THE ORIGIN OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN OHIO
BY WILLIAM MC ALPINE, M. A.
A certain very excellent history of education says
that in Ohio public education was a victory of the New
England element over the other parts of Ohio's popula-
tion. In the same work, there are certain maps taken
from Mathews' Expansion of New England. Certain
parts of the state where the New England population is
supposed to have predominated are marked white. The
remainder is black. The unescapable fact that Samuel
Galloway came from another stock is explained by stat-
ing that he was in contact with New England people at
Miami University. Cincinnati is also marked as a
Yankee center. It is not my purpose to detract from the
contributions of the sons of New England to Ohio's cul-
tural growth. They did nobly. Nor am I influenced by
any emotional bias in my researches upon this subject.
While my name is Scottish, I am very nearly three-
quarters Yankee by descent and possess the mental and
physical characteristics of my Massachusetts fore-bears.
Until about two years ago, I firmly believed the com-
monly accepted theory of Ohio's educational genesis.
But the evidence does not exist that any one group ob-
tained an early option on schools in Ohio. True, a good
case can be made for the Yankee if we tell all he has
done and name the persons of Yankee descent who bat-
tled for schools in Ohio, and totally ignore the others,
This seems to have been done. Much is said about At-
410 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
water, Guilford, Lewis, Stowe and Rice, but why should
Ray, Barney, McGuffey, Hoge, Van Hook, Olds, Lord,
Cary, Kemper, Picket, Dunlevy, Talbot, Morrow, Trim-
ble, Worthington and a host of others who did equally
well, be neglected?
The origin of the opinion that Ohio owes its educa-
tional system to New England effort seems to lie in the
1. Massachusetts and Connecticut had district
school systems earlier than the other states. The earliest
settlers of Ohio were Massachusetts people at Marietta.
In its bargain with the government, the Ohio Company
induced the United States to reserve Section 16 for
schools and to appropriate two townships for a uni-
2. Nathan Guilford was the chairman of the com-
mittee on schools of the Senate, when the first manda-
tory act was passed, making a tax of one-half a mill ob-
ligatory and setting up a school system in 1825.
3. Caleb Atwater was chairman of the committee
on schools and school lands in the Senate in 1821-1822,
and offered the resolution which led to his appointment
as chairman of the commissioners of schools by Gover-
nor Trimble. Atwater performed a great labor in the
interest of education and gave a powerful impetus,
which led to the act of 1825.
4. Samuel Lewis, the first superintendent of com-
mon schools, was a native of Massachusetts and his ser-
vices cannot be over-estimated.
5. Calvin Stowe, also a New Englander, made a
report on Prussian education which had an enormous in-
fluence on Ohio and the entire United States.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 411
6. Harvey Rice, who was chairman of the Senate
committee on schools, did most of the work in drafting
the Act of 1853 which placed the schools of Ohio at
the forefront of the nation.
7. The "Akron Act,"' which empowered the Board
of Education of Akron to create a union school and
erect a high school, became the general law for all
schools in Ohio towns and villages about two years later.
In order to show that I am disposed to give the New
England element full credit, I will add the name of Judge
412 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Lane, of Sandusky, who was instrumental in introduc-
ing teachers' institutes in Ohio, inspiring the first one
at Sandusky in 1845 and who in his tours of the state
was a constant propagandist for better schools; also of
Alfred Kelley, originally from Cleveland but later living
in Columbus, who constantly worked for education.
Ephraim Cutler in 1819-1820 attempted to get a school
bill through the Legislature but failed in the Senate,
14 to 14. Some very prominent educators and editors
-from New England who labored in Ohio were John
Locke in Cincinnati, I. W. Andrews of Marietta College,
Andrew Freese, the first superintendent in Cleveland,
George Nashee, owner of the Ohio State Journal from
1826 to 1831, David Smith, editor of the Monitor, 1818-
1830, John Harmon and William Coolman, editors of the
Western Courier at Ravenna, 1825-1829.
But there were others who did not come from New
England and who fought with equal valor and success.
Every governor of Ohio from the Territorial Governor
St. Clair, an old Scotchman, clear down to Governor
Medill, as far as I have read their messages, advocated
and supported education at the expense of the state.
Governor T. W. Worthington, a Virginian and a
Methodist, was the most active force in the Constitu-
tional Convention which secured land endowments for
education for the entire state. He was the father of the
State Library. He advocated a state normal school and
he was a member of the House in 1824-1825. Worth-
ington voted for the acts of 1825. A letter he wrote to
the Scioto Gazette, published at Chillicothe, expresses
his gratification that near the end of a long and active
life he has had the opportunity to vote for a reform in
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 413
taxation, for the building of a canal and, most important
of all, for a definite provision for the education of the
masses. I will state here that a careful examination of
all the Senate and House Journals from 1803 to 1854,
with a checking up of the yeas and nays on every pro-
posed measure of educational legislation, will give Ross
County a clearer bill of health than any county either in
the Western Reserve or in the Ohio Purchase with the
possible exception of Cuyahoga. The other counties in
the state which approach or excel Ross are Hamilton,
414 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Franklin, Highland, Montgomery, Muskingum, and
Other governors who were especially active in the
interest of common schools were Jeremiah Morrow, a
Presbyterian born in Pennsylvania, and Allen Trimble,
born in Virginia. Not a governor was negative or in-
different. Tiffin, born in England; Lucas, Vance, Shan-
non, Bartley, all of whose Scotch-Irish ancestors trace
back to the old Red Stone Presbytery in Pennsylvania,
supported public education. I refer to Dr. Hunter's es-
say, "The Pathfinders of Jefferson County"--in volume
VI of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society
We shall now examine the endowment of education
by the government. It is well known that John Cleves
Symmes and the other "blue hens" from New Jersey
who settled the Miami Valley demanded and obtained an
endowment for elementary and higher education in the
Miami Valley; and the Pennsylvanians who settled the
"Seven Ranges" of Jefferson County also received an
endowment of section 16.3
The Ohio Land Company was a money-making con-
cern. It was not a charitable enterprise. It made pres-
ents to nobody. Its insistence upon college townships
and school sections was for the purpose of rendering its
lands more salable. The United States made the dona-
tion. Similar motives actuated Symmes. It is evident
1 See especially the yeas and nays in the Senate and House Journals of
1821, 1825, 1827, 1831, 1834, 1836, 1837.
