources that it is impossible to give credit to all, and hence none

will be mentioned. The description of each is brief, and con-

fined to the important facts connected with each. On each of

these places pages could be written, but the object of this

article, however, is to place in compact form the salient points

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only. The narrative will, as far as possible, follow the chron-

ological order.

FORT MIAMI, the oldest fortification in Ohio, was built by

an expedition sent by Frontenac, Governor of Canada, in 1680,

as a military trading post, about fifteen miles up the Maumee

from its mouth. It stood on the left bank of the river, in what

is now Maumee City. It was used but a short time, the trading

of the French being moved farther into the Indian country. In

1785 the abandoned fort was rebuilt and occupied by the British,

who remained in possession until the treaty of peace with the

Indians in 1795. They again occupied the fort during the war

of 1812. After its close, the post came into use as a trading

place, being such when the Maumee valley was settled by


FORT SANDUSKY, a small stockade trading place of the

French, was built about 1750, on the left bank of the Sandusky

River, not far from the site of Sandusky City. It was a trading

post only, and was abandoned soon after the Peace of 1763.


LORAMIE'S FORT, as it was called, was originally a trading

post, occupied by the English as early as 1750 or 1751 as a trad-

ing station. It was then known as Pickawillany. In 1752 the

place was attacked by an Indian and French force sent from

Canada, the station being considered an encroachment on French

territory. Not long after a Candian Frenchman named Loramie,

established a store and trading post here, and the place became

a hostile center against the American settlements. In 1782,

Gen. George Rogers Clarke and a body of Kentucky troops

invaded the Miami country and destroyed this post. In 1794,

Gen. Wayne built a fort here called "Fort Loramie." The fort

became a prominent point on the Greenville Treaty line, and

soon afterward was abandoned as a military post.

FORT JUNANDAT. A trading station on the right bank of

the Sandusky river, was built about 1754 by French traders. It

was occupied but a short time, and with other French posts, was

abandoned soon after the close of the French and Indian war.

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FORT GOWER-named for Earl Gower-a small stockade,

was built by Lord Dunmore, at the mouth of the Hocking river

in 1774, when on his march against the Indians in the Northwest

Territory. From this place he marched his troops up the river

to an encampment-Camp Charlotte-in what is now called Ross

county, on the Scioto river, about seven miles south of the

present city of Circleville. Here a treaty of peace was con-

cluded with the Indians, and the army returned to Fort Gower,

and then to Virginia.

FORT LAURENS-named in honor of the first President of

Congress, was erected in the fall of 1778, by a detachment of

one thousand men under command of General McIntosh, com-

mander at Fort Pitt, to act as a check on the Indians who were

at that time hostile to the Americans, and who gave the western

settlements no little cause for alarm. After its completion a

garrison of one hundred and fifty men was placed therein, under

charge of Col. John Gibson. The Indians attacked the fort in

the winter following and gave the garrison much trouble, killing

some of the soldiers who ventured outside the walls of the

stockade. The Indian siege lasted until late in February, reduc-

ing the garrison to close straits. Couriers were sent to General

McIntosh, who brought provisions and aid. The fort was

evacuated in August, 1779, being untenable at a such a distance

on the frontier.

The fort stood "a little below the mouth of Sandy Creek,"

on the west bank of the Tuscarawas river, half a mile south of

the present village Bolivar. The walls were octagonal in shape,

enclosing about an acre of ground. The palisades were split

tree trunks, inside of which were the soldiers' quarters. Col.

Charles Whittlesy visited the spot about the time the canal was

made and traced the old embankment now almost obliterated.

FORT HARMAR was built by Maj. John Doughty in the

autumn of 1785 at the mouth (right bank) of the Muskingum

river. The detachment of United States troops under command

of Maj. Doughty, were part of Josiah Harmar's regiment, and

hence the fort was named in his honor. The outlines of the

fort formed a regular pentagon, including about three quarters

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of an acre. Its walls were formed of large horizontal timbers,

the bastions being about fourteen feet high, set firmly in the

earth. In the rear of the fort, Maj. Doughty laid out fine gar-

dens, in which were many peach trees, originating the familiar

"Doughty peach." The fort was occupied by a United States

garrison until September 1790, when they were ordered to Fort

Washington (Cincinnati). A company under Capt. Haskell con-

tinued to make the fort headquarters during the Indian war of

1790-95. From the date of the settlement at Marietta across the

Muskingum in the spring of 1778, the fort was constantly occu-

pied by settlers, then rapidly filling the country.

