Ohio History Journal






It is but a slight exaggeration to state that the aborigines

of this country have been made the objects of conversion from

all the religious sects that have found a domicile within our bor-

ders. Under the civilizing influence of the dominant exotic race

the American savage has constantly gone down. It is not the

fault of Christianity, nor of the civilization of the nineteenth

century, but in the application. The missionary in his zeal

has mistaken both ethnology and his calling. It required Chris-

tianity five hundred years to civilize the Norsemen. Wandering

tribes neither jump into civilization nor Christianity. Both re-

quire generations of constant instruction.  It is exceedingly

difficult to overcome that hereditary disposition to revert to an

original savage condition. The Jesuits, who had a peculiar

faculty of adapting themselves to the manners, conditions, and

habits of thought of the American savages, made but a slight

impression on their dusky subjects. Whatever failure made by

one sect, has been of little result to another. The same old

methods constantly applied which previous failures experienced.

It may be affirmed that the methods applied have been more

in the nature of a persecution than in an elevation. The study

of ethnology would have been of greater benefit and the chagrin

of disappointment might have been avoided by utilizing this


The history of the various types of mankind demonstrates

that the various conditions operate differently. The Esquimo

has discovered that the kyack is the proper boat for his pursuit

of food and raiment. The conditions force out that which is

necessary to maintain the struggle for existence. The habits

of life more or less govern mental acquirements. These and


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other considerations must enter into the conclusions that form

intelligent conception of advancing the status of any tribe or type.

The American savage is a debased creature, prone to take

up the vices of the white man, and, in his original condition,

incapable of penetrating the exalted conception of life as ex-

pounded by Jesus Christ. He is a being requiring many gener-

ations of culture before fully comprehending the ethical quali-

ties propounded in the New Testament.

If the large or powerful sects spend a part of their energy

in missions to degraded tribes, it is not to be wondered at that

the weaker denominations should imitate the example. That the

Shakers, always noted for the paucity of their number, should

waste their energy in such a fruitless enterprise as a mission to

the savages, commands a different view than that necessarily

accorded to other isms. Shaker theology and sociology radically

differ from all other types of Christinaity. It may be affirmed

that Shakerism contains no phase but may be elsewhere found

among Christians; yet it must be noticed that it combines more

peculiar features than can elsewhere be discovered. The Shakers

have more perfectly approached the teachings of Jesus and his

Apostles than any other of the organized bodies of believers. On

the other hand the nature of the Indian is largely animal. He

is where the ancestors of the white man were many thousands

of years ago. To expect an Indian to lay aside his brutal nature

and take upon himself the life of a Shaker, requires a credulity

too vast even to contemplate.

Shakerism in 1807 was practically in its infancy. In the

west it was only in the third year of its existence. It was five

years later before it was organized into church relationship. The

people, for the most part, lived at Union Village, in log houses.

The first frame dwelling-house was not completed until October,

1806, and that was built for the Elders. However, the leaders

of Shakerism at Union Village were alive to what they appre-

hended were the needs of humanity, and were ever ready to drop

seed on whatever appeared to be good soil. They were not far

removed from the Indians, and any religious commotion among

the latter would necessarily attract their attention. In the sim-

plicity of their hearts they believed that the subtle, treacherous,

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.      217

ferocious and diabolical savage could be transformed into a gentle,

non-resistent, God-fearing and man-loving celibate.




During the "Great Kentucky Revival" of 1800 and 1801, the

Indians received the attention of the awakened and zealous. Fer-

vent prayers were offered up that the Indians might also share in

the blessed hope and joyful anticipation of the future state; and

missionaries were repeatedly sent out from among the subjects of

the revival, to convert them to the Christian faith, but with little

success. In the fall of the year 1804, a great number of savages,

belonging to different tribes, assembled together and held a feast

of love and union, and during their conclave danced and rejoiced

before the Great Spirit, with the purpose of reviving the religion

of their ancestors. The fame of the meeting was wafted to the

whites, among whom were those who queried whether God would

convert them in some way different from what had hitherto been


During the year 1805 fresh reports broke out concerning the

Indians, which affirmed that a large body of them was moving

down the western border of Ohio, and were about to form a

settlement. The rumors caused much agitation concerning them.

