Ohio History Journal






The Miami Valley properly embraces all the country north

of the Ohio that is drained by the Great and Little Miami rivers

and their tributaries. In this paper it is used to designate the

southwestern quarter of the State of Ohio, or that territory lying

west of a line drawn due south from Columbus to the Ohio river

and south of another line drawn due west from Columbus to the

State of Indiana. This district was greatly excited and stirred

up by the "Great Kentucky Revival," and its camp-meetings

lasted for a period of over fifty years.

Owing to the rapidity of the increase in population and the

advent of foreigners with their variant sectaries, it is difficult to

measure the depth of the influence of the enthusiasm resultant

from the religious upheaval of 1801. However diverse may have

been the elements to be operated upon, there was sufficient time

and opportunity to carry out the work of the reformers.

The year 1800 showed Ohio with a population of about 45,-

000 and Cincinnati with about 500. In 1810 the city had in-

creased to 2,540 and the entire state to 230,760. The population

was principally made up of emigrants from the older states.

Kentucky, with a population of 73,677 in 1790, had increased to

220,959 in 1800 and 406,511 in 1810. These figures show both

states to have been sparsely settled, when considered with the

present population. The settlements were almost wholly com-

munities of farmers. Books and newspapers were but sparingly

supplied to them, and religion was their chief intellectual food.

Without the advantages enjoyed by their descendants, scattered,

though naturally gregarious, a religious revival would hold out

its allurements to all alike.



The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.              243




The early settlers of both Ohio and Kentucky, for the most

part, were Christians by profession. Different denominations of

religionists were early in the field, employing their zeal in mak-

ing proselytes and propagating their respective tenets. The

great majority ranked among the Presbyterians, Baptists and

Methodists. The first church organized in Ohio was the Bap-

tist church at Columbia, near Cincinnati, in 1790, and the build-

ing erected in 1793, which stood until 1835. In 1797, besides the

Presbyterian church at Cincinnati, there were preaching points

at Clear Creek (a short distance south of Franklin), Turtle Creek

(now Union Village, west of Lebanon), Bethany (two miles

east of Lebanon) and Big Prairie (at the mouth of Dick's Creek

in Butler county, afterwards called Orangedale). Of these

244 Ohio Arch

244       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


country congregations the largest and most influential was Turtle


The various sects, acknowledging one another as of the

same parent stock, "stood entirely separate as to any communion

or fellowship, and treated each other with the highest marks of

hostility; wounding, captivating and bickering another, until their

attention was called aff by the appearance of" deism. As early

as 1796 a religious apathy appears to have pervaded the pulpit.

One writes, "the dead state of religion is truly discouraging here,

as well as elsewhere;" another says ,"I have this winter past

preached with difficulty, my heart but little enjoyed," and still

another, "I see but little prospect of encouragement."* How-

ever dark the picture may be painted, the despondent were soon

awakened to what they deemed a season of refreshment.




During the year 1800, on the Gasper, in Logan County Ky.,

on land now owned and occupied by the Shakers, of West Union,

there began a religious revival, which was the precursor of the

most wonderful upheaval ever experienced in Christian work.

The excitement commenced under the labors of John Rankin.

Where this awakening commenced a church still stands, and the

Shakers allow it to be occupied by the reformers, who look upon

it as their Mecca. Almost immediately James McGready, also

a Presbyterian clergyman, was seized with this same spirit as

possessed by Rankin. He has been described as a homely man,

with sandy hair and rugged features, and was so terrific in hold-

ing forth the terrors of hell that he was called a son of thunder.

He pictured out "the furnace of hell with its red-hot coals of

God's wrath as large as mountains;" he would open to the sin-

ner's view "the burning lake of hell, to see its fiery billows rolling,

and to hear the yells and groans of the damned ghosts roaring

under the burning wrath of an angry God." Under his preach-

ing the people would fall down with a loud cry and lie powerless,

or else groaning, praying, or crying to God for mercy. The

news of the excitement spread not only over Kentucky, but also


*McNemar's "Kentucky Revival," p. 13.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.            245


into Ohio and Tennessee, and people rushed to the Gasper to

witness the scenes and returned to their homes carrying a meas-

ure of the enthusiasm with them. Among those drawn to the

spot was Barton W Stone, afterwards the head of a new sect.

Early in the spring of 1801 he repaired to the scene of excitement,

which was now carried on by several Presbyterian ministers,

headed by James McGready. "There, on the edge of a prairie

in Logan County, Kentucky, the multitudes came together, and

continued a number of days and nights encamped on the ground;

during which time worship was carried on in some part of the

encampment. The scene to me was new and passing strange.

It baffled description. Many, very many, fell down, as men slain

in battle, and continued for hours together in an apparently

breathless and motionless state-sometimes for a few moments

reviving, and exhibiting symptoms of life by a deep groan, or

piercing shriek, or by a prayer for mercy most fervently uttered."*

At this time Stone was preaching at Cane Ridge and Concord, in

Bourbon county, under the Presbytery of Transylvania. He re-

turned home, believing that he had "witnessed the work of God."

Multitudes awaited his return at Cane Ridge; and he effected the

congregation "with awful solemnity, and many returned home

weeping." That night he preached at Concord where "two little

girls were struck down under the preaching of the word, and in

every respect were exercised as those were in the south of Ken-

tucky. Their addresses made deep impressions on the congrega-

tion. On the next day I returned to Cane Ridge, and attended my

appointment at William Maxwell's. I soon heard of the good

effects of the meeting on the Sunday before. Many were sol-

emnly engaged in seeking salvation, and some had found the

Lord, and were rejoicing in Him. Among these last was my

particular friend Nathaniel Rogers, a man of first respectability

and influence in the neighborhood. Just as I arrived at the gate,

my friend Rogers and his lady came up; as soon as he saw me,

he shouted aloud the praises of God. We hurried into each

other's embrace, he still praising the Lord aloud. The crowd left

the house, and hurried to this novel scene. In less than twenty



*"Biography of Stone," p. 34.

246 Ohio Arch

246       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


minutes, scores had fallen to the ground-paleness, trembling,

and anxiety appeared in all-some attempted to fly from the

scene panic stricken, but they either fell, or returned immediately

to the crowd, as unable to get away."*

The revival became a veritable contagion. Its operations

flew abroad and stirred up the curious, the sincere and the indif-

ferent. Multitudes poured into the various meetings and the

strange exercises increasing, no respect for stated hours was ob-

served, and then it was deemed expedient to encamp on the

ground, and continue the meeting day and night. To the vari-

ous encampments they flocked in hundreds and thousands; on

foot, on horseback, and in various vehicles.

By January 30, 1801, the excitement had reached Nashville,

Barren, Muddy, Knoxville and other places. Owing to the mul-

titudes attending the meetings, the encampments took the name

of "Camp Meetings." The camp-meeting once so popular had

its origin in Kentucky, in 1801. It grew out of a necessity, but

was prolonged until its usefulness had not only departed, but

became a stench, a byword, a demoralizing power and a blighting


As camp meetings became the order of the day, the first of

note began at Cabin Creek, Lewis County, Kentucky, May 22,

1801, and continued four days and three nights. Attending this

meeting were persons from Cane Ridge and Concord, and also

Eagle Creek, in Ohio. The next general camp-meeting, was at

Concord, in Bourbon county in May and June, same year. There

were about 4,000 people present, among whom were seven Pres-

byterian clergymen. Of these, four spoke against the work until

noon of the fourth day, when they professed to be convinced that

"it was the work of God." This meeting continued five days and

four nights. The next was held at Eagle Creek, Adams County,

Ohio, beginning June 5th, and continuing four days and three

nights. The country being new, the outpouring was not so great.

Following this was the one at Pleasant Point, Kentucky, which

equalled, or even surpassed any of the previous mentioned. This

meeting spread the work extensively through Bourbon, Fayette


*Ibid, p. 36.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.              247


and adjoining counties. The meeting at Indian Creek, Harrison

county, began July 24th, and continued nearly a week. Next

came the great meeting at Cane Ridge, seven miles from Paris, be-

ginning August 6th. The number of people on the ground at

one time was supposed to have numbered 20,000. The encamp-

ment consisted of one hundred and thirty-five wheel-carriages,

and tents proportioned to the people. Rev. James Crawford,

who kept as accurate account as he could on that occasion, com-

puted there were 3,000 that fell on that occasion, or an average

of 500 a day.