FORT STEUBEN was built in 1789, on the site of the present

city of Steubenville. It was built of block houses connected by

a row of palisades and was one of the early American out-posts

in the Northwest Territory. It was garrisoned by a detachment

of United States troops under command of Col. Beatty. The

post was abandoned soon after Wayne's victory in 1794.

FORT WASHINGTON was built by Maj. John Doughty, who

was sent with a detachment of troops from Fort Harmar in Sep-

tember, 1789, to build a fort for the protection of the settlers in

the "Symmes Purchase," between the Miami rivers. It was

completed during the winter following, and under date of Jan-

uary 14, 1790, Gen. Josiah Harmar wrote that "It is built of

hewn timber, a perfect square, two stories high, with four block

houses at the angles. The plan is Maj. Doughty's and on ac-

count of its superior excellence I have thought proper to honor

it with the name Fort Washington."  This was an important

post during the Indian war of 1790-1795, being headquarters for

all military operations.

FORT HAMILTON, built in September, 1791, by Gen. Arthur

St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory and commander

of the troops raised to pursue and punish the Indians who the

year before broke out in open hostility to the young American

settlements. The army under St. Clair had rendezvoused at

Fort Washington, and after being divided into three military or-

ganizations had started northward into the Indian country.

Fort Hamilton, built principally as a depot for supplies, stood

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on the east bank of the Great Miami river, on the site of the

present city of Hamilton, Ohio, at the east end of the bridge

connecting Hamilton and Rossville. The fort was a stockade,

somewhat triangular in shape, with four good bastions and plat-

forms for cannon. The officers' quarters were near the river.

Eastward stood the soldiers' barracks and southward was the

magazine. The next summer an addition to the north was

erected by General Williamson, commander of the army. The

fort was occupied until the close of hostilities and was almost

the equal of Fort Washington in importance.

FORT JEFFERSON. This post was erected in 1791 by Gen-

eral St. Clair, forty-four miles north of Fort Hamilton. It

stood in a rich tract of country about six miles south and a little

west of the present city of Greenville. It was used chiefly as a

depot of supplies, and hence was not a fortification nor a place

to harbor troops. No plan of this fort is known to exist, but

examinations have shown it was probably erected somewhat

square within, with projecting corners, these being protected by

block house defenses.

FORT ST. CLAIR was built about a mile north of the site of

the present town of Eaton, in Preble county, in the winter of

1791-92, by a detachment of Gen. Wilkenson's troops under

command of Major John S. Gano. Gen. William Harrison,

then an ensign, commanded the guards each alternate night.

During its building no fires could be built, hence the soldiers

suffered greatly from the cold. The fort was a stockade, used

for storage and supply purposes. On the 6th of November,

1792, a severe battle was fought near the fort between a corps

of riflemen and a body of Indians under command of Little

Turtle, the latter attacking the former about runrise. After

severe fighting the Indians were defeated and driven away, hav-

ing suffered disastrously in the action.

FORT GREENVILLE, on the site of Greenville, Ohio, was

built in December, 1793, by Gen. Anthony Wayne, while on his

march to the Indian country on the Maumee river. The fort

occupied a large part of the town site, and was an irregular

fortification. It was occupied as a storage place for supplies

Click on image to view full size

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until after the Indians were conquered in the summer of 1794,

when General Wayne and his army returned, increased its de-

fenses, and improved its quarters. Rows of log houses were

built for the soldiers, and comfortable quarters for the officers.