2 Also. "Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio History," by Dr. Hunter.
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications, Volume XII, 281
3 Martzolff, "Land Grants for Education," Ibid., Volume XXV.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 415
that the people who were to colonize these tracts con-
sidered schools as an asset. Also the Miami and the
Ohio Company people did not refuse sales to Pennsyl-
vanians or Virginians who wished to buy land.
It is also evident that neither Virginia in the reserved
lands of the Virginia Military District nor Connecticut
in the Western Reserve made any provisions for the sup-
port of schools in their reservations. The members of
the Connecticut Legislature, who voted that the state
sell her lands, and then formed themselves into a corpo-
416 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
ration and bought the lands from themselves acting as
legislators, did not, either as individuals nor as legis-
lators, make any reservation for schools. They paid
Connecticut about 40 cents per acre. A number of very
wealthy and aristocratic families got a start from this
very thrifty speculation.4
The actual settlers in the major part of the Reserve
were from Pennsylvania and New York. The Firelands
and Cuyahoga Counties filled with New Yorkers. Trum-
bull, Ashtabula and Mahoning Counties were peopled
mainly from Pennsylvania. Portage, Geauga and Me-
dina seem to have been chiefly Yankee. However, Kil-
bourn in his Ohio Gazetteer of 1826 tells of a township
in Medina County which had a population of 1000 Ger-
mans. These facts may be verified by consultation of
the annals of townships in the Firelands Pioneer, West-
ern Reserve Pioneer and the checking up of membership
rosters, obituaries, etc. I found that less than thirty
per cent of the pioneers of the Firelands and Cuyahoga
County in 1865 were of New England ancestry.5
Therefore, the very great interest in education which
began to manifest itself in Cleveland, Sandusky, and
other points in Lorain, Erie and Cuyahoga Counties
4 The particulars are in the Connecticut Mirror, March 29, 1819. The
Mirror is in a controversy with the Bridgeport Farmer as to whether or
not certain legislators swindled the state of Connecticut. Names are pro-
5 Firelands Pioneer, 1882, page 122; Volume XIV, page 94; Volume
VII and Volume VIII, in various parts. Usually about one-fourth of the
members of the Pioneer Society came from New England. About two-
thirds were from New York and Pennsylvania. Possibly natives of New
England are less prone to join Pioneer Societies?
Also Western Reserve Pioneers. Rosters of membership from 1879 to
1892. Two hundred and two were from New York, eighty-eight from Con-
necticut and one hundred and sixty-four from overseas.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 417
from 1840 on, may as rationally be explained by the very
large New York element in the population as by any
other hypothesis. The assemblymen from these counties
usually voted for better schools. They supported high
taxation. Case, of Cuyahoga, in 1825, was of Pennsyl-
vania birth and of Dutch and German ancestry. Payne
of Cuyahoga, was born in New York. The senators and
representatives from Erie and Lorain were usually New
Yorkers. The assemblymen of Trumbull generally were
Pennsylvanians. Wheeler, who was a senator for years
418 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
during the 'twenties from the Ashtabula District, was a
New Yorker. The files of the Ohio Statesman, Monitor
and Ohio State Journal during the 'twenties and 'thirties
give the nativity of the members of the Legislature.
These are illuminating. They destroy for all time, the
myth that the nativity of the settlers of Ohio had any-
thing to do with their attitude towards common schools.
The person born in Massachusetts or Connecticut was as
likely to vote nay on a progressive school measure as
was the son of Virginia or Kentucky. The most back-
ward element were the Pennsylvania Germans and the
Quakers. Everybody else usually supported public edu-
cation. If anything, the Virginian was less parsimoni-
ous than was the son of Connecticut. This is revealed
in the auditor's, common school commissioner's and state
statistician's reports from 1826 to 1859. In general, I
will state, that there is not a single year from 1826, when
the first statistics relative to schools begin to appear,
until 1865, which marks the end of my investigations in
public documents of the state, that there is manifested a
greater willingness on the part of the Yankee to make
a financial sacrifice for education than there is by his
brother from Virginia, Pennsylvania or New York.6
The counties which paid the highest ratio on their
valuation in 1829, were Butler, Ross, Franklin, Mont-
gomery, Highland, Preble, Clermont.7 The lowest were
6 See State Statistician's report of investments in school property in
1859 and check up the number of new schoolhouses built and the average
cost in 1837, 1838 and 1839. Reports of Superintendent of Common
Schools. Also note the salaries and length of school term.
7 See Auditor's report on taxation in the House and Senate Journals for
1827 and 1830.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 419
Holmes, Stark, Wayne, Washington, Gallia. Counties
like Medina, Geauga and Portage were only medium.
In all the reports of the school commissioners from
Lewis's Report of 1837 until 1865, it may be discovered
that the highest wages were paid in the western half of
the state, or in the southern half; but never in the north-
eastern or southeastern quarters. Samuel Lewis is not
aware that the schools of the Reserve are any better
than those of any other section. He says they get their
teaching done more cheaply by employing women and
420 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
that he thinks the schools of Geauga and Portage Coun-
ties are as good as those of other sections.8
Now as to the significance of Samuel Lewis as State
Superintendent. His son, in his biography, tells us that
Samuel's father took him out of school when he was ten
years of age and put him to work. When the boy was
twelve they came to Ohio, and the father bound out the
boy and collected the money. Samuel, having a desire
for greater opportunities, went to Cincinnati, and made
arrangements to pay his father. He came in contact
with Judge Burnet, studied law and became very much
interested in education. Cincinnati was a center of cul-
ture. Burnet, Symmes, Lytle, Harrison, Kidd and
others had liberally endowed education. Most of these
people were Presbyterians from Kentucky, Pennsylvania
or New Jersey. They had founded Cincinnati College.
Kemper and Lane of New Orleans had endowed Lane
Seminary. Famous teachers such as the Pickets from
New York; Milo Williams; Talbot from Virginia; Kin-
mont from Scotland; Elijah Slack, ex-vice-president of
Princeton; Martin Ruter from Kentucky; Daniel Drake,
born in New Jersey and reared in Kentucky; Frederick
Eckstein, from Prussia; Cary, a native; and others lived
and worked in Cincinnati. They had formed the Col-
lege of Teachers, which at its annual meetings drew
visitors from South Carolina, New Orleans, St. Louis,
Detroit, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Pittsburgh and all
parts of southern Ohio. Movements emanating from
All the Reports of the Commissioners for Common Schools from 1854
have tables of monthly wages paid men and women. He who doubts my
statement may take any year at random from 1854 to 1865.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 421
this society led to state conventions in Kentucky9 Indiana
and Ohio. Famous educators, like William Holmes Mc-
Guffey and Grimke; great divines like Alexander Camp-
bell, Lyman Beecher, and Purcell, took an active part.10.