The people among whom the revival began were generally

Calvinists, and all the principal leaders were clergymen of the

Presbyterian church; yet other sects were rapidly swept into

the maelstrom. Generally the first affected were children, and

from them the contagion spread. "A boy, from appearance about

twelve years old, retired from the stand in time of preaching,

under a very extraordinary impression; and having mounted

a log, at some distance, and raising his voice, in a very affect-

ing manner, he attracted the main body of the people in a few

minutes. With tears streaming from his eyes, he cried aloud

to the wicked, warning them of their danger, denouncing their

certain doom, if they persisted in their sins; expressing his

love to their souls, and desire that they would turn to the Lord

and be saved. He was held up by two men, and spoke for

about an hour with that convincing eloquence that could be

inspired only from above. When his strength seemed quite ex-

hausted and language failed to describe the feelings of his soul,

he raised his hand, and dropping his handkerchief, wet with

sweat from his little face, cried out, 'Thus, O sinner! shall you

drop into hell, unless you forsake your sins and turn to the

Lord.' At that moment some fell, like those who are shot in

battle, and the work spread in a manner which human language

cannot describe." *

One of the affecting speakers was Vincy McNemar, daughter

of Richard, nine years of age. Her father held her on his arm

while she addressed the multitude.+

* McNemar's "Kentucky Revival," p. 25.

+ Vincy afterwards became a prominent Shaker. I have a kerchief

owned by her, presented to me by Eldress Clymena Miner.

248 Ohio Arch

248       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.




The strange manifestations appertained to all the camp meet-

ings. What would be a description of one would be the same

recital in all, perhaps, varying only in excess. These excesses

have thus been described by Barton W. Stone: "The bodily

agitations or exercises, attending the excitement in the begin-

ning of this century, were various, and called by various names:

-as the falling exercise-the jerks-the dancing exercise-the

barking exercise-the laughing and singing exercise, etc.-The

falling exercise was very common among all classes, the saints

and sinners of every age and of every grade, from the philoso-

pher to the clown. The subject of this exercise would, gen-

erally, with a piercing scream, fall like a log on the floor, earth,

or mud, and appear as dead. *  *  *  I have seen very many

pious persons fall in the same way, from a sense of the danger

of their unconverted children, brothers, or sisters-from a sense

of the danger of their neighbors, and of the sinful world. I

have heard them agonizing in tears and strong crying for mercy

to be shown to sinners, and speaking like angels to all around.

The jerks cannot be so easily described. Sometimes the

subject of the jerks would be affected in some one member of

the body, and sometimes in the whole system. When the head

alone was affected, it would be jerked backward and forward,

or from side to side, so quickly that the features of the face

could not be distinguished. When the whole system was af-

fected, I have seen the person stand in one place, and jerk back-

ward and forward in quick succession, their heads nearly touch-

ing the floor behind and before. All classes, saints and sinners,

the strong as well as the weak, were thus affected. I have in-

quired of those thus affected. They could not account for it;

but some have told me that those were among the happiest

seasons of their lives. I have seen some wicked persons thus

affected, and all the time cursing the jerks, while they were

thrown to the earth with violence. Though so awful to be-

hold, I do not remember that any one of the thousands I have

seen ever sustained an injury in body. This was as strange as

the exercise itself.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             249


The dancing exercise. This generally began with the jerks,

and was peculiar to professors of religion. The subject, after

jerking awhile, began to dance, and then the jerks would cease.

Such dancing was indeed heavenly to the spectators; there was

nothing in it like levity, nor calculated to excite levity in the

beholders. The saints of heaven shone on the countenance of

the subject, and assimilated to angels appeared the whole per-

son. Sometimes the motion was quick and sometimes slow.

Thus they continued to move forward and backward in the same

track or alley till nature seemed exhausted, and they would

fall prostrate on the floor or earth, unless caught by those stand-

ing by. While thus exercised, I have heard their solemn praises

and prayers ascending to God.

The barking exercise (as opponents contemptuously called

it), was nothing but the jerks. A person affected with the

jerks, especially in his head, would often make a grunt, or bark,

if you please, from the suddenness of the jerk. This name of

barking seems to have had its origin from an old Presbyterian

preacher of East Tennessee. He had gone into the woods for

private devotion, and was seized with the jerks. Standing near

a sapling, he caught hold of it, to prevent his falling, and as

his head jerked back, he uttered a grunt or kind of noise sim-

ilar to a bark, his face being turned upwards. Some wag dis-

covered him in this position, and reported that he found him

barking up a tree.

The laughing exercise was frequent, confined solely with

the religious. It was a loud, hearty laughter, but one sui generis;

it excited laughter in none else. The subject appeared rap-

turously solemn, and his thoughts excited solemnity in saints

and sinners. It is truly indescribable.

The running exercise was nothing more than, that persons

feeling something of these bodily agitations, through fear, at-

tempted to run away, and thus escape from them; but it com-

monly happened that they ran not far, before they fell, or be-

came so greatly agitated that they could proceed no farther.

*  *  *

I shall close this chapter with the singing exercise. This

is more unaccountable than anything else I ever saw. The sub-

250 Ohio Arch

250       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


ject in a very happy state of mind would sing most melodiously,

not from the mouth or nose, but entirely in the breast, the

sounds issuing thence. Such music silenced everything, and at-

tracted the attention of all. It was most heavenly. None could

ever be tired of hearing it."*

Richard McNemar, who wrote the most complete history of

the Kentucky Revival, applies the above exercises to the Schis-

matics, or New Lights, or Christians, as they called themselves,

but also supplies another, which he called "The rolling exercise."

"This consisted in being cast down in a violent manner, doubled

with the head and feet together, and rolled over and over like a

wheel, or stretched in a prostrate manner, turned swiftly over

and over like a log. This was considered very debasing and

mortifying, especially if the person was taken in this manner

through the mud and sullied therewith from head to foot."

(Page 64.)


While the revival was distinctively a Presbyterian one, yet,

the Methodist Church was drawn almost bodily into it. While

individuals from other sects participated in the meetings and

came under the influence of the mesmeric current, yet the re-

spective denominations of these latter were not thereby materially

affected. Nor is it to be presumed that every individual who wit-

nessed this carnival of folly were deluded into the conviction

that "it was the work of the Lord." Stone admitted+ that "in

the wonderful things that appeared in the great excitement,'

"that there were many eccentricities, and much fanaticism," which

"was acknowledged by its warmest advocates." The people were

gathered into an atmosphere pregnant with animal excitement,

mesmeric force and religious zeal which would readily operate on

the sensitives, the impulsives, the excitables, the ignorant and

the weak. The character of the leaders, however, is a guaran-

tee of their honesty. Even in later campmeetings which had a

blighting influence on community, it must be admitted that the

intent was for the public weal.


*Biography of B. W. Stone, p. 39.

+ Biography, p. 42.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             251


It would be impossible, even to call by name all the active par-

ticipants in the great revival. However there are characters

that stand out conspicuously in every movement supported by

influence and numbers. To Richard McNemar has been as-

signed the post of first importance. He regarded the phe-

nomena as a miraculous work. He was tall and gaunt, com-

manding in appearance, with piercing, restless eyes, ever in mo-

tion, with a very expressive countenance. His manner of

preaching was fervent and exciting, full of animation and vocif-

eration, which gave him great power over his audiences. With

all this he was a classical scholar and read Latin, Greek and He-

brew with ease.

Probably next in importance was Barton W. Stone, who has

been described as a man of graet independence of mind, and of

firmness and decision of character. As an orator he was gifted

with the power of swaying his audience. John Dunlavy pos-

sessed a clear, penetrating mind, was scholarly in his habits, but

not very aggressive. He inclined to studious habits. David

Purviance possessed energy, clear perceptions, honesty of pur-

pose, and disinterested motives. Malcolm Worley, possessing

much ability, was excitable and somewhat eccentric, but never at

a loss to act when convinced of his duties. Robert Marshall was

conservative, lenient, and somewhat Vacillating.