At this fort, in August, 1795, General Wayne concluded a treaty

of peace with the following tribes of Indians: Wyandots, Dela-

wares, Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippewa, Pattawatamies, Miamis,

Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias. In all, about

thirteen hundred persons. The geographical limits of these tribes

included the country north of the Ohio river, westward to the

Mississippi. The Indian boundary line established at this time

began at "the mouth of the Cuyahoga river, thence up the

same to the Portage between that and the Tuscarawas branch of

the Muskingum; thence down that branch to the crossing place

above Fort Lawrence; thence southwesterly to a fork of that

branch of the Great Miami river running into the Ohio, at or

near which fort stood Loramie's store, and where commenced

the portage between the Miami and the Ohio and St. Mary's

river, which is a branch of the Miami (Maumee) which runs

into Lake Erie; thence northwest to Fort Recovery, which

stands on a branch of the Wabash; thence southwesterly in a

direct line to the Ohio so as to intersect that river opposite the

mouth of the Kentucke or Cuttawa river."

No plan of the fort other than that of the survey made by

James McBride of Hamilton, can be found. The embankments

could plainly be seen in many places as late as 1840. It was a

large irregular work, not only a fortification, but a depot of sup-

plies and a rendezvous for the army. After the Treaty of 1795

it was soon abandoned.


FORT RECOVERY was erected in December, 1793, by a de-

tachment of troops from Gen. Wayne's army. The troops ar-

rived Christmas day, and built at once a stockade on the site of

the disastrous defeat of Gen. Arthur St. Clair by the Indians,

November 4th of 1791. No plan of this stockade has been pre-

served, and but little regarding its construction is known. It

stood on the left bank of the river (the Wabash) and was, no

doubt, somewhat octagonal in shape, the corners protected by

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block houses. The palisades forming its walks were firmly set

in a small embankment made by digging a trench about the cir-

cumference. On June 30, 1794, while the main army was still at

Fort Greenville, the detachment at Fort Recovery was subjected

to a short but severe siege by the Indians, whose actions showed

them to be under superior leadership, probably British.  The

fort was used but little after 1794, being simply a "way station"

for supplies for the army.

Fort Recovery occupied the site of the greatest and most

disastrous defeat of Americans by the Indians in western history.

Gen. St. Clair, with his army, gathered hastily in Pennsylvania,

Maryland and Virginia, had left, after an imperfect organization,

Fort Washington in August, 1791; moved forward Ludlow's sta-

tion six miles distant, remaining there until September 17th.

From there the army moved farther up the Great Miami, erect-

ing first Fort Hamilton (already noticed), thence to Fort Jeffer-

son, which they left October 24th, and began their march farther

northward, expecting to find the Indians in the country about

the head waters of the Maumee. On the 3rd of November the

army reached the banks of a small river, supposed to be the St.

Mary's, but really the head waters of the Wabash river. That

afternoon the army camped in a commanding rise of ground, the

river in the front. The militia had gone about a mile farther,

crossing the river, and a low wooded meadow half a mile wide,

and camped in the forest on the high land beyond. It was the

intention of Gen. St. Clair to fortify this position and await the

arrival of the first regiment sent back at Fort Jefferson for pro-

visions. Weary with their march the soldiers lay down to rest.

About daylight the next morning, just after the parade, and as

the soldiers were preparing their breakfast, the militia were sud-

denly and vigorously attacked by an unseen foe, and becoming

frightened, ran back toward the camp of the regular troops.

The onslaught was checked by the first line of troops, but soon

a heavy and constant firing came from all quarters, and, concen-

trating upon the artillery stationed in the center, soon silenced it

by killing the gunners and wounding and killing the horses.

The artillery being useless, several vicious onslaughts were

made, and though repulsed again and again, the wary foe steadily

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gained ground. A retreat was necessary and was ordered. A

panic seized the soldiers and the retreat became a disorderly and

unmanageable rout. The soldiers and camp followers fled in

great confusion, despite all attempts of the officers, many of

whom were slain while in their efforts to restore order. The fire

of the savages had been fearfully destructive; fully 600 persons

perished, and of those wounded none were spared the horrible

tortures of Indian warfare. The army fled precipitately to Fort

Jefferson, where, meeting the first regiment, they were stayed,

and where an account was taken of their awful losses. From

this place they retreated to Forts Hamilton and Washington,

and further attempts to conquer the Indians were, for a time,


FORT PIQUA was a small stockade built for storage pur-

poses by General Wayne's army in 1794, in what is now Miami

county, about three miles north of Piqua. It was in the portage

between Fort Loramie and St. Mary's. The garrison was under

command of Captain J. N. Vischer. After the treaty of peace

in 1795, the place was abandoned.