Some proclaimed that the movement presaged war, while others

affirmed that they were in pursuit of religion and the means of

an honest livelihood; that they intended to labor, and in their

present circumstances the neighboring whites were supporting

them by charitable donations.




The continuance of the various reports, concerning the move-

ments and condition of the Indians, created much anxiety among

the Shakers at Union Village (then called Turtle Creek). It

was determined to direct a missionary body to proceed to the

Shawnee Indians, then living at Greenville, in order to find

out the real situation, both in respect to things temporal and

spiritual. The persons selected were David Darrow, Benjamin

Seth Youngs and Richard McNemar.

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David Darrow, who was born June 21, 1750, and died June

27, 1825, has been sketched in my article on the Shakers of Union

Village in the QUARTERLY for June, 1902, and need not here be


Benjamin Seth Youngs was born September 17, 1774. He

was a member of the propaganda that set out from New Lebanon,

N. Y., on January 1, 1805, and was one of the first three Shakers

in the west, and the ablest of the trio, and, in all probability, the

most indefatigable missionary ever belonging to the sect. So far

as I have been able to learn no account of his life or missionary

labors has been preserved. His itinerary, as preserved in the

church record, was as follows: On January 16, 1809, accom-

panied by two of the brethren, he set out on foot for Buserow

(West Union, Ind. A society was here established, but after many

vicissitudes was abandoned), and returned on March 29; April

25, accompanied by Elder Matthew Houston, he set out for Gas-

per (now South Union), Kentucky, by way of Eagle Creek, Cane-

ridge and Shawnee Run; he was present and took a very active

part in resisting the mob at Union Village on August 27, 1810,

although the record is silent, but for September 13, records that in

company with two others, he started on that day for Buserow,

on the Wabash, in Indiana, and returned on December 4th; Feb-

ruary 20, 1811, accompanied by Ruth Darrow, Edith Dennis and

Peter Pease, he set out for Buserow (West Union), and at Cin-

cinnati, on the 22nd, met the boats containing the believers from

Eagle Creek, who were destined for the same place; he must soon

after have returned for on April 9th he set out for Kentucky and

returned on August 2d; September 25 he went to Kentucky and

returned on September 11, 1812, and on the 29th started for

Gasper, where he probably staid until September 30, 1814, at which

date he arrived at Union Village; on July 16, 1818, he passed

through Union Village on his return from New Lebanon to Gas-

per; March 27, 1820, he was again in Union Village and returned

to Gasper on April 1st; November 8, 1829, he was on a visit to

Union Village, but departed from there on the 24th; May 27, 1833,

he arrived in Union Village but after ten days set out for home;

on May 14, 1835, he was on his way to New Lebanon, and on

September 22, arrived at Union Village on his return, and on the

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.      219


30th set out for Gasper. The last record of him is for October

16, 1836, and is as follows: "Elder Benjamin S. Youngs arrives

here from South Union," and "is now leaving the west to return

no more. He goes to his old home at Watervleit, New York, after

a residence of more than thirty years in the west. He gave us his

valedictory address in meeting today. We bless him and pray

that heaven may. He proceeds on the 20, same." During his

long stay at Gasper he was an elder, but whether in the min-

istry - which he probably was -the record is silent.

Richard McNemar, born November 20, 1770, was a Presby-

terian clergyman, who had a commanding influence during the

Great Kentucky Revival. He was one of the six witnesses that

met at Caneridge, Bourbon county, Kentucky, June 28, 1804, and

on that day dissolved the Springfield Presbytery. While in charge

of the church at Turtle Creek, he was converted to Shakerism,

and united with that sect on April 24, 1805, followed by his entire

family. During the rest of his life he was an elder in the order.