Whatever zeal may have been felt or displayed in the re-

vival, there were elements of discord that had their origin ante-

rior to the awakening. Heresy had been implanted in the hearts

of certain of the Presbyterian ministers even before the year

1800. Just what influence had been exerted by the Methodist

doctrine of free grace, might be difficult to fathom at this late

date; but as is well known, the doctrinally tutored, though illit-

erate pioneer Methodist preachers did herculean service in

storming the citadel of ultra-Calvinism. In the year 1793 Bar-

ton W. Stone was a candiate for admission into Orange Presby-

tery in North Carolina. Previously he had been a teacher in a

5 Vol. XII-3.

252 Ohio Arch

252       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


Methodist school in Washington, Georgia. In 1797, we find he

was in the Presbyterian churches at Cane Ridge and Concord, in

Kentucky, but did not receive "the call" until 1798. "Knowing

that at my ordination I should be required to adopt the Confes-

sion of Faith, as the system of doctrines taught in the Bible, I de-

termined to give it a careful examination once more. This

was to me almost the beginning of sorrows. I stumbled at the

doctrine of Trinity as taught in the Confession; I labored to be-

lieve it, but could not conscientiously subscribe to it. Doubts, too,

arose in my mind on the doctrines of election, reprobation, and

predestination as there taught. I had before this time learned

from my superiors the way of divesting those doctrines of their

hard, repulsive features, and admitted them as true, yet unfath-

omable mysteries."*  When the day of ordination came, Stone

frankly informed Doctor James Blythe and Robert Marshall, the

state of his doubts. In vain they labored to remove his diffi-

culties and objections; but when Stone informed them that he

was willing to receive the Confession as far as it was "consist-

ent with the word of God," upon that admission the Presbytery

of Transylvania ordained him. By the year 1801 he had cor-

dially abandoned Calvinism, though still retaining his charge at

Cane Ridge and Concord.

The minutes of the Presbytery of Washington, at its session

at Springfield (Springdale, Ohio) on November 11, 1801, show

the decision respecting charges that had been made against

Richard McNemar, respecting certain doctrines advocated by


It should be specially noted that at the commencement of the

"revival, preachers in general, who were truly engaged in it,

omitted the doctrines of election and reprobation, as explained in

the Confession of Faith, and proclaimed a free salvation to all

men, through the blood of the Lamb. They held forth the

promises of the gospel in their purity and simplicity, without the

contradictory explanations, and double meaning, which scholastic

divines have put upon them, to make them agree with the doc-

trines of the Confession. This omission caused their preaching


*Ibid p. 29.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             253


to appear somewhat different from what had been common among

Presbyterians; and although no direct attack was made on these

doctrines, as formerly explained; yet a murmuring arose because

they were neglected in the daily ministration. This murmuring

was heard in different parts of the country; but, notwithstand-

ing, preachers and people treated with each other with toleration

and forbearance, until a direct opposition to the new mode of

preaching took place in the congregation of Cabin Creek."*

These complaints, as previously noted, were formulated against

Richard McNemar.

As the campmeetings were places where clergymen resorted

as well as the multitude, it is but natural to assume that kindred

spirits were attracted together, and thus were enabled to exchange

opinions and advise with one another. The tendency of such

communications, when free and unrestricted, would, sooner or

later, constitute dissimilar aggregations. Hence it is not singu-

lar that other sects should be formed. Out of the Kentucky re-

vival there originated three sects, or religious denominations

entirely new to the western country. The first to notice is the




The Cumberland Presbyterian Church takes its name from

the Cumberland Presbytery, which was a part of the Synod of

Kentucky. This presbytery was not constituted until 1802,

which then was struck off from Transylvania. Cumberland

Presbytery was greatly divided on the subject of the great re-

vival then in the full force of its existence. The great tide of

immigration into the Cumberland Presbytery and the interest

awakened by the revival, showed a dearth of preachers and re-

ligious teachers. Under the advice of Rev. David Rice, then

the oldest Presbyterian minister in Kentucky, a number of men

were licensed to preach who did not possess a classical educa-

tion. Against this procedure a protest was entered by those not

in sympathy with the revival. In the new Presbytery the ma-

jority favored the revival work and the licensing of probationers

without a classical education.


* Ibid, p. 148.

254 Ohio Arch

254       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


During the controversy about the revival, the Cumberland

Presbytery licensed and ordained a number who took exceptions

to the idea of "Fatality" as expressed in the doctrines of Decrees

and Election in chapter 3 of the Confession. The Synod of 1804

cited all the members of Cumberland Presbytery to appear at its

next meeting. The citation was disobeyed on the grounds of

want of authority. Owing to the action of the Synod, in other

matters, a new Presbytery was proclaimed and met March 20,

1810. This Presbytery accepted the Confession of Faith, ex-

cepting the idea of fatality; but in 1813 when the first Synod

was formed, a brief doctrinal statement was adopted, which gave

the points of difference from the Westminster Confession. The

points expressed against the idea of "Fatality" are "(1) There

are no eternal reprobates. (2) Christ died not for a part only,

but for all mankind. (3) That all infants dying in infancy are

saved through Christ and the sanctification of the Spirit. (4)

The Spirit of God operates on the world; or, as coextensively as

Christ has made the Atonement in such a manner as to leave all

men inexcusable."

This young denomination did not stretch its arm into the

Miami country until long after the ground was preoccupied.

The first church was established at Lebanon, in Warren county,

in 1835. At the present time there are twelve churches, seven

of which sustain preaching all the time. Their buildings repre-

sent a value of $40,000. What influence this church has exerted

in the Miami could not be told, or wherein it has prepared the

way for other thought. Sometimes church literature is more

potent than the congregation. Of the literature of this demoni-

nation I am absolutely ignorant, not even knowing the title of a

single volume. Hence I must rest this part of the discussion

with the facts above enumerated derived from sources without

the Church, excepting the statistics.




The sect, or new denomination, growing out of the Kentucky

revival, which has exerted most power over the Miami, is gener-

ally called "New Lights," and sometimes "Schismatics." The

sect repudiates both these names, and styles itself "The Christian

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             255


Church." According to Levi Purviance it assumed the name

Christian in 1804.* The origin of this sect in the West may be

said to date its birth at the time charges were preferred against

Richard McNemar, although the actual separation did not take

place until the month of May, 1803. For some unaccountable

reason Richard McNemar passes over his trial, but says that a

particular account of the separation "is published in a pamphlet,

entitled, An apology for renouncing the jurisdiction of the Synod

of Kentucky, printed in Lexington (K.), 1804." This apology

is published in full in the "Biography of B. W. Stone," covering

one hundred pages. The historical part, with which we are

concerned, embraces forty-four pages, written by Robert Mar-

shall. The second part pertains to dogma, written by Stone,

and part three by John Thompson discusses the Westminster

Confession of Faith.

The trial of McNemar brought permanently out the fact

that similar views were entertained by John Thompson, John

Dunlavy, Robert Marshall and B. W. Stone. To these must

be added David Purviance, then a licentiate. Soon after Matthew

Houston was added to the list. At the time of the final separa-

tion, McNemar, Dunlavy and Thompson were in Ohio and

Stone, Marshall, Houston and Purviance in Kentucky. As the

Apology is entirely too long to quote in this connection, an

epitome of the first part must suffice:

On November 3, 1801, three elders of Cabin-creek Presby-

terian church, made formal charges to the Washington Presby-

tery, against their pastor, Richard McNemar, which charges are

thus stated:

"1. He reprobated the idea of sinners attempting to pray,

or being exhorted thereto, before they were believers in Christ.

2. He has condemned those who urge that convictions are

necessary, or that prayer is proper in the sinner.

3. He has expressly declared, at several times, that Christ

has purchased salvation for all the human race, without dis-


4. He has expressly declared that a sinner has power to

believe in Christ at any time.

*Biography of David Purviance, p. 49.

256 Ohio Arch

256       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.