FORT ST. MARYS was built by a detachment of General

Wayne's army in 1794 on the site of the town of St. Marys in

Mercer county. It stood on the west bank of the St. Marys

river. It was erected as a supply depot, and was under com-

mand of Captain John Whistler, during what time the garrison

was kept within its palisades.

FORT DEFIANCE was built by General Wayne's army in

August, 1794, when on their march against the Indians. It

stood in the angle formed by the junction of the Auglaize and

Maumee rivers. The fort was built in the form of a square, at

each corner of which were block houses projecting beyond the

sides of the fort, thus protecting the external sides. These

block houses were connected by a line of strong pickets. Out-

side of these, and also of the block houses, was a wall of earth

eight feet thick, a ditch fifteen feet wide and eight feet deep sur-

rounding the whole except the side next the Auglaize river.

The stockade was well built, characteristic of the General's ac-

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tions, affording the garrison which might occupy it a safe retreat.

It was little used after the treaty of peace in 1795.

FORT DEPOSIT was built by General Wayne in August,

1794, as a depot for supplies. It stood on the left (north) bank

of the Maumee. No plan of the fort exists. It was simply a

palisaded stockade, built for storage and not for defensive pur-

poses. Leaving this place, General Wayne marched toward the

Indian encampment, about two miles south of the present town

of Maumee City, and about four miles from Fort Miami, erected

and occupied by British troops. The Indians were met and a

decisive battle fought, a complete victory being gained by the



decided the fate of the Indians in the Northwest. Their power

was broken, and after the treaty at Fort Greenville the next

summer, their claims to Ohio's territory were practically ended.

The battle occurred August 20, 1794. That morning, General

Wayne having decided his plan of operations, moved from Fort

Deposit down the left bank of the Maumee toward the Indians,

who had refused all overtures of peace, and who were arranged

in camps on the river bluffs. The army had marched about five

miles when the advance guard was suddenly attacked by a

vigorous fire from an unseen foe, and was compelled to fall back.

The army was at once formed in two lines in a dense wood on

the borders of a swampy prairie, where a tornado had at some

preceding time blown down many trees. This fallen timber

gave the name to the battle-ground. This timber afforded good

shelter to the foe, who were aided by many Canadians, all under

superior discipline. General Wayne's troops fell upon them

with relentless fury, and in a short time put them to flight

toward the guns of Fort Miami, a few miles down the river, and

then garrisoned by a British force under command of Major

Campbell. Wayne's army pursued the Indians under the very

walls of the fort, despite the protests of the British commander

and the British trader, Colonel McKee, whose property was de-

stroyed, General Wayne maintaining the attitude that the fort

stood upon American soil. For three days and nights this war-

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fare was continued until the Indians were thoroughly subdued,

and promised, through their chiefs, to treat for peace the next

year at Fort Greenville. At this battle the celebrated chief,

Turkey Foot, was slain, whose rock, marked by prints resem-

bling turkeys' feet, perpetuates his memory and his death.

FORT WAYNE. Though not in the confines of Ohio, it

should be mentioned here. At the junction of the St. Jospeph

and St. Marys rivers, the head of the Miami of the lakes-

the Maumee-it appears in French history, first as a trading

post and station. After the defeat of the battle of Fallen Tim-

bers, General Wayne's army went first to Fort Defiance, and

soon after, in September, to the head of the Maumee, and there

built a strong fortification, calling it Fort Wayne. It was com-

pleted by the 22d of October, and garrisoned with infantry and

artillery, under command of Colonel John Francis Hamtranck.

Soon after the treaty at Greenville, in 1795, the fort was practic-

ally abandoned, though the place was always well noticed as a

great outpost. In the war of 1812 the fort was built new, be-

came a conspicuous place, and withstood several sieges. It was

an excellent fortification, and after peace was declared in this

war, became a peaceful trading village, and is now a prosper-

ous city.