In the Church Record his name occurs but sixteen times. April

22, 1807, he set out for Gasper, and returned December 4; January

16, 1809, he set out for Buserow on foot, and returned March 29,

accompanied by Youngs and Issacher Bates; with the latter and

John Hancock, on the 5th December, 1809, he again set out for

Buserow, but failing to reach his destiny, on account of the high

waters, he returned on the 10th; March 27, 1810, with Archibald

Meacham, he set out for Buserow and returned May 1st; in com-

pany with David Moseley, Ruth Darrow and Peggy Houston, on

October 15, he set out on a visit to Eagle Creek to visit the colony

of believers at that place, returning on the 27th; April 9, 1811, he

"set out for Kentucky" and returned August 2; June 1st, 1812,

he started for Dayton to see the Governor respecting military

matters which concerned believers; March 8, 1813, he went to

Watervleit (near Dayton), where he was taken sick, and Nathan

Sharp, on the 15th, started to bring him home; September 5, 1817,

he was indicted at Lebanon, for assault and battery, on a false

oath given by John Davis; February 14, 1830, he was released

from his eldership at the Centre House, pro tempore; December

28, 1835, he was "released from his care as an Elder at Water-

vleit; but does not remove from Watervleit till 13th January,

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1836." The last record is made for September 15, 1839: "This

evening, Richard McNemar, Sen., deceased; after a protracted

illness of chronic bowel complaint. He was among the first who

received the gospel in the west, - being previously a Presby-

terian minister in this place. One of the most zealous and loyal

believers who ever embraced the gospel in this western land.

Altogether more than ordinary intelligent."

Issacher Bates, born January 29, 1758, was one of the

original propaganda that set out from New Lebanon, on Jan-

uary 1st, 1805. He is mentioned thirty-four times in the Church

Record. April 22, 1807, he set out for Gasper and returned

December 4; May 2, 1808, he "set out on a visit to Kentucky"

and returned home June 12 following; July 27, he returned from

a tour to the Wabash; he started for the Wabash September

18 and returned November 7; January 16, 1809, he set out for

Buserow on foot and returned March 29; August 29, he set out

on a visit to Buserow and arrived home on Sunday, September

24; December 5, he started for the Wabash, but returned the

1oth, on account of high waters; on the 14th, he again set out

for the Wabash and returned February 19, 1810, via Cane-

ridge, Kentucky; March 15 he started for Shawnee Run (now

Pleasant Hill), Kentucky, and arrived home March 28, 1811;

November 11, he arrived from   Buserow, and returned there

December 19; he arrived from Buserow September 10, 1812;

June 1, 1814, with Solomon King, he set out to visit the Har-

mony Society of Dutch people, returning the 21st; December

14, 1816, he arrived from West Union (Buserow), Ind., and

returned the 17th; January 7, 1819, he arrived from West Union;

April 21, 1820, he again came from West Union, and on June 22

returned; January 24, 1822, he arrived from, and on the 29th

returned to West Union; January 8, 1823, he went to Darby

Plains, Ohio, and returned the 24th; January 29, 1824, he

removed from West Union to Union Village; March 30, he

started for Zoar, a communistic society of Dutch people, where

he was taken very sick, and on May 10, Calvin Morrell and

Charles D. Hampton (both formerly physicians) started for

Zoar to take care of him, and returned with him on the 27th;

September 2, he set off to visit the Society at North Union,

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.      221


near Cleveland, and returned October 9, and on the 21st, re-

moved to Watervleit; June 27, 1825, he came to Union Vil-

lage in order to attend the funeral of Elder David Darrow;

July 29, 1826, he set out for West Union, and returned home,

via Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, on September 16; June I, 1830,

he started for New Lebanon and returned September 2; May

27, 1833, he arrives at Union Village, and "expects to take a

long visiting tour in Kentucky." The last record is for April

16, and 30, and May 14: "It is now concluded for our good

old veteran pioneer, Elder Issachar, who has done so much, and

spent all his latter days, nearly, in planting and building up the

gospel in the West, to return to the East, and retire from these

labors. He will visit among us till the 30th inst., when he will

return to Watervleit." April 30: "Elder Issachar returns to

Watervleit (Ohio) to-day, preparatory to starting to New Leb-

anon; we therefore have taken our final change of salutations

and farewell, with many well wishes for each others welfare."