I think that Lewis' birth in Massachusetts had less to do
with his activity in education than the environment in
which he lived. Lewis was very closely associated with
McGuffey, the author of the Readers. McGuffey
stumped the state with Lewis in the interests of common
schools during 1838.
The Presbyterian preacher was a very powerful in-
fluence in favor of common schools. A common notice
in the local paper, whether in Columbus, St. Clairsville,
Cincinnati, Perrysburg, Maumee, Urbana, Troy or al-
most any other town, in the 'twenties, 'thirties, or 'for-
ties, is that "a meeting of the Friends of Education will
be held in the Presbyterian Church."11 Then the ac-
count of the meeting is printed and we learn that Rever-
end James Hoge of Columbus, Reverend Joshua Wilson
of Cincinnati, Reverend Doddridge of St. Clairsville,
Reverend Anson Smyth of Toledo, and others had made
addresses. The Presbyterian preachers very frequently
were members of the county board of examiners.12 The
first six presidents of Ohio University were Presby-
terian preachers, as were also the first five of Miami.
9 See the files of the Frankfort Commonwealth in reference to the
great educational conventions in Kentucky during 1833 and 1834. From
August 6, 1833 to January 10, 1834.
10 The various volumes of the Proceedings of the College of Teachers
from 1834 on. Also the notes of the conventions in the Ohio State Journal,
11 See Ohio State Journal (Semi-Weekly), September 18, 1838, for the
movement in Columbus.
12 Hoge in Franklin County. McGuffey in Butler, etc.
422 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
The faculty of Cincinnati College were also ministers
of that faith. Everywhere in southern Ohio we find
the Presbyterian preachers founding schools. Reverend
John Andrews, Reverend John McFarland and Reverend
Robert Wilson in Chillicothe13 labored to start the acad-
emy. Presbyterian preachers were busy in Sydney.14 A
stream of men with a college education came out of the
log college in Canonsburgh, Pennsylvania, and from
13 Scioto Gazette during May and June, 1815. The Weekly Recorder
during July, 1814, January, 1817.
14 See Report of Commissioner of Common Schools, 1859, under Sydney.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 423
Washington College in Washington, Pennsylvania.
They manned Ohio University, Miami University, In-
diana University, Colleges in Kentucky, Tennessee, and
Illinois. Secondary education in these states is a grand-
daughter of Princeton; for Jefferson and Washington
Colleges are daughters of Princeton. The first presi-
dent of Western Reserve, Charles B. Storrs, was a grad-
uate of Princeton. So instead of the course of education
in Ohio and Indiana being a case of sons of New Eng-
land "setting up New Yales and Dartmouths," it was
actually a case of Scotch-Irish Presbyterian preachers
going out and setting up new Princetons.15
There was also valiant service performed by early
Methodist and Baptist divines. They were not as numer-
ous as the Presbyterians but were mainly of the same
Scotch-Irish stock. We need only mention John P. Fin-
ley, Bishop McKendree, Bishop McIlvaine, John Collins,
and W. A. McKee who preached and taught for the
Methodists and Reily and Dunlevy for the Baptists.
The Methodist church owed its rise largely to the great
revivals started by the Presbyterians at Cabin Creek
and Cane Ridge in Kentucky. The first camp-meetings
were Presbyterian affairs started by Reverends Mc-
Gready, Hodge and McNemar. After it had been going
on three years, Bishop McKendree of the Methodists
came in and participated.
It is interesting to look over the list of alumni in
Reverend Joseph Smith's History of Jefferson College.
We find there the names of professors and presidents of
15 History of Presbyterianism by Briggs. Scotch-Irish in America, by
Ford, Hanna, and Boulton. Also Hunter's essays before referred to.
Smith's History of Jefferson College.
424 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Miami University, Ohio University, Franklin College,
Center College in Kentucky and Ohio, the Theological
Seminary at Xenia, Indiana University, etc. This book,
written in 1857, says that Jefferson College alone had
furnished twenty-four college presidents in ten states,
fifty professors, about six hundred ministers and hun-
dreds of professional teachers, lawyers, governors, and
prominent people. This college grew from a log acad-
emy started by Reverend McMillan about 1780, before a
town was ever built in Ohio. Francis Dunlevy, the first
man to teach the classics in Ohio, studied there; Jacob
Lindley, the first president of Ohio University, grad-
uated there; Reverend James Hughes, the first teacher
at Miami, studied there. The founders of Franklin Col-
lege came from Jefferson and its sister, Washington Col-
lege, only seven miles away. Here we have advanced
education started by the Presbyterians, the Baptists and
Seceders, on this side of the mountains in log buildings.
Their students are ready to man the rising institutions
of the new states before the states are born. Reverend
James Hoge was a member of the Franklin Society at
Jefferson, when he studied the sciences and classics there.
When we reflect that McGuffey and Ray both graduated
from the sister college, Washington, the picture which a
certain historian draws of the new "Yales and Harvards
arising in the wilderness," is rather amusing. There
were new Princetons rising in the midst of the forests
while the war-whoop of the savages still shrilled in the
Many of the earliest Methodist divines received their
training at these and at Dickinson College, which finally
became a Methodist institution. Several of the Metho-
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 425
dist preachers came from Presbyterian families. There
were two McKees, both preachers and teachers. One
was a Methodist and the other a Presbyterian. McKee
taught the first grammar school in Columbus, in the
Methodist Church. There is an advertisement in the
Monitor in 1816, offering free tuition to the first boy
who enrolls in Latin and Greek.
Gilliland, another student of Jefferson College, was
teaching Latin, Greek, Hebrew and English Grammar in
the Presbyterian Church at Red Oak in Brown County
in 1817.16 We recall that Dunlevy and Reily conducted
an academy in what is now Cincinnati in 1792. I pre-
sume that anyone who will call those institutions acade-
mies in Burton, Ravenna, and other places which were
incorporated and had but one teacher as late as 1833,
will hardly balk at calling the institution conducted by
Reily and Dunlevy an academy. The institution at
Marietta which was founded five years later and had
one teacher, was called an academy.