5. That a sinner has as much power to act faith, as to

act unbelief; and reprobated every idea in contradiction thereto,

held by persons of a contrary opinion.

6. He has expressly said, that faith consisted in the creature's

persuading himself assuredly, that Christ died for him in par-

ticular; that doubting and examining into evidences of faith,

were inconsistent with, and contrary to the nature of faith; and

in order to establish these sentiments, he explained away these

words -Faith is the gift of God, by saying it was Christ Jesus,

the object of faith there meant, and not faith itself; and also,

these words, "No man can come to me, except the Father who

hath sent me draw him," by saying that the drawing there

meant, was Christ offered in the Gospel; and that the Father

knew no other drawing or higher power, than holding up his

Son in the Gospel."

At the meeting of the Presbytery McNemar made the follow-

ing explanation of his ideas:

Upon the first charge, he observed, that faith was the first

thing God required of the sinner; and that he had no idea of

him praying but in faith.

On the second, that the question in debate was, whether

any other considerations are necessary to authorize the soul to

believe than those which arise from the testimony of God, in

his word.

On the third, that Christ is by office the Savior of all men.

On the fourth, that the sinner is capable of receiving the

testimony of God at any time he heard it.

Upon the fifth, that the sinner is as capable of believing as

disbelieving, according to the evidence presented to the view of

his mind.

The first part of the sixth charge was groundless.

On the second, which respects doubting and self-examina-

tion, his ideas were, that doubting the veracity of God, and look-

ing into ourselves for evidence, as the foundation of our faith, is

contrary to Scripture.

On the third part, viz., explaining away those Scriptures,

he replied, if that was explaining them away, he had done it.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             257


As no person present purposed to substantiate the charges,

the same was dismissed as irregular. This action of the Presby-

tery quenched the flame of opposition, and all parties became


In 1802 McNemar took charge of the Turtlecreek church

(near Lebanon, Ohio), where his labors met with abundant suc-

cess. At the meeting of Presbytery in Cincinnati, October 6,

1802, an elder of Rev. James Kemper's congregation (Cincin-

nati), entered a verbal complaint against McNemar, as a propa-

gator of false doctrine. The accused insisted the question was

out of order, for charges must be made in writing. Nevertheless

Presbytery proceeded to examine him "on the fundamental doc-

trines of the sacred Scriptures," which were election, human de-

pravity, the atonement, etc. The finding was that McNemar

held these doctrines in a sense different from that in which Cal-

vinists generally believe them, and that his sentiments were "hos-

tile to the interests of all true religion." Notwithstanding this

condemnation he was appointed one-half his time at Turtle-creek,

until the next stated session: two Sabbaths at Orangeville; two

at Clear-creek; two at Beulah; one at the forks of Mad river;

and the rest at discretion.

At the next session at Springfield* in April, 1803, a petition

from a number of persons, in the congregations of Beulah, Turtle-

creek, Clear-creek, Bethany, Hopewell, Dicks-creek, and Cincin-

nati, was presented praying for a re-examination of McNemar,


* Springdale, some eleven miles north of Cincinnati.

258 Ohio Arch

258       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


and that Rev. John Thompson undergo a like examination. The

Presbytery refused to acquiesce. A petition, signed by sixty

persons of the Turtle-creek congregation, asked for the whole

of McNemar's time, which was granted. Kemper, Wallace,

Reader, and Wheeler protested against the action of the Presby-

tery. The sentiment of the majority of Presbytery had changed

and was now in sympathy with the accused.

In the interval between the meeting of Presbytery and that

of Synod, no pains were taken by the disaffected members to

bring about an accommodation. Through the committee of over-

tures the matter was brought before the Synod, held at Lexing-

ton, September, 1803. The Synod sustained the action of the

Presbytery at Cincinnati, except that part which assigned ap-

pointments to McNemar, and condemned the action at Spring-

field. The Synod further voted to enter upon an examination of

both McNemar and Thompson. While the Synod was deliber-

ating upon the last proposition (September 10), Messrs. Mar-

shall, Dunlavy, McNemar, Stone and Thompson, entered the

meeting and formally protested against its action. The protest

was read, and its advocates retired. Synod then appointed a

committee consisting of David Rice, Matthew Houston, James

Welsh and Joseph Howe to confer with the aggrieved, which

latter offered to answer any questions proposed by Synod, pro-

vided all questions and answers should be in writing; that they

should be constituted into one Presbytery, and that all charges

of doctrine against them should be according to the book of dis-

cipline. On a motion to accede to these proposals the following

voted in the affirmative: M. Houston, J. Welsh, J. Howe, and

W. Robinson, ministers; J. Henderson, J. Wardlow and C. Mc-

Pheeters, elders; those opposed, A. Cameron, P. Tull, J. Blythe,

J. Lyle, R. Stewart, S. Rannels, J. Kemper, J. Campbell, S.

Finley, ministers; J. Moore, John Henderson and T. Benning-

ton, elders.

Immediately, after the action of the Synod, Robert Marshall,

John Dunlavy, Richard McNemar, Barton W. Stone and John

Thompson, withdrew from the jurisdiction of the Synod of

Kentucky, and formally constituted the Presbytery of Spring-

field, and formulated a circular letter addressed to the congrega-

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             259


tions under their care. Late in the evening a resolution was

received from the Synod which had appointed a committee to

inquire into such objections as they might have to the Confession

of Faith. Before the answer was received Synod suspended the

protesting members, and declared their parishes without min-

isters. The Springfield Presbytery was dissolved at Cane Ridge,

Bourbon county, Ky., June 28, 1804, by Marshall, Dunlavy, Mc-

Nemar, Stone, Thompson and David Purviance.

McNemar has been described to have been a mild and un-

assuming man up to the time of charges of heresy being made

against him. His trials appear to have awakened all the resources

of his strong nature. With enthusiasm he began his work at

Turtle Creek, and in summer his congregations were so large

that the meetings were held in the grove near his church. The

strange physical phenomena of the revival attended his ministra-

tions in Warren county, Ohio. At Turtle Creek almost all the

adult persons in a large congregation would fall in a short time

and lie unconscious, with hardly a sign of breathing or beating of

the pulse.

The dissolution of the Springfield Presbytery launched a new

denomination in the West. The preachers carried their churches

with them. Every Presbyterian church in southwestern Ohio

was swept into this new organization except those at Duck Creek

and Round Bottom; and even the church at Cincinnati was fairly

tainted with the new doctrines and methods. The Turtle Creek

church, with uplifted hands, was constituted a schismatic church.

The influence of Richard McNemar was irresistible. Before the

close of the year 1804, Turtle Creek, Eagle Creek, Springfield

(Springdale), Orangedale, Clear Creek, Beaver Creek and Salem

had joined the new movement. A demand for more preachers

went up. Malcolm Worley became active, and Andrew Ireland,

John Purviance, David Kirkpatrick and William Caldwell, were

sent out two and two as traveling evangelists. Afterwards Nathan

Worley became a tower of strength. Camp meetings were still

popular and were used to extend the general influence. The cus-

tom of giving the right hand of fellowship was introduced, and

the name of "brother" and "sister" applied to church members.

The spirit of the Kentucky revival, especially in camp meetings

260 Ohio Arch

260       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


was kept aflame. "Praying, shouting, jerking, barking, or rolling;

dreaming, prophesying, and looking as through a glass, at the

infinite glories of Mount Zion, just about to break open upon the

world." "They practiced a mode of prayer, which was as singular,

as the situation in which they stood, and the faith by which they

were actuated. According to their proper name of distinction,

they stood separate and divided, each one for one; and in this

capacity, they offered up each their separate cries to God, in one

united harmony of sound; by which the doubtful footsteps of

those who were in search of the meeting, might be directed, some-

times to the distance of miles." *

The year 1805 opened most favorably to the new sect.

Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee were in their grasp. It appeared

to be an irresistible force opposed to the older and better organized

sects. The name of the sect (Christian) was most charming to

the ear. It carried the believer back to Apostolic times. Then

there was the pleasing pronouncement that the Bible alone was its

creed. Man-made statements and creeds must be trampled under

foot. Little did they realize that a creed was a creed just the same

whether written or spoken. There was a consensus of opinion,

and to this unwritten and unsigned creed they were just as de-

voted as was the Presbyterian to his Confession of Faith. I

have heard, myself, just as strong doctrinal points discussed from

the Christian (New Light) pulpit as I ever listened to from those

reputed to be most conservative in theology. Moreover, an old

friend of mine, as firm a believer in Christianity as it was possible

to believe, was expelled for heresy, from one of the very churches

that was wrenched from Calvinism and brought under the new


But the year 1805 awoke the revivalists, or schismatics, or

New Lights, or Christians, to a sense of their danger. The rude

awakening was sudden, powerful and disastrous. It has been

sung that

"Five preachers formed a body, in eighteen hundred three,

From Anti-christ's false systems to set the people free;

His doctrine and his worship in pieces they did tear-

But ere the scene was ended these men became a snare;"


*Kentucky Revival, p. 73.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             261

but it was doomed that only one of this number should continue

with the new order of things. In 1805, both Richard McNemar

and John Dunlavy joined the Shakers, and within a few years

Robert Marshall and John Thompson returned to the Presby-

terian fold. Barton W. Stone-of all the prophets - was left

to encourage the saints. The defection placed him at the head of

the organization, and he was soon after known as "Father Stone."

Nor was the disaster to rest here, for calamity after calamity was

in the track of the Shaker propaganda, for church after church,

and too the very strongest, were swallowed up by the disciples of

Mother Ann Lee. This alarmed several of the preachers and con-

verts "who fled from us and joined the different sects around us.

The sects triumphed at our distress, and watched for our fall.'

"Never did I exert myself more than at this time to save the

people from this vortex of ruin. I yielded to no discouragement,

but labored night and day, far and near, among the churches

where the Shakers went. By this means their influence was hap-

pily checked in many places. I labored so hard and constantly

that a profuse spitting of blood ensued. Our broken ranks were

once more rallied under the standard of heaven, and were soon

led on once more to victory." *

The Shaker trial was "a fiery one" to Stone and his remain-

ing coadjutors. Five years later (1810), the defection of Mar-

shall and Thompson added to the sorrows. They issued a pam-

phlet entitled, "A brief historical account of sundry things in the

doctrines and state of the Christian, or as it is commonly called,

the New Light Church. - By R. Marshall and J. Thompson,

Ministers of the Gospel and members of said church, containing

their testimony against several doctrines, held in that church, and

its disorganized state. Together with some reasons, why these

two brethren purpose to seek for a more pure and orderly connec-

tion." This pamphlet induced several young men who had en-

gaged in the ministry also to follow into the Presbyterian ranks.

The pamphlet brought out a reply from David Purviance.

During all the troubles that rapidly accumulated upon the

infant sect David Purviance and Barton W. Stone stood together

and defended their citadel from the repeated assaults and rebuilt

* Memoirs of Stone, p. 62.

262 Ohio Arch

262       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


the ramparts as rapidly as they were thrown down. Neither

was a leader of great ability. Their success was due more from

the momentum created by the revival than any special manage-

ment on their part. It is, however, probably true the bark would

have sunk beneath the waves had they not piloted it through

the storm. The success of this church, during its entire history,

is unique; for never has it presented a leader of marked ability.

Even its literature is mediocre. The formal existence has cov-

ered a period of a hundred years, and yet the literature of the

entire organization, East, West, North and South, according to

the "Christian Annual for 1903," embraces but two books and two

pamphlets in the historical group; in the biographical, twenty;

theological and doctrinal, thirty, and miscellaneous, thirty-three.

The present condition of the Christian church, as given by the

same Annual is thus related:

Miami conference -embracing parts of Hamilton, Preble,

Darke, Shelby, Miami, Montgomery, Warren, Green, Clark and

Champaign counties.   Ordained preachers 56; licentiates 5;

churches 55, of which 25 are country. Only 11 have preaching

full time. Membership 7,062. Value church property $164,650.

Ohio Central Conference - comprising churches in Cham-

paign, Clark, Clinton, Delaware, Fayette, Franklin, Hardin, Mad-

ison, Ross, Union, Marion, Morrow and Pickaway counties. Or-

dained ministers 21; licentiates 1; 33 churches of which 21 are

country; preaching full time, 3; valuation church property, $51,-

750; membership, 2,160. Ohio Conference- covering Jackson,

Vinton, Pike, Scioto, Ross, Fayette and Gallia counties. Or-

dained ministers 32; licentiates 1; churches 32; membership

1,900. To this array must be added Antioch college, which under

Horace Mann attained unto great renown, but since his death

has undergone a checkered career.

So far as the personnel of the ministry is concerned-speak-

ing wholly from personal observation-it has been composed of

earnest, devoted and self-sacrificing men. Of the intellectual

caliber it has been equal to the average, with here and there one

far above the general.  In point of scholarship, especially in

oriental lore, America has not produced a greater than Austin


The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             263


Notwithstanding the fact that the Christian church started

with established churches and possessed with unbounded enthusi-

asm, yet the leaders were not equal to the occasion. The early

preachers inveighed against a hireling ministry, which forced into

the ranks many whose minds were diverted to the question of

sufficient support; there was a want of organization, and a wise

administration of government. The power of other churches

forced them into intellectual lines, which, they have not been slow,

in these later years, to take advantage. Within the last dozen

years there has been quite a hegira into the ranks of the ministry

of other denominations, especially the Congregational.  Some

six years ago a conference between the Congregationalists and

Christians was held at Piqua, but with no perceptible results.

The Miami country owes much to the Christian church, and

the showing of that church, contrasted with other sects, will com-

pare favorably. A Presbyterian may not regard the coloring as

of the brightest hues; for, in all probability, had it not been for

the "Kentucky Revival," Presbyterianism in Kentucky and

Southwestern Ohio, would be relatively as strong as it is to-day

in Western Pennsylvania.




The Kentucky revival paved the way for the establishing of

Shakerism in the West. The official title of this sect is "The

United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing." The

name Shaker is universally applied to them and generally used

by the members. So it is no longer regarded as a term of re-

proach, for it is used in their literature to designate them.

From the year 1801 to 1805, the newspapers of the Eastern

States gave wonderful accounts of the extraordinary revival in

Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio. This was a theme of frequent

discussion among the then established Shaker communities. The

Shaker authorities gave the western movement their most care-

ful reflection. During the month of December, 1804, it was de-

cided to send, without further delay, a propaganda into Ken-

tucky, with ample powers to take such action as would be bene-

ficial to their advancement. The men selected were John

Meacham, Benjamin Seth Youngs and Issachar Bates. They

264 Ohio Arch

264       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


were eminently qualified for their mission. They were pre-

possessing in their appearance, neat and plain in their dress, grave

and unassuming in their manners, very intelligent and ready in

the Scriptures, and of great boldness in their faith. The power

of Bates as a missionary, may be gained from the statement* that

from 1801 to 1811, as a Shaker missionary he traveled, mostly

on foot, 38,000 miles and received the first confession of about

1,100 converts. Benjamin S. Youngs was scholarly and inde-

fatigable in his labors. Of John Meacham, I know but little.

From a poem I learn that he set out for New Lebanon, August

19, 1806. He afterwards became first in the ministry at Pleasant

Hill, Ky., but recalled to the East in 1818. He was born in

1770 and died at Mount Lebanon, N. Y., December 26, 1854.

At three o'clock on the morning of January 1st, 1805, the

three missionaries set out on their mission. The first 62 miles

they were carried in a sleigh. From that on they were afoot,

with one horse to carry their baggage. They went by the way

of Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington. Arriving in Ken-

tucky they passed through Lexington, Abingdon and Hawley;

there turning their course they crossed the Holston into Green

County, Tennessee; recrossed the Holston, they passed over

Clinch mountain; went through Crab Orchard, and about the

first of March arrived at Paint Lick, where Matthew Houston

was then stationed. From there they went to Cane Ridge, and

were hospitably entertained by Barton W. Stone. Whether

Stone directed their course into Ohio or not, there appears to be

no existing evidence. On the 19th of March the propaganda

crossed the Ohio; thence to Springdale, where John Thompson

was preaching, and on March 22d, arrived at Turtle Creek, and

directed their steps to the house of Malcolm Worley, having trav-

eled 1,233 miles.