May 14: Elder Issachar starts from Watervleit to join his com-

pany at Circleville to go East to return no more."




For a full account of the Shaker mission to the Shawnee

Indians we are indebted to the report given by Richard Mc-

Nemar, who based his narrative upon the Journal kept by the

missionaries. On March 17, 1807, the three brethren, David

Darrow, Richard McNemar and Benjamin S. Youngs set out in

search of the Indians, and on the 23rd arrived at their village,

now Greenville, Ohio. "When we came in sight of the village,

the first object that attracted our view was a large frame house,

about 150 by 34 feet in size, surrounded with 50 or 60 smoking

cottages. We rode up and saluted some men who were stand-

ing before the door of a tent, and by a motion of the hand were

directed to another wigwam where we found one who could

talk English. We asked him if their feelings were friendly.

A. O yes, we are all brothers.

Q. Where are your chiefs--we wish to have a talk with


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A. They are about 4 miles off making sugar.

Q. What are their names?

A. Lal-lu-e-tsee-ka, and Te-kum-tha.*

Q. Can any of them talk English?

A. No; but there is a good interpreter there, George Blue-

Jacket. He has gone to school, and can read and talk well.

Q. What is that big house for?

A. To worship the Great Spirit.

Q. How do you worship?

A. Mostly in speaking.

Q. Who is your chief speaker?

A. Our prophet, Lal-lu-e-tsee-ka. He converses with the

Great Spirit, and tells us how to be good.

Q. Do all that live here, believe in him?

A. Yes; we all believe-he can dream to God.

Conducted by a pilot, we repaired to the sugar-camp, where

30 or 40 were assembled with the prophet, who was very sick

and confined to his tent. We expressed our desire of having a

talk with him. But George informed us that he could not talk to

us, that ministers of the white people would not believe what

he said, but counted it foolish and laughed at it, therefore he

could not talk; besides, he had a pain in his head, and was very

sick. After informing him we were not such ministers, he asked:

Do you believe a person can have true knowledge of the

Great Spirit, in the heart, without going to school and learning

to read?

A. We believe they can; and that is the best kind of knowl-


After some talk of this kind with George, he went into the

prophet's tent, where several chiefs were collected, and after con-

tinuing their council there about an hour, Lal-lu-e-tsee-ka came

out and took his seat in a circle of about 30 persons who sat

round the fire. All were silent--every countenance grave and

solemn, when he began to speak. His discourse continued about

half an hour, in which the most pungent eloquence expressed his


* Where Tecumseh lived at Greenville is still called Tecumseh's

Point. It is now owned by Herschel Morningstar.

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.       223

deep and heart-felt sense of what he spoke, but in language which

George said, he could not correctly translate into English. How-

ever, the general sense he occasionally communicated during our


In the first place, that he (the prophet) had formerly lived

on White river; had been a doctor and a very wicked man.

About two years ago, while attending on sick people at Attawa,

in a time of general sickness, he was struck with a deep and

awful sense of his sins- cried mightily to the Good Spirit to

show him some way of escape, and in his great distress, fell

into a vision, in which he appeared to be travelling along a road,

and came to where it forked -the right hand way he was in-

formed led to happiness and the left to misery.