There are advertisements of classical schools taught
by William Bebb who was of Welsh descent and later
governor, and by David Monfort, Reverend McMinn,
etc., in Butler and Preble County.17
Samuel Galloway was born in Pennsylvania and
graduated from Miami University. McGuffey did not
lend a New England atmosphere to that institution. Gal-
loway taught at Miami himself and later in the Presby-
terian College at Hanover, Indiana.
Having read Grant's Burg Schools of Scotland,
I am inclined to believe that Galloway's zeal for common
16 Weekly Recorder, February 11, 1815.
17 Files of the Hamilton Intelligencer from 1825 to 1850.
426 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
schools arose from his Scotch Presbyterian ancestry
rather than from an exposure to Yankee influence. Pro-
fessor Joseph Ray was another product of Virginia and
Asa D. Lord, the first superintendent of the Colum-
bus schools, a Presbyterian preacher, a New Yorker,
and at first Principal of the Western Reserve Teachers'
Seminary at Kirtland, Ohio, was the cause of the rise of
the graded school system at Akron and the spread of the
Akron Law. The law was the work of Leggett and
Olmstead, two New York men who had been associated
with Lord and were then in Akron.18 Also the first
county superintendent, Bailey of Ashtabula County, and
Teachers' Institutes were New York ideas which Lord
and his associates, Hurty, Cowdery, New Yorkers, and
Lord's pupils, Andrews and Harvey disseminated in that
vicinity.19 Lord edited the Ohio School Journal for four
years and was the most potent force which led to the re-
forms of 1853.
Galloway woke them up in 1845.20 The next year
two school journals were published: the Ohio School
Journal and the School Friend of Cincinnati. Prior to
this movement of getting new school buildings in Akron
and several adjacent towns, fairly decent provisions had
been made in Piqua, Zanesville, Sandusky, Portsmouth,
Waverly, Dayton, Steubenville, Hamilton, Piketon, Mid-
dletown, Dover, St. Clairsville, McConnelsville and Co-
lumbus. Cleveland and Cincinnati ranked very credit-
18 See Fifty Years of Akron and Summit County by Lane, page 1850.
19 See biographies in Cyclopedias of Ohio Biography. Also note what
Howe says about Lord's School at Kirtland in his Historical Collections of
Ohio, 1848 edition.
20 All the newspapers commented on Galloway's Report.
The Origin of public Education in Ohio 427
ably for the times. So there was nothing record-break-
ing about Akron, except that its accommodations in
1846 and 1847 were abominable and very inadequate.
Other towns in Ohio had done far better. The schools
in Portsmouth had been under a superintendent for
several years. A. J. Rickoff who later became president
of the N. E. A. and superintendent of Cleveland's schools
had been superintendent in Portsmouth since 1845.21 He
was a product of Cincinnati and was born in New Jer-
sey. H. H. Barney came into Cincinnati in 1847, armed
with a recommendation written by Millard Fillmore, and
became the Principal of the Central High School. Cin-
cinnati had been teaching high school subjects ever since
1836 but had decided to centralize. This New Yorker
became State School Commissioner in 1853 and put
Ohio's modern school system into operation. It appears
that in the actual operation of schools our debt to New
York is great.22
Now as to school legislation. All that which looked
toward realizing anything from the school lands origi-
nated in the Cincinnati district. The acts of 1803, 1805,
1810, 1817, and 1820, which prescribed more and more
definitely the administration of section 16, were spon-
sored by people from Hamilton, Butler and Montgomery
Counties.23 The acts which tended to alienate the lands
from the schools and convert them to private use origi-
nated in the Ohio Purchase.
The bill which ushered in the long course of rascali-
21 Scioto County and Pioneer Record, by Evans, page 487.
22 Piatt, Lewis and Barney especially recommended the New York
23 Senate and House Committees in Legislative Journals.
428 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
ties that plundered Ohio's school fund of millions, was
presented by Joseph Buell, Senator from Washington
County, in the interests of Timothy Buell and other resi-
dents of section 16 adjacent to Marietta. This was in
the year 1805-1806. It was voted down in the House.
The bill came up again in 1806-1807. It was again de-
feated, but in 1807-1808, Samuel Hildreth succeeded in
having the right to grant ninety-nine year leases con-
ferred upon the town council of Marietta.24 About 1810
some permanent leases were granted in the country to
the west. The decade 1810 to 1820 was an orgy of rob-
bing the schools. The most complete alienation of the
school lands occurred in the counties of Gallia, Athens,
Washington, Scioto, Pike, etc.25 The Ohio Executive
Documents of 1838, number sixty-nine, show where six
hundred and forty acres were frequently sold for less
than one hundred dollars. The school lands in the coun-
ties with a heavy Scotch-Irish population, like Belmont,
Jefferson, Montgomery, Hamilton, Butler, etc., realized
a very fair sum and were really a potent element of
school revenue. For example, Jefferson County derived
in 1854, about seven thousand eight hundred dollars
from interest and rents. In those days, this would pay
the salaries of a hundred country school teachers for six
or seven months.26 Ordinarily, the individual township
did better in looking after its school lands than general
agents did. For example, two counties, Jefferson and
Montgomery, realized more from the sale of their sec-
24 Senate Journal, 1805-1806; pages 34, 47, and 51. House Journal,
1805-1806, pages 58, 60, 64, 68, 74, 75; House Journal, 1806-1807, page 65;
Senate Journal, 1807-1808, page 75. Laws of 1808 (Local).
25 Note Local Laws 1810 to 1820.
26 School Commissioners Report and Auditor's Report, 1854.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 429
tion 16's than did all the Western Reserve Counties from
the sale of the Western Reserve school lands; either Jef-
ferson, Montgomery or Hamilton or Butler realized
more than the legatees of the Cutlers, Buells and Massa-
chusetts scions did in Washington, Gallia, Lawrence,
Athens, Morgan and Jackson, combined.27 Also poor
Ohio University with the Buells, Putnams, Stones, Tup-
pers, Bureans, etc., etc., as trustees realized an income
from its two townships less than half as much as Miami
Ibid-See Document 69 in Executive Documents, 1838 also.