On the first advent of the Shaker missionaries, Barton

Stone's conduct was all that could be desired. "We had much

conversation with him and a number more; they sucked in our

light as greedily as ever an ox drank water, and all wondered

where they had been that they had not seen these things before.


* MS. Autobiography of Issachar Bates, in author's possession.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.            265

Barton said that he had been expecting that it would come about

so in the end they were all filled with joy; this is what we have

been praying for and now it is come."* Stone requested that

they should attend the next camp-meeting soon to begin at Cane


Malcolm Worley received the trio as divine messengers, and

on March 27, became formally a Shaker. Malcolm declared

"that his heavenly Father had promised to send help from Zion

and I am glad, said he, that you are come."*

Richard McNemar had fully imbibed the idea that the Bible

alone should he the resort for religious instructions. On the

next day (March 23) the Shaker propaganda visited him. He

"observed that he had never undertaken to build a church and

if we had come for that purpose he would not stand in the way,

his people were all free for us to labor with and he would go to

the Gentiles. We stayed that night with Richard and the next

day which was Sabbath, we went to meeting with him. He

preached much to our satisfaction. After he got through I

asked liberty to speak a few words which was granted. I spoke

but short after which Benjamin came forward and spoke and

read the letter+ which was sent from the church."

On March 27, Bates started on foot to attend the camp-

meeting at Cane Ridge, according to request. It was at this meet-

ing where the first hostility was shown against the Shakers, by

the new sect of Christians. It is thus told by Bates in his MS.


"I arrived at Barton Stone's on Saturday night and found

many of the preachers there and a number of others. I was re-

ceived with outward kindness and a number of the people felt

very friendly but the preachers were struck with great fear and

concluded that if I was permitted to preach that it would throw

the people into confusion, and to prevent it they would counteract

their former liberality and shut out all other sects from preaching

at that meeting and that would shut me out. All this they did

by themselves without the knowledge of the people, and the peo-

ple, expecting that I would preach Sabbath morning, after much


*Ibid. +See Quarterly, Jan., 1902, p. 253.

266 Ohio Arch

266       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


conversation with the people, we took breakfast and went onto

the camping ground. Marshall and Stone preached first and

preached the people back into Egypt. Stone told them to let no

man deceive them about the coming of Christ, for they would

all know when He came, for every eye would see him in the

clouds and they would see the graves opening and the bones

rising and the saints would rise and meet the Lord in the air

whose names are written in the Lamb's book of life (which is

this little book that I hold in my hand) the Bible, and Marshall

went on much in the same track. He warned the people not to

follow man. Keep your Bibles in your homes and in your pocket

for in them you have eternal life. Don't believe what man says;

don't believe me for I have told lies. Thus they went on till

they were covered with death and even the woods around us ap-

peared to be in mourning. A great number paid but little at-

tention to it, but were encircling me round, asking me questions

and testifying at every answer that is eternal truth, that is the

everlasting gospel and many other expressions of joy for the

truth. At length Matthew Houston took his turn of preaching,

and he took this text: Let us go up and possess the land for we

are fully able. And he had them across the Red sea in short

order you may be sure; the woods began to clap their hands,

the people skipping and jerking and giving thanks, and a great

part of them interceded with the preachers to have me preach,

but were put off for that day. After the exercises of the day was

over I returned to Stone's again and stayed all night and had

much conversation with a number of people. The next day I

went on the ground again. There were some preaching and a

little of everything that amounted to nothing. The people in-

sisted on my preaching. At last eight men went to the stand

and said I should preach, so to pacify them they told they would

dismiss the meeting at 12 o'clock, and then I might preach, and

they did so. Then I mounted a large log in front of the stand

and began to speak, and altho the preachers and many others

went to their horses to get out of the way of hearing, yet when I

began to speak they all returned and all paid good attention. I

spoke about one hour. The subject I was upon was to show the

difference between the spirit and the letter, and when I got

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.                   267


through and dismissed them they began the controversy; one

cried spirit, spirit, all spirit, and another cried I bless God for the

spirit, for it is all that will do us any good, and so the multitude

were completely divided, so I left."




Owing to the spirit displayed towards those schismatics that

afterwards became Shakers, the following may be given to show

the estimation in which they were held previous to their final

change in belief.

Under date of Cane Ride, April 2, 1805, Stone wrote to

Richard McNemar as follows:

"MY DEAR BROTHER RICHARD: - I never longed to see any person so

much. If I was not confined in this clay tabernacle, I should be in your

embraces in less than an hour. The floods of earth and hell are let loose

against us, but me in particular. I am seriously threatened with impris-

onment and stripes, I expect to receive for the testimony of Jesus. Ken-

tucky is turning upside down. The truth pervades in spite of man-

Cumberland is sharing the same fate - the young preachers, some of

them, will preach Jesus without the covering put on him by the fathers -

the scribes, the disputers of this world are gnashing upon us- Brother

Matthew Houston has clean escaped the pollutions of this world--and

he and his people are going on to perfect holiness in the fear of God-

a few more will soon follow - come over and help us, is the cry made

to us from every part.- Brother Purviance is gone to Carolina, to preach

the Gospel there, by the request of some there. In a few weeks I start

to fulfill a long daily string of appointments to Cumberland-by request

I go -I have appointed two commissioners among many Christians, on

the heads of Little and Big Barrens - Brother Dooley is among the Cher-

okees again-his last route there was successful-some poor Indians

received the Gospel - he was solicited to return - he is truly an apostle

of the Gentiles - some few are getting religion amongst us. The churches

thus quid dicam? Nescio: What shall I say? I know not, my heart

grieves within me. Certain men from afar whom you know, inject ter-

ror and doubt into many; and now religion begins to lament in the dust

among us. Some as I suppose will cast away the ordinances of Baptism,

the Lord's Supper, etc , but not many as yet. Most dear Brother, inform

me what you think of these men among us and you, from a distant re-

gion. Thank God, he gave me his word.*

* The italics were originally in Latin, unquestionably to prevent Bates

from understanding the same.

6 Vol. XII-3.

268 Ohio Arch

268        Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


Letters show the substance and faith eats it. We all want to meet

with you shortly. But by reason of my absence to Cumberland - Brother

Purviance to N. Carolina, Brother Houston in Madison, we cannot meet

on Turtle Creek, nor sooner than third Sabbath June, and that in Ken-

tucky. Brothers Marshall and Houston parted from us yesterday. We

administered the Lord's Supper at Cane Ridge the day before--many

communicants - much exercise - I am pushed for time to write to you -

We have five students of the Bible, all but one know the language, full

of faith, and of the Holy Ghost-just ready to preach. They all fled

from the Presbyterians, to their grief, pain and hurt. Brother Stockwell

exceeds expectation and is beloved and useful. Our Apology is yet living

and working, and tearing down Babylon in Virginia. It was reprinted

there to the great injury of Presbyterianism.  It is also reprinted in

Georgia. We are just publishing a short tract on Atonement-I will

send you one soon. This truth has unhinged the brazen gates already.-

I am hurried--pray for me--farewell.