FORT INDUSTRY was built by a detachment of Wayne's

troops soon after his victory over the Indians. It stood on a

bluff on the left bank of the Maumee, a few miles above its

mouth, in what is now the city of Toledo. It seems to have

been used but a short time.

FORT FINDLAY, a small stockade about fifty yards square,

was built on the south side of Blanchard's Fork, in what is now

Hancock county, during the war of 1812. At each corner was

a block House, the soldiers' quarters and the palisades protect-

ing the other portions. It was, like many others of its nature,

erected as a supply depot, and was little used for defensive pur-

poses. It was abandoned at the close of the war.

FORT AMANDA, a small stockade, was built during the war

of 1812, in what is now Allen county, on the west bank of the

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Auglaize River, near the west line of the county, on.the site of

an old Ottawa town. It was used but a short time as a supply

depot and a halting place for the troops.

FORT MCARTHUR was built during the war of 1812, on the

Scioto River, in what is now Hardin county. It was a stockade

enclosing about half an acre. A block house in the northwest

and southeast angles, a row of log cribs covered with "shed"

roofs sloping inward, and palisades completed its defenses. The

soldiers' huts were just inside the palisades. It was in a danger-

ous locality and more than once was attacked by Indians. The

garrison was commanded by Captain Robert McClelland. After

the war the post was abandoned.

FORT BALL was built during the war of 1812 by a detach-

ment of General Harrison's army, on the west bank of the San-

dusky River, in what is now the city of Tiffin. It was a small

stockade, enclosing perhaps one-third of an acre, and was used

as a supply depot.

FORT SENECA was built during the war of 1812, by a de-

tachment of Gen. Harrison's army, as a depot for supplies. It

was a stockade, including several acres, and stood on the right

bank of the Sandusky, a few miles above Fort Stevenson. It

was used only during the war.

FORT STEVENSON was built during the war of 1812 at the

head of navigation on the Sandusky river, on the site of the

present city of Fremont. The fort was a well built structure,

enclosing an acre of ground. Col. George Croghan, the com-

mander, with a small body of troops, on the 2d of August, 1813,

successfully defended the fort against a vigorous attack of the

British and Indians. Commanded by Gen. Proctor, the British

force consisted of some five hundred regulars and eight hundred

Indians, their gun boats from the river carrying five six-pound

guns, and their howitzer on shore, bombarded the fort all night

of the first. The next day the enemy massed his troops at one

angle of the fort and attempted to capture it by assault. The

one six-pound gun of the garrison, loaded with small missiles,

was discharged into their ranks when they neared the fort, with

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such fearful destruction, that with the effective fire of the

soldiers they were repulsed, and retreated. Soon after, fearing

an attack by General Harrison, whose troops had so valiantly

defended Fort Meigs but a few days before against the same foe,

they suddenly retreated, leaving the gallant Croghan and his

handful of men in victorious possession of the fort. After the

war the post was abandoned.

FORT MEIGS was built by Gen. William Henry Harrison, in

the winter of 1812-13, on the right bank of the Maumee, op-

posite the rapids. It was a large palisaded ground, occupying

about ten acres in all, protected by block houses, soldiers' bar-

racks, and a strong line of palisades. Early in the summer of

1813 the fort was attacked by a large force of British and In-

dians under Gen. Proctor, who formed artillery encampments on

both sides of the river. Reinforcements came, and the British

were repulsed in July. It became an important frontier post,

and after peace came was abandoned.

PERRY'S VICTORY.-This remarkable victory occurred on

the waters of Lake Erie, September 10, 1813. At ten o'clock on

that day Commodore Oliver H. Perry, in command of the United

States lake squadron, consisting of two ships, the Lawrence and

the Niagara, and four small vessels, formed in line and advanced

to attack the British squadron. The action was sharp and de-

cisive, and lasted only three hours, resulting in the capture of

the enemy, The losses of both combatants on the leading ships

were heavy. Commodore Perry's memorable dispatch reporting

the victory to General Harrison is well known in American

annals: " We have met the enemy and they are ours; two ships,

two brigs, one schooner and one sloop."

A large painting in the rotunda of Ohio's capitol represents

the conflict at the time Commodore Perry is leaving the Law-

rence, almost disabled, for the Niagara.