430 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
did from its one township, and had to close its doors in
1845 in order to pay its debts. So it seems that no pre-
eminent merit will attach to the sons of New England
in their administration of that endowment, which they
assume particular credit for inducing the United States
to confer upon education.28
We shall now pass to the subject of legislation at-
tempted and achieved.
In 1812 Ludlow of Butler County, a New Jerseyman,
introduced a bill that banks be taxed to support schools.
This bill passed the House forty to twenty and died in
In 1816, William Trimble, a Virginian and a Meth-
odist, from Fairfield County, introduced in the Senate,
a bill for the support and regulation of schools. Senator
Patterson of Guernsey, proposed that the county court
be required to appoint three examiners to examine and
license teachers, which measure was adopted by Guil-
ford in 1825 in his act. Trimble's bill passed the Senate
and failed in the House.30
In 1819, Jones of Wayne County, chairman of the
House committee on schools and school lands, reported
in favor of authorizing the governor to appoint a person
from each judicial district to examine into the condition
of the lands and schools and also to prepare a plan or
system of regulating and supporting education (House
Journal, page 321); and the Governor, Ethan A. Brown,
recommended that the further granting of long leases be
28 Note special reports on Ohio and Miami Universities in Executive
Documents for 1840 to 1845. See index.
29 Senate and House Journals, 1811-1812-1813.
30 Legislative Journals for 1816-1817.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 431
arrested. He said that the schools were realizing less
than was being expended in legislating about their lands.
Brown also suggested a tax upon auction sales as a reve-
nue for schools. Here we have two things which appear
in Atwater's report in 1822. Atwater moved the same
things that Jones did three years earlier and used the
same expression that Brown did concerning profits from
school lands. The only difference is that the Legislature
passed Atwater's resolution and ignored that of Jones.31
William Henry Harrison introduced the bill which
became the Act of 1821.
Olds, a former teacher and chairman of the Senate
school committee for several years, was the father of the
acts which empowered taxation to build schoolhouses in
1827; which raised the levy to three-fourths of a mill in
1829; and further made the property of non-residents
taxable. Olds represented Franklin and Pickaway. The
House weakened his bill.32
Bigger, of Guernsey, drove the levy up to one mill
with an extra one-half mill optional.33
Van Hook, of Butler, was perhaps the most prolific
legislator in school interests the state ever had. He at-
tempted to devote the entire surplus revenue to educa-
tion, but succeeded in getting five per cent annually in-
stead of having it invested in permanent stocks and
placed as a school fund. He carried through the bill
which created the office of superintendent of common
31 Governor's message in House or Senate Journal. Also in current
newspapers. In 1818-1819, Jones of Wayne County offered the same reso-
32 33 Legislative Journals and files of the Ohio State Journal during
December, January, February and March of the years indicated. Also the
432 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
schools. This act passed thirty-five to thirty-four and
Speaker William Medill, a native of Delaware, and later
governor of Ohio, gave the casting vote in favor. Van
Hook also framed and carried to success the Act of 1838.
He was the chairman who had put through the Act of
1836 also. Van Hook was instrumental in staving off
any further amendment in 1839 when a reaction started.
Hanna of Morgan County was school chairman and re-
sisted with considerable success, every attack on the act
An analysis of the vote in 1837, on creating the office
of state superintendent, is interesting. If a line be
drawn through Centerburg, Knox County, east and
west, the majority of the votes north of the line were
opposed to creating the office of state superintendent and
the majority of votes south of that line in favor. If a
line be drawn north and south through Centerburg, the
majority of the votes east of that line are opposed to the
office and the majority of votes west of that line are in
favor. If all the representatives who had been born in
Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, etc., had refrained from
voting, there would have been no state superintendent.
If all the representatives who had been born in New
England states had refrained from voting he would
have been elected with more than one majority.
A careful study of the foregoing table will reveal
several things. It will be noted that people not natives
of New England quite frequently represent counties in
the Ohio Purchase and the Western Reserve. Also that
34 Legislative Journals and files of the Ohio State Journal during
December, January, February and March of the years indicated. Also the
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 433
Yankees are found all over the state and do not uni-
formly vote for advanced school measures. The same
facts are evident in the vote on the act of 1838. I have
the nativity of all the legislators and their yeas and
nays. This act passed at a ratio of two to one, but the
trend is very similar to that indicated in the foregoing
table. The heavy vote for the act is in the part of the
state which contains the Miami Valley, Scioto Valley
and Virginia Military District. It must be remembered
that Northwestern Ohio was very sparsely settled at this
time and figures very little in the vote. Several coun-
ties were often grouped together. I use the name of one
to save space.
Portsmouth very early had excellent schools. A
special act in 1838 provided for organization and new
buildings. The generosity of Massie, a Virginian who
laid out the town, endowed the schools with lands which
paid an annual rent of about two thousand dollars. So
Portsmouth had free schools and what was virtually a
high school as far back as 1839. They erected a six-
thousand six-hundred dollar building in 1839. This was
more than Akron did before 1850.35
Zanesville very early made provision for good schools.
Uriah Parke, a Virginian, editor of the Zanesville Ga-
zette, was a member of the school board and a most
active promoter of good schools. He obtained a special
act in 1839 and the Howe Academy was bought and a
large building erected for the boys.
I here present the vote on creation of the office of
state superintendent and the nativity of the representa-
35 These facts are contained in Galloway's report of 1847 as superinten-
dent of common schools.