This fork in the road, he was told, represented that stage of

life in which people were convicted of sin; and those who took

the right hand way quit everything that was wicked and became

good. But the left hand road was for such as would go on and

be bad, after they were shown the right way. They all move

slow, till they come here, but when they pass the fork to the left,

then they go swift. On the left hand way he saw three houses -

from the first and second were pathways that led into the right

hand road, but no way leading from the third. This, said he, is

eternity. He saw vast crowds going swift along the left hand

road, and great multitudes in each of the houses, under differ-

ent degrees of judgment and misery. He mentioned particularly

the punishment of the drunkard. One presented him a cup of

liquor resembling melted lead; if he refused to drink it he would

urge him, saying: Come, drink - you used to love whiskey.

And upon drinking it, his bowels were seized with an exquisite

burning. This draught he had often to repeat. At the last house

their torment appeared inexpressible; under which he heard them

scream, cry pitiful, and roar like the falls of a river. He was

afterwards (said the interpreter) taken along the right hand way,

which was all interspersed with flowers of delicious smell, and

showed a house at the end of it where was everything beautiful,

sweet and pleasant; and still went on learning more and more;

but in his first vision he saw nothing but the state of the wicked;

from which the Great Spirit told him to go and warn his people

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of their danger, and call upon them to put away their sins, and

be good. Whereupon he began to speak to them in great dis-

tress, and would weep and tremble, while addressing them. Some

believed- were greatly alarmed- began to confess their sins -

forsake them, and set out to be good. This spread the alarm,

and brought many others from different tribes to see and hear,

who were affected in like manner. But some of the chiefs who

were very wicked, would not believe, and tried to keep the people

from believing, and encouraged them on in their former wicked

ways. Whereupon the Great Spirit told him to separate from

these wicked chiefs and their people, and showed him particularly

where to come, towards the big ford where the peace was con-

cluded with the Americans; and there make provision to receive

and instruct all from the different tribes that were willing to be


Accordingly all that believed had come and settled there,

and a great many Indians had come to hear, and many more

were expected. That some white people were afraid, but they

were foolish; for they would not hurt any one.

We asked a number of questions:

Q. Do you believe that all mankind are going away from

the Good Spirit by wicked works?

A. Yes; that is what we believe. And the prophet feels

great pity for all.

Q. Do you believe that the Great Spirit once made him-

self known to the world, by a man that was called Christ?

A. Yes, we believe it, and the Good Spirit has showed our

prophet what has been in many generations, and he says he

wants to talk with some white people about these things.

Q. What sins does your prophet speak now against?

A. Witchcraft, poisoning  people, fighting, murdering,

drinking whisky, and beating their wives because they will not

have children. All such as will not leave off there, go to Eternity

-he knows all bad people that commit fornication, and can tell

it all from seven years old.

Q. What do those do who have been wicked, when they

believe the prophet?

A. They confess all.

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Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.      225


Q. To whom do they confess?

A. To the prophet and four chiefs.

Q. Do they confess all the bad things they ever did?

A. All from seven years old. And cry and tremble when

they come to confess.

Q. How did you learn this? The Roman Catholics con-

fess their sins.

A. Some Wyandots joined the Roman Catholics at Detroit,

who now believe in our prophet. Roman Catholics confess their

sins, but go and do bad again. Our people forsake their bad

way when they have confessed.

They asked us several questions concerning our people, and

particularly whether they drank whisky; and appeared not a

little rejoiced, to learn that there were some among the whites,

so far reclaimed, as to lay aside the use of that pernicious liquor.

We inquired how they made out for provisions. They answered

they had none. So many people came there-eat up all they

had raised.

The only meal we saw them eat was a turkey divided among

thirty or forty. And the only relief we could afford them, was

ten dollars for the purpose of buying corn.

After the evening conversation closed we concluded to

return to the village, with George and several others; and

mounted our horses. It was now in the dusk of the evening, and

the full moon just rising above the horizon, when one of their

speakers stood up in an alley, between the camps, and spoke for

about fifteen minutes, with great solemnity, which was heightened

at every pause, with a loud Seguoy from the surrounding as-

sembly. On this occasion our feelings were like Jacob's when

he cried out, "How dreadful is this place! Surely the Lord is

in this place!" And the world knew it not. With these im-

pressions we returned to the village, and spent the night.