By Friend Bates."*

As to the estimation in which Malcolm     Worley was held,

witness the following, dated Springfield (Springdale, near Cin-

cinnati), March, 1804:

"Forasmuch as our brother, Malcolm       Worley, has made

known to us the exercises of his mind for some time past,

expressive of a Divine call to labor in word and doctrine; and

we being satisfied, from a long and intimate acquaintance with

him, of his talents, both natural and acquired, being such as,

through the grace of God, may render him       useful; and con-

sidering that the way of God is above our ways, it therefore

seemed good to us, with one accord to encourage our brother

to the work, whereunto we trust the Holy Ghost is calling him;

and we do hereby recommend him        to the churches scattered

abroad, to be forwarded to his calling, according to the mani-

festation of the Spirit given to him to profit withal. Signed in

behalf of the Presbytery, B. W. Stone, Clk."+




It is foreign to our purpose to follow the Shaker mission-

aries' peregrinations. Their success was phenomenal. In rapid

succession they swept into their fold the churches at Turtle Creek,

*Kentucky Revival," p. 85.   + Ibid, p. 46.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.            269


Eagle Creek, Straight Creek, Shawnee Run, Cabin Creek, etc.,

besides converts at various points. They made it a point to

follow up the camp-meetings, where they invariably made acces-

sions to their number. Richard McNemar joined the Shakers

April 24; to the camp meeting at Eagle Creek, Adams County,

Ohio, held the first Sunday in August, 1805, repaired both Ben-

jamin S. Youngs and Issachar Bates; they converted many;

among whom was Rev. John Dunlavy; followed by Matthew

Houston in February, 1806. Nearly every member of the Tur-

tle Creek church followed McNemar into Shakerism. This gave

them a solid foundation as well as numbers. Their landed in-

terest became large. To this they added the estate of Timothy

Sewell at a cost of $1,640.

So long as the inroads were made upon the domain of the

Christian Church, the discomfiture was greatly enjoyed by the

other denominations. The Christians were grieved, chagrined,

exasperated and early became aggressive, and took every measure

to withstand the storm that presaged ruin to their cause. When

the Shakers began to make visible success in other folds, then all

united to put them down. Methods of the most questionable kind

were resorted to. In the very year of their beginning at Turtle

Creek (now Union Village, Warren Co., Ohio), the Shakers had

their windows broken, their orchards cut down, their fences cast

over, and their buildings burned. Four days after his conversion

(April 28), Richard McNemar undertook to hold a camp meet-

ing at Turtle Creek. On that day "a great body of blazing hot

Newlights with John Thompson (then stationed at Springdale)

a preacher at their head determined to break down all before them.

Thompson mounted the stand and began his preachment and

undertook to show how they had been imposed on by deceivers

and how much he had borne with one Worley and now these East-

ern men had come to tell us that Christ had made his second ap-

pearance, (pause), but they are liars, they are liars, they are liars.

Now I will venture to say that the tumult at Ephesus was no

greater than was at this place, for about half an hour it was

one steady cry glory to Jesus, glory to Jesus, glory to Jesus and

almost every other noise; this must be the cause of their giving so

much glory to Jesus this poor suffering witnesses were proved

270 Ohio Arch

270       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


out to be liars that they might have the privilege of enjoying the

pleasures of their fleshly lusts for a season. I stood on a log hard

by alone, for Elder John nor Benjamin was not there, at that time

I was ordered back to hell from whence I came and called all the

bad names that they could think of, after the noise began to cease

I stepped off the log and passed through the multitude and as I

passed they cried out, see how his conscience is seared as with a

hot iron, he does not regard it all."*

It will not be necessary to follow this dark picture any farther.

There was that to rouse the passions of such as cared more for

an ism than for the spirit of Jesus Christ. But after years have

rolled away and all incentives to malice obliterated, it is to be

expected that the vision should no longer be obfuscated. Years

after Barton Stone did not hesitate to libel them: "John Dun-

lavy, who had left us and joined them, was a man of a penetrative

mind, wrote and published much for them, and was one of their

elders in high repute by them. He died in Indiana, raving in

desperation for his folly in forsaking the truth for an old woman's

fables. Richard MeNemar was, before his death, excluded by

the Shakers from their society, in a miserable, penniless condition,

as I was informed by good authority. The reason of his exclusion

I never heard particularly; but from what was heard, it appears

that he had become convinced of his error. The Shakers had a

revelation given them to remove him from their village, and take

him to Lebanon, in Ohio, and to set him down in the streets, and

leave him there in his old age, without friends or money."+

I called the attention of the Shakers of Union Village to the

above citation. They had never heard of the charges before.

Eldress Jane Cowan, of South Union, Ky., probably the best

informed historian in their order in the West, was exceedingly

indignant. Richard McNemar was ever a trusted man among

them and died, full in the faith, at Union Village, September 15,

1839. The old church record says of him in noticing his death:

"One of the most zealous and loyal believers who ever embraced

the gospel in this western land, altogether more than ordinary



* MS. Autobiography of Bates.

+ Biography of B. W. Stone, p. 63.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             271


John Dunlavy was long the preacher for the Shaker com-

munity at Pleasant Hill, Ky. On June 3, 1826, he arrived at

the Shaker community of West Union in Knox county, Indiana,

on a visit. On September 8th he was taken sick with bilious

fever and died on the 16th. On the 17th David Price was dis-

patched to Union Village as a bearer of the sorrowful news, and

on the 18th William Redmond started on the same mission to

Pleasant Hill. His death was greatly lamented by the various

communities. Summerbell, in his "History of the Christians A.

M. 4004-A. D. 1870, Cincinnati 1873," seizes the libel of Stone

and gives it a fresh start (p. 533), although living less than

twenty-five miles from Union Village at the time he copied the

statements from Stone, and by next letter could have informed

himself. He further calls Shakerism "Only Romish monkery

broken loose from popery." Notwithstanding the estimation in

which the Shakers were held - as quoted above - Summerbell

thinks it best to slur them and others - "Those who went to the

Shakers were too much inclined to fanaticism; and had they re-

mained would have caused trouble, while Thompson and those

who returned to the sects would not have followed the word of

truth in baptism (Summerbell was an immersionist), a duty in

which they would soon have been tested." David Purviance

("Biography of David Purviance," p. 146), speaks of Richard

McNemar as being vain or "lifted up," after the separation in

1804. "I also discovered some of the same detestable pride in

John Dunlavy. They were not content to abide in the simplicity

of the truth. They became fanatics, and were prepared for an

overthrow, when the Shakers entered in among us and swept

them off with others who were led into wild enthusiasm." "I

have thought there might be something providential in the com-

ing of the Shakers, although some honest and precious souls

were seduced and ruined by their means; yet a growing fanati-

cism was drawn out of the church, which threatened the most

deleterious effects" (p. 148).



When all the facts are confronted it is not singular that

Shakerism should have been so successful in the West. There

272 Ohio Arch

272       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


were certain regnant elements in operation among the revival-

ists that were congenial to the believers in Ann Lee. Dancing

was introduced among the revivalists in 1804; the Church in

general taught that the second coming of Christ was yet in the

future; a community of goods could be derived from the New

Testament; religious fanaticism was the order of the day; a

high sense of morals and implicit faith were specially taught.

The Shakers danced in their religious exercises; they taught that

Adam and Eve were the father and mother of the natural man

while Jesus and Ann Lee were the father and mother of the

spiritual family; they held all goods in common; the early Shak-

ers were given to fanaticism; they practiced strictly the high-

est morals and were devout in their worship. If they taught that

God was dual,* that was not a greater credulity than the doc-

trine of a triune God. The simplicity of their manners would

impress favorably those who opposed prevailing fanaticism.




The early Shakers of the West possessed members repre-

senting all the various professions and trades. There were

scholars and theologians among them. It would be no exag-

geration to say that it possessed the flower of the Western Pres-

byterian Church, one of whom wrote a book, which has ever re-

mained a standard of authority among them. I refer to John

Dunlavy's "Manifesto;" written in 1815, published in 1818, at

Pleasant Hill, and republished in 1847 in New York. It is a

royal octavo of 486 pp. The great standard work of the Shakers

- "Christ's First and Second Appearing" - is a western pro-

duction, and first published at Lebanon, O., in 1808; the second

edition at Albany, in 1810; the third at Cincinnati, in 1823, and

the fourth in Albany, in 1856. It is a royal octavo of 631 pp.,

and was principally written by Benjamin S. Youngs. It was

originally published under the sanction of David Darrow, John


* Theodore Parker prayed to "Our Father and Mother in Heaven."

I heard the same utterance in the Universalist church, Galesburg, Ills.,

many years ago.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.              273


Meacham and Benjamin S. Youngs.* The publications of the

western Shakers have been quite extensive. A bibliography of

Shaker literature is appended to Axon's "Biographical No-

tices of Ann Lee," but this I have never seen. The books I

possess, written by Shakers, number 30 bound volumes and 50

pamphlets, most of which were presented to me by Eldress Cly-

mena Miner, who stands second in the ministry in the Sisters'

lot, of the Western Societies.