434 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
tives. This is taken from the Hemisphere, February 10,
YEAS -- 35
County Representative Nativity
Ashtabula ............ Knapp .......... New Hampshire
Athens ............ Jones ........... Ohio
Butler ............. Millikin .......... Pennsylvania
Butler ............... Van Hook ........ Ohio
Clark ............... Cushing ........... New York
Clinton ............. Davis ........... Ohio
Clermont ............. Utter ........... Pennsylvania
Cuyahoga ............ Scovill ......... Connecticut
Darke ............... Bell . .......... Vermont
Delaware .......... Allen ............ Vermont
Fairfield ............. Medill ........... Delaware
Franklin ............. Kelley .......... Connecticut
Gallia ................ Clark . .......... Indiana
Greene .............. Perkins .......... Pennsylvania
Hamilton ............. Armstrong ........ Virginia
Hamilton ............. Brown ....... New Jersey
Harrison ............. Gruber .......... Pennsylvania
Highland ............. Reese ........... Virginia
Jackson .............. Hughes .......... Virginia
Licking ........... Stewart ........... Scotland
Licking ........... Yontz .......... Maryland
Logan ............ Newell .......... Pennsylvania
Lorain ............. Hubbard .......... New York
Mercer ............... Taylor .......... Virginia
Monroe ............ Walton .......... Pennsylvania
Muskingum ........ Chambers ......... Pennsylvania
Perry ................ Trevitt .......... New Hampshire
Pickaway ............. Winship ......... Virginia
Pike ................. Van Meter ........ Virginia
Preble .............. Jameson ....... Kentucky
Preble ............... McNutt ......... Canada
Ross ................. Ott . ........... Virginia
Warren .............. Hunt ........... Pennsylvania
Washington ......... Humphrey ....... Ireland
NAYS -- 34
Belmont ............. Weir ........... Pennsylvania
Brown ............... Loudon ......... Kentucky
Carroll ............... Atkinson ......... Pennsylvania
The Origin of Public Educatiou in Ohio 435
County Representative Nativity
Columbiana .......... Armstrong ........ Pennsylvania
Columbiana .......... Aten ............. Ohio
Columbiana ........... Creswell .......... Pennsylvania
Coshocton .......... Whitmore ......... Pennsylvania
Crawford ........... Cary ............. Virginia
Fairfield .............. Graybill .......... Pennsylvania
Fayette .............. Harrison .......... Pennsylvania
Geauga ............... Rockwell ......... Connecticut
Guernsey ............. Bigger............ Pennsylvania
Harrison ............. Shane ............ Ohio
Holmes .............. Ankeney ......... Pennsylvania
Huron ............... Clark............. Connecticut
Jefferson ............. Patterson ......... Ireland
Knox ................ Hildreth.......... Connecticut
Medina .............. Newton........... Connecticut
Mercer .............. Taylor............ Virginia
Montgomery ......... Thurston ......... Connecticut
Morgan .............. Conklin ........... New York
Perry ................ Brown ............ Pennsylvania
Portage .............. Quinby........... Pennsylvania
Portage .............. Shreve............ Pennsylvania
Richland ............. Coulter........... Pennsylvania
Richland ............. Lee .............. Pennsylvania
Stark ............... Caldwell.......... Pennsylvania
Stark ................ Wise ............. Pennsylvania
Trumbull ............. Hayes ............ Connecticut
Trumbull ............. Bronson.......... Connecticut
Tuscarawas .......... Allen ............. New Jersey
Union ............... Curry ............ Ohio
W ayne ............... Ihrig ............. Pennsylvania
Wood ............... Hollister.......... Massachusetts
Howe in his Historical Collections of Ohio tells us
that a person could obtain schooling from the most ele-
mentary subjects to higher mathematics and "the learned
languages, without money and without price" in Zanes-
ville in 1846. Zanesville had been running several years
when Akron woke up and decided to erect some build-
36 Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, edition of 1848.
436 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
E. E. Barney, a New Yorker, teaching in the local
academy, and Robert Steele, a Scotch-Irish Presbyterian
son of Pennsylvania, were the men who led the reform
in Dayton which led to the erection of three large build-
ings in 1840 in Dayton. In 1850 the academy was
deeded gratis to the board of education for use as a high
school. So Dayton says that its high school has a line-
age back to 1807.37
Piqua erected three four-room brick buildings in
1844. Piketon and Waverly built in 1843 and 1844.
Steubenville built in 1839 at a cost of six thousand dol-
lars. Therefore, it was not inertia which characterized
many of the towns of the state prior to 1847 and the
Akron Law. Maumee and Sandusky City already had
good schoolhouses and full-fledged high schools before
While it required a desperate fight to carry the re-
form of 1847 in Akron and to save the high school in
Cleveland for several years after 1846, the Union school
was adopted with great unanimity in Xenia, Urbana,
Chillicothe, Lebanon and other places. There was not a
dissenting vote in Urbana. It carried twenty to one in
Lebanon. There was but one dissenting vote in Chil-
licothe. It was practically unanimous in Xenia. This
is the verdict of the current newspapers-the Xenia
Torchlight during 1849, the Lebanon Star and Ohio
School Journal during 1849. The Urbana Citizen says,
July 6, 1849, "The meeting Saturday last, voted unani-
37 History of Montgomery County, Beers. Article on Dayton's Schools
by Robert Steele. Also Dayton in the Centennial account of Ohio's School
38 Commissioner's Reports of 1860. Also the various county histories of
Miami County and histories of Piqua. All agree.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 437
mously in favor of a tax to purchase sites and erect
school buildings in this district * * *." So the evi-
dence shows that other people besides inhabitants of the
Reserve and Washington County realized the value of
education. Ohio in 1849 did not differ materially from
Ohio in 1929 as to its sentiments on education. There
was quite as much missionary work needed among the
sons of New England as among the sons of Virginia and
The act of 1825 did not come like a bolt from the
skies. It was the result of a movement of several years
and did not stop until 1838. Then another movement
started in 1845 which culminated in 1853.40
Caleb Atwater made his report in 1822. B. M. Piatt
of Cincinnati was chairman of the Senate committee on
schools for two years, 1822-1823 and 1823-1824. As
school committeeman, Piatt took Atwater's report and
recommended a school system with a state commissioner
of education who should administer the funds, report to
the Legislature and oversee the schools. There should
be county commissioners who would attend to the licens-
ing of teachers, laying out of districts, etc. The local
directors were to engage the teachers and conduct school
meetings, which would levy taxes and attend to other
business. The next year Piatt presented a bill in the
Senate which embodied a system, modeled after New
York and very nearly as advanced as the system ob-
39 See the articles in the Ohio School Journal for 1849, concerning Union
Schools. The County histories for Greene, Logan, Ross, Warren, Cham-
paign, support the reports to the state superintendent for 1849, 1850, etc.
The reports for the various counties often give the vote.