Next morning, as soon as it was day, one of their speakers

mounted a log, near the southeast corner of the village, and

began the morning service with a loud voice, in thanksgiving

o the Great Spirit. He continued his address for near an hour.

The people were all in their tents, some at the distance of fifteen

or twenty rods; yet they could all distinctly hear, and gave a

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solemn and loud assent, which sounded from tent to tent, at

every pause. While we stood in his view, at the end of the

meeting-house, on rising ground, from which we had a prospect

of the surrounding wigwams, and the vast open plain or prairie,

to the south and east, and which looks over the big fort, toward

the north, for the distance of two miles, we felt as if we were

among the tribes of Israel, on their march to Canaan. Their

simplicity and unaffected zeal for the increase of the work of

the Good Spirit-their ardent desires for the salvation of their

unbelieving kindred, with that of all mankind-their willingness

to undergo hunger, fatigue, hard labor and sufferings, for the

sake of those who came to learn the way of righteousness-

and the high expectations they had, of multitudes flocking down

to hear the prophet the ensuing summer, etc., were considera-

tions truly affecting;-while Ske-law-wa hailed the opening day

with loud aspirations of gratitude to the Good Spirit; and en-

couraged the obedient followers of Divine light to persevere.

They showed us several letters of friendship from the Gov-

ernor of Ohio, Gen. Whiteman and others, from which they ap-

peared that the Americans believed their dispositions to be peace-

able and brotherly. Their marks of industry were considerable,

not only in preparing ground for cultivation, but also in hewing

and preparing timber for more commodious buildings. From all

we could gather, from their account of the work, and of their

faith and practice - what we heard and felt in their evening and

morning worship - their peaceable dispositions, and attention to

industry, we were induced to believe that God, in very deed, was

mightily at work among them. And under this impression, we

invited three or four of them to come down and see us, as soon

as they found it convenient."

The stay of the deputation was short, for on March 27 they

returned. The time actually at Greenville is no where stated,

but in all probability it was not more than five days.

To the foregoing account Mr. McNemar adds the following:

"Near the middle of June upwards of twenty appeared at

Turtle Creek, encamped in the woods at a small distance from the

church, and tarried four days. They had worship every evening

at the encampment; and several on the Sabbath attended the

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.    227


meeting of the Believers, and behaved with order and de-

corum. During their stay they conducted with peace and civility,

and received no contrary treatment from any in the place. And

to relieve, in some degree, the pressing wants of hungry fama-

lies at home, 27 horses were loaded each with provisions, from

among the Believers. Yet this act of charity, however small,

did not long escape the censorious reflections of some hard-

hearted mortals; but even furnished a pretext for implications the

most monstrous and unreasonable. However, in this, as in all

other cases of the kind, those who busied themselves about what

did not concern them, were much divided in their opinion. Some

had it, that a number of the Indians had joined the Shakers, and

many more were coming on. Others, that an Indian had offered

to confess his sins, but that the Shakers could not understand

him; and therefore the Indians were convinced too, that the

Shakers were deceivers. Others tried to make believe that the

Shakers were encouraging them to war-or at least to contend

for the land on which they had settled. And some were foolish

enough to go all the way to the village, and put on a mask of

hypocrisy, to find out whether this was not the case. Of all

this trouble, both of mind and body, such might have been saved,

had they accustomed themselves, at an earlier period, to believe

those who tell the truth and nothing but the truth.

About the 12th of August (1807) they were visited again

by two of the brethren from Turtle Creek, who found them in

possession of the same peaceable and brotherly spirit. They had

but little conversation with them, yet obtained abundant satis-

faction by attending their meeting, which continued from a little

after dark till the sun was an hour high the next morning.

The meeting was opened with a lengthy discourse, delivered

by the prophet; after which they assembled in a close crowd, and

continued their worship by singing and shouting, that might have

been heard at least to the distance of two miles.