40 This is evident when one follows the legislative battle from year to
438 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
tained in 1838. This bill went to second reading and on
motion of Ephraim Cutler further consideration was
postponed until the first Monday of the December fol-
lowing. In December of 1824, Nathan Guilford was a
member of the Senate and chairman of the Senate com-
mittee on schools. Piatt's bill was reported as unfinished
business and was referred to Guilford's committee. It
came out of Guilford's committee, shorn of both state
and county supervision and was passed as the act of
1825. All this may be learned by reference to the Senate
Journals of 1823, 1824, and 1825. The files of the Co-
lumbus Gazette during February, 1824, and the Monitor
for 1823, the Cincinnati Gazette, Independent Republi-
can and Inquisitor for 1823, discuss Piatt's Bill. It
seems to me, that Benjamin M. Piatt, chairman for two
years of the Senate committee on schools, the man who
arrested the further alienation of school lands during his
term is entitled to as much credit as Guilford. I am
unable to understand why Cutler did not support Piatt.
There is no evidence of opposition in the Senate, no
amendments nor motions to indefinitely postpone. Other
members of the committee report Piatt's bill without
amendment. The newspapers in Ohio had been belabor-
ing the assembly ever since 1818 to obtain school legisla-
tion. Three papers in Cincinnati in every issue during
the session carried strong editorials calling for action.
Two newspapers in Columbus, in fact almost the entire
press of Ohio demanded a school bill. The press was not
satisfied with the act of 1825. It was considered too
weak.41 Why did Cutler let Piatt down?
41 The editorials in the Hamilton Intelligencer durng 1829 are a good
example. The Cincinnati Gazette advocated a half cent on the dollar during
1823 and 1824.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 439
This brings me to another powerful agency in the
support of the common schools-the press. There were
only two newspapers, the Lebanon Star and a paper at
Mount Pleasant which opposed the school law. The
most powerful support came from Cincinnati. The
Liberty Hall and Gazette whether edited by J. W.
Browne, an Englishman and Methodist minister, or by
Charles Hammond, a Marylander, constantly fought for
schools. The Spy, when owned by Mason and Palmer,
New Jersey people, carried editorials constantly. The
440 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Inquisitor, edited by Powers from New York and Ver-
mont, and the National Republican, edited by Looker,
constantly published descriptions of the schools of New
York, New Hampshire, Scotland, Germany, etc., and
suggested plans for Ohio. It was the same with the
Hamilton Intelligencer edited by Camron and Camp-
bell, and the Chillicothe Supporter. The editorials of
the Inquisitor were printed in the papers of Steuben-
ville, Chillicothe, Portsmouth and Columbus. The Ham-
ilton paper quoted the Cincinnati Gazette, the Portage
Democrat and the Columbus Gazette. Members of the
Legislature were held up to ridicule.42
Clear down to 1854, the attitude of the press was one.
Cochran of the Ohio Democrat at Mount Vernon, Har-
ris of the Cleveland Herald, Bailhache of the Ohio State
Journal, all supported educational progress. Samuel
Medary of the Ohio Statesman was a stalwart supporter
of Samuel Lewis. Now the press was not manned by
people from one part of the country. At one time in St.
Clairsville an Irishman edited the Gazette and a Scotch-
man edited the Historian. The Scotchman was a grad-
uate of Glasgow University and was chosen as a county
school examiner. This was in 1832. The county board
adopted uniform textbooks, a county educational society
was formed, and all teachers were required to pass ex-
aminations in reading, writing, arithmetic, geography,
grammar and history. Butler County in 1835, Miami
and Delaware Counties in 1834 and 1835 had require-
ments in advance of Portage County in 1833 to 1837 and
Cuyahoga County in 1843-1847. Lane says in his Fifty
Years of Akron that he came to Akron from Connecti-
42 The Columbus Gazette especially.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 441
cut in 1836 to teach. He went out to see Darius Lyman,
one of the examiners. Lyman said to a young man who
was studying law, "I have some chores to attend to, you
examine him." The young man handed Lane a law
book and directed him to read several sentences. He
then asked him to write some sentences. After that he
gave Lane a problem in proportion. Then he took the
fee of seventy-five cents and licensed him. The Western
Courier of Ravenna, corroborates Lane's narrative by
naming Darius Lyman as one of the examiners in 1833-
1834. It is evident, that Portage had nothing to teach
Miami County which in the issue of the Piqua Courier
of May 9, 1835, prints as the rules of the county board
that all applicants must pass in reading, writing, arith-
metic, grammar and geography to obtain a two years'
certificate. The board may at its discretion give a six
months' license to those who can pass in reading, writing
and arithmetic but that anyone who has held those lower
grades must on the next trial pass in all the subjects or
be deemed incompetent. The Delaware regulations were
similar. Ezra Griswold, editor of the Patron, was one
of Delaware's examiners.
Teachers began to form associations in Cincinnati in
1821. They had several conventions in southwestern
Ohio in 1835 and 1836. There was a teacher's society
in Columbus in 1832. I am informed that the teachers
of Pickaway organized in 1833. The first association in
the northeast was in 1837. Maumee and Perrysburg
followed later in 1837.43
43 Western Spy had several articles about teachers' associations in 1820.
Someone may object that I have neglected to mention Holbrook. I will
remind the reader that Josiah Holbrook was so dissatisfied with educational
442 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
The great movements of education in Ohio prior to
1845, started usually from Cincinnati and received able
support from the papers, pulpit and teachers of the deaf
and dumb and blind at Columbus. The great revolution
which culminated in the act of 1853 started from Colum-
bus, and Galloway was the leader. Lord and his fol-
lowers gave it form. By 1850 no section of the state
had a patent on enlightenment. Franklin College,
Western Reserve, Marietta College, Ohio Wesleyan,
Kenyon, Ohio University, Cincinnati College, Farmer's
College, etc., were all centers which gave impetus to the
The newspapers of the first half century considered
education as news. The Chillicothe, Cincinnati and Co-
lumbus papers quoted from the Academician published
by the Pickets from 1818 to 1820. They quoted from
Lord's School Journal and advised people to subscribe.
They quoted from the Annals of Education. One editor
reminds the others that business and philanthropy both
rode the same horse. Increased education meant more
Cist in his Cincinnati, in 1841, page 39, after stating
that there were over thirty-four hundred German voters
in the city enumerates the voting population giving the
nativity of all groups numbering more than one hun-
dred. I here submit the figures: Pennsylvania, 1210;
Ohio, 1112; New Jersey, 795; New York, 672; Virginia,
methods in Massachusetts and Connecticut that he did not send his son to
school at all, but looked after that himself. So the father of the National
Normal University at Lebanon can hardly be credited to "New England"
influence. T. W. Harvey was one of Lord's products. I also disclaim a
Presbyterian bias. All my grandparents were Unitarians and my parents
who reared me in Indiana were Methodists.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 443
519; Maryland, 537; Massachusetts, 414; Kentucky,
349; Connecticut, 230; Vermont, 118; England, 786;
Ireland, 742; Scotland, 360; France, 125. This hardly
looks like a transplanted New England community. It
is somewhat difficult to understand how the Yankees
succeeded in forcing all those supposedly indifferent and
hostile people to support the magnificent institutions
which graced Cincinnati. Perhaps the rest of the people
had the same zeal as that which characterised Guilford.