Their various songs, and perfect harmony in singing, shout-

ing, etc., rendered the meeting very solemn. But all this appeared

far inferior to that solemn fear of God, hatred of sin, and that

peace, love and harmony which they manifested among each other,

They needed no invitation to pay another visit to Turtle Creek,

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nor were they forbidden. Therefore, pursuant to their own choice,

a number of them appeared again at the church, August 29th, and

were received with usual kindness and charity. On this occasion,

some in the neighborhood expressed their uneasiness lest there

was some mischievous plot carrying on. But amidst the threats

of the ignorant or misinformed, the Shawnees testified that they

were wholly for peace, and abundantly proved it by their meek-

ness, gentleness and forbearance. The only expression like re-

sentment that I heard from them on the occasion, was from Nancy,

the interpreter, while a bold advocate for the New Christian doc-

trine, was boasting how the white people could cut them off. She

said they were for nothing but peace; but if white people would

go to war, they would be destroyed by a day of judgment, that

not one soul would be left on the face of the earth.

Although these poor Shawnees have had no particular in-

struction but what they received by the outpouring of the Spirit,

yet in point of real light and understanding, as well as behavior,

they shame the Christian world. Therefore, of that Spirit which

hath wrought so great a change, the believers at Turtle Creek

are not ashamed; yet they are far from wishing them to turn to

the right hand or to the left, to form an external union with them

or any other people. But they are willing that God should carry

on His work among them without interruption, as He thinks



The Church Record book, on the Shakers' relation to the

Indians, is brief and unsatisfactory, as upon almost every other

point. A fair illustration is afforded in the fact that the manu-

script record book extending from January 1, 1805, to April 30,

1861, contains but 480 pages. None of it is closely written and

innumerable lines are skipped.

Such records as the Church Book gives are here reproduced:

1807. Mar. 17. "Elder David D.-B. S. Youngs and

Richard McNemar set out for Greenville, to pay a visit to the

Shawnee Indians, and witness the Reported revival of religion

among them: (for an account of which see pamphlet entitled Ky.

Revival) They return home on 27 of same."

May 30. "James Patterson and wife arrive here from Beaulah,

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians

Shaker Mission to the Shawnee Indians.      229


and in company with them were 21 Indians and 2 squaws, being a

party of the aforesaid religious Indians."

"Sab. 31. Part of the Indians attend meeting, and also a great

multitude of spectators. Indians set out for their homes June

4." "Aug. 10. Issachar Bates and Richard McNemar set out this

morning to visit the religious Shawnee Indians."

"29. About 50 Indians arrive here last evening; we are

threatened with being put to the sword's point, for showing charity

to the poor Indians. This threat is from one Saml. Trousdale, a

militia officer."

"Sep. 3. Indians return to Greenville."




The records show that the Shakers desisted from any real

efforts to promulgate their doctrines among the Indians. While

they were well received, the evidence conveys the idea that the

missionaries saw no opening for instructions after their manner.

On the other hand, all things considered, they made encouraging

strides among the civilized. Besides Union Village, permanent

lodgment was effected at North Union, Watervleit, and White-

water, in Ohio; South Union and Pleasant Hill, in Kentucky, and

West Union in Indiana. Many additions and much encourage-

ment were received at Beaver, Eagle Creek, Straight Creek and

Darby Plains, all of which I presume were in Ohio. If the same

persistency had been continued by the later Shakers as was mani-

fested by the original leaders of this sect would not have been on

the wane as so clearly demonstrated at this time. Shakerism de-

pends on no large church for its moral support and increase. It re-

ceives from the world and is its own magnetic center. At this day

it is wholly wanting in missionary enterprise. At Union Village

there are but two men under fifty years of age. The Society has

all the appearance of being doomed to extinction when the present

members pass away. Still, we do not know. No man knoweth

what another hour may bring forth.

Franklin, Ohio, February 23, 1902.