Micajah Williams who represented Hamilton County
for years and always supported education, was born in
North Carolina. The great editor, Charles Hammond,
who for years thundered in the Gazette for schools, was
born in Maryland.
If any section of the state was the educational mis-
sionary, it was Cincinnati. Columbus and Cincinnati
were the principal centers of propaganda. If any sec-
tion of the state was covered with fine schools at an
early date, nobody knew it. No one is aware that from
1803 to 1854 common schools and academies swarmed
around Akron and Painesville while the rest of the state
was destitute. No Gazetteer had discovered it. James
Kilbourn and Warren Jenkins never failed to note such
a thing as a good school building. Jenkins noted that
Findlay had a "commodious schoolhouse" in 1841. He
and Kilbourn mention "brick" schoolhouses in some
towns and say nothing of others.
Howe in the 1848 edition of his Historical Collec-
tions of Ohio, has high praise for the common schools
of Zanesville, Cincinnati and Portsmouth. He has not
mentioned any other town as notable. He makes par-
ticular mention of all colleges and leading academies.
444 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
He speaks highly of Steubenville, Norwalk, Hillsboro,
but he does not seem to find that either the Reserve or
the Ohio Purchase has left everyone else behind.
The newspapers did not know that a bright light was
beginning to shine in the northeast and send its rays into
the darkness which shrouded the rest of the state. A
certain history of Summit County tells us that this hap-
pened. It cannot be urged that the newspapers did not
tell about schools. They did. When the new school-
house was erected at Portsmouth, the Scioto Gazette of
Chillicothe and the Ohio State Journal said that it had
no superior in Ohio; that it equalled the best in the east.
The Cincinnati Gazette described it. The Cleveland
Herald was awake to schools. It told about the fine large
building at Zanesville, the excellent buildings at Dover,
McConnelsville and the broken windows at Sandusky.
The Herald said that there were some fair buildings in
the Reserve but none of a superior type. The Cincin-
nati schools are the subject of several articles in the
Herald. The Western Reserve Chronicle (Warren),
said the school accommodations were wretched in 1849.
The Courier of Ravenna said that they had no school,
either public or private, in 1833.
It is not my purpose to paint conditions as unusually
dark in the Reserve. The conditions in the majority of
towns were the same as in Newark, Circleville, Chilli-
cothe, Toledo and Lancaster.
The point is, that any settled part of Ohio in 1825 or
1850 would average about the same as any other part
having the same wealth. Some places in the Reserve
had fair conditions-for example Cleveland. Jefferson
had erected a good building in 1845. While Circleville
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 445
delayed building until about 1853, so did Elyria. While
Adams County and Vinton did not have any high schools
until about 1860, neither did Geauga nor Medina. If
Lorain had five high schools in 1859, so did Brown.
There were as many high schools in the Scioto Country
as on the Cuyahoga River.
Nor is there the slightest evidence of any greater alac-
rity on the part of the New England people in establish-
ing libraries, founding colleges or supporting news-
papers. When Hudson, Middlebury and Ravenna had a
newspaper apiece in 1828, Georgetown, West Union and
Ripley also had a newspaper apiece. The people of Rip-
ley in Brown County were starting a college in 1830 be-
fore the people in Marietta were doing it. The people
at New Athens in Harrison County were starting a col-
lege before the Western Reserve College was started and
the Presbyterians of West Union, Red Oak and Cincin-
nati were quite as early in building and chartering
churches as the sons of Massachusetts.
I will close by calling attention to a fact which was
printed in all the newspapers in 1853. The German
Freemen had a great mass meeting in which they adopted
certain resolutions. They demanded: 1. Nine months
of school. 2. Absolute separation of the schools from
all sectarian and political meddling. 3. Compulsory
The act of 1837 would never have been enacted if
there had not been a Canadian and a Scotchman, Mc-
Nutt and Stewart to vote yea.
I rest the case.
446 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Ohio. Commissioner of Common Schools. Reports, 1847,
Ohio. Executive Documents, 1838, 1840-1845, 1854.
Ohio. General Assembly. House Journals, 1805-1807.
Ohio. General Assembly. Senate Journals, 1805-1808.
Ohio. General Assembly. Senate and House Journals,
1811-1813, 1819, 1821, 1825, 1827, 1830, 1831, 1834, 1836, 1837.
Ohio. General Assembly. Laws, 1808, 1810-1820.
Ohio. Legislative Journals, 1816-1819.
Ohio. Secretary of State -Reports, 1837, 1838, 1839, 1859.
Cincinnati Gazette, 1823.
Columbus Gazette, 1824.
Connecticut Mirror, March 29, 1819.
Frankfort Commonwealth, August 6, 1833-January 10, 1834.
Hamilton Intelligencer, 1825-1850.
Ohio State Journal, December, 1818; January-March, 1819;
Ohio State Journal (Semi-weekly), September 18, 1838.
Ohio Statesman, December, 1818; January-March, 1819.
Scioto Gazette, May-June, 1815.
Weekly Recorder, July, 1814; February, 1815; January, 1817.
Western Spy, 1820.
College of Teachers, Proceedings, 1834-1865.
Firelands Pioneer, 1822; Vols. VII-VIII, XIV.
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, Vols. VI,
Ohio School Journal, 1849.
Western Reserve Pioneer, 1879-1892.
Beers-History of Montgomery County, Ohio.
Biographical Cyclopaedia and Portrait Gallery of Ohio.
Briggs - History of Presbyterianism.
Evans, Nelson W., -History of Scioto County and Pioneer
Record of Southern Ohio.
The Origin of Public Education in Ohio 447
Histories of Various Ohio Counties.
History of Education in the State of Ohio; a centennial
Howe, Henry-Historical Collections of Ohio (Edition of
Lane, S. A.-Fifty Years of Akron and Summit County.
Smith-History of Jefferson College.