While the Shakers own great possessions yet their number is

greatly reduced, and their days appear to be numbered. No ef-

forts are now made either to increase their membership or ex-

tend their literature. They have most thoroughly demonstrated

that men and women can live together as a band of brothers and


The western ministry is appointed by that at Mount Lebanon

in New York. It has not always been wise. The making of

Elder Slingerland both first in the ministry and trustee was most

disastrous. The particulars are too painful to narrate. It was

a case of imbecility on the one side and sharpers on the other.

Suffice it to say that of the $316,000 obtained for the North

Union property, every dollar of it was lost. Nearly $200,000

more went into wild cat speculation. The leaders of Union Vil-

lage prayed the Eastern ministry for redress, but in vain. As a

last recourse the law was appealed to, and finally a new ministry

was appointed, which has all the appearance of an intelligent con-

servatism. Through the stubbornness of Harvey L. Eads, for-

merly chief in authority at South Union, $80,000 was lost at one

time. The finances of Pleasant Hill are not in good condition.

A candid study of the Shakers evokes one's sympathy and

admiration. I confess it would be a pleasure to me to realize

that the halls of the Shaker villages teemed with human life as

they did at the time of my earliest recollection. Thousands have

gone forth from these communities schooled in the purest morals

and implicit faith in the Divine Being. Shakerism has been

productive of good. As such it must receive the enconiums of

the just.

* Thomas Jefferson pronounced it the best ecclesiastical history he

had every read.

274 Ohio Arch

274       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.



The revivalists to a greater or less extent were fanatical,

but time mellowed the trenchant words, and a deeper spiritual

outlook was observed. In religious thought the various con-

ferences differ-that known as the Miami is reputed to contain

the broadest minds. The religious paper-published at Dayton

-"Herald of Gospel Liberty," is rather conservative in its tone.

While the church, as a body, rejects the doctrine of the trinity,

yet nowhere has it paved the way for the Unitarian denomina-

tion. In the whole state of Ohio there are but three churches,

viz., Cincinnati, Cleveland and Marietta, none of which has more

than a local force. The handing over of Antioch college proved

to be a failure, owing to the want of a constituency. Yet the

measure of this church is most potent. Backed by Harvard col-

lege and with the impetus of an unrivaled ministry in education

and intellect, its advocates have gained renown in all depart-

ments of knowledge. Its literature stands almost alone. It keeps

abreast with human thought. All clergymen, west of the Alle-

ghenies, may receive, gratis, an installment of their books, which

has been largely accepted. What influence this may have could

not even be approximated.




Although there is a large per cent. of the clergymen of the

Christian sect that accepts the doctrine of universal salvation, yet

it has nowhere paved the way for the Universalist church. In

short, there has always been an antagonism between the two.

The Universalist church in Ohio, like the Unitarian, has been

practically a failure, although tremendous efforts have been put

forth to gain and maintain a footing. The first preacher in the

state was Timothy Bigelow, who removed to Palmyra in 1814.

The first organized church was in Marietta, in 1816, now merged

into the Unitarian. The first conference in the Miami country was

at Jacksonsburg, Butler county, in November, 1826, at which

were James Alfred, Jonathan Kidwell and Daniel St. John. The

"Register" for 1903, gives for the state 42 ministers and 80

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.                275


churches, 34 of the latter being in the Miami country. The efforts

to maintain a religious periodical have all been failures, as the

following list demonstrates: "The Lamp of Liberty," Cincin-

nati, 1827; "The Star in the West," Cincinnati, 1827-1880; "The

Glad Tidings," Columbus and Akron, 1836-1840; "The Univer-

salist Preacher," Dayton, 1839-1841 ; "Ohio Universalist," Cleve-

land, 1845-1846; "The Youth's Friend," Cincinnati, 1846-1860;

"The Universalist Advocate," Centreburg, 1849; "Western Olive

Branch," Cincinnati, 1849-1850; "The Guiding Star," Cincin-

nati, 1871-1880. Nor has the denomination generally been much

more successful. The Rev. Dr. Richard Eddy, in his "Modern

History of Universalism," appends a list of periodicals, showing

that out of 181 journals only four are still in existence, viz., two

family, one juvenile, and one Sunday school. Eddy's biblio-

graphy, for and against the doctrine of universal salvation, com-

piled in 1886, enumerates 2,096 titles. This does not embrace

the literature in other departments. What that bibliography may

be I am unable to ascertain.

While it has been foreign to my intention to comment on

the subject of doctrine, for that must require some temerity, be-

cause it is treading on delicate ground, I will here, however,

transgress the rule for this reason: The Universalist church

boasts it stands for that phase of Christianity that represents all

who believes in the ultimate salvation of all. If their boasts be

true, then they should either have no written creed, or else one

which would cover all believers in the Bible who accept the sal-

vation of all. This church is the only one of the liberal sects

that has a written creed. In the year 1803, the following creed

was adopted, known as the Winchester Profession:


ARTICLE I. We believe that the Holy Scriptures of the Old and

New Testaments contain a revelation of the character of God and of the

duty, interest and final destination of mankind.

ARTICLE II. We believe that there is one God, whose nature is Love,

revealed in one Lord Jesus Christ, by one Holy Spirit of Grace, who will

finally restore the whole family of mankind to holiness and happiness.

ARTICLE III. We believe that holiness and true happiness are in-

seperably connected, and that believers ought to be careful to maintain

order and practice good works; for these things are good and profitable

unto men.

276 Ohio Arch

276         Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


Considering the purport of the Universalist church no rea-

sonable man could take exceptions to the above, unless it is the

grammatical error in the first article. Yet for twenty years the

ministers wrangled over the word "restore," when all contro-

versy was throttled and the following theological monstrosity

was adopted at Boston in 1899:

II. The conditions of fellowship shall be as follows:

1. The acceptance of the essential principles of the Universalist

Faith, to-wit: 1. The Universal Fatherhood of God; 2. The Spiritual

authority and leadership of His Son, Jesus Christ; 3. The trustworthiness

of the Bible as containing a revelation from God; 4. The certainty of

just retribution for sin; 5. The final harmony of all souls with God.

The Winchester Profession is commended as containing these prin-

ciples, but neither this nor any other precise form of words is required as

a condition of fellowship, provided always that the principles above stated

be professed.

2. The acknowledgment of the authority of the General Convention

and assent to its laws.

Only a slight examination of these conditions of fellowship

exhibits that it is:

I. Anti-Christian, for it teaches that God is without mercy,

pity and compassion; it teaches the doctrine of retaliation.

II. It teaches post mortem punishment, a doctrine in which

Universalists have always been divided.

III.  It is materialistic.

IV. It is fatalistic.

V. The word "Universal" is all-reaching, unlimited in its

signification. Then this creed places man on a level with the

brute and inanimate creation. Doubtless it was intended to

mean that "God is the father of all mankind," but the words do

not say nor mean that.

VI. It contains a gross falsehood.        It states that the

"Winchester profession is commended as containing these prin-

ciples," when the utmost stretch of the imagination cannot make

it teach "the certainty of just retribution for sin."

VII. One of the cardinal principles of Christianity is for-

giveness, but here we have "the certainty of retribution."

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             277


The adoption of such a conglomeration is evidence that the

Universalist church has no humorist in it, and that such theo-

logians as it may contain have their vision obscured.




The religious, moral and intellectual status of the Miami

country will compare favorably with any other part of the State

of Ohio. Whatever may be deleterious in that region may also

be found elsewhere. If other districts are progressive, likewise

the same elements are here at work. To speak of any particular

phase would only be to rehearse what may be known elsewhere.

So far as the Kentucky revival is concerned it has passed

into history never again to repeat itself. It has been observed

that when one species of animals died out it can never be re-

claimed, because the conditions are against it. Likewise the Ken-

tucky revival can never be repeated. The conditions have

changed. Society is not the same. The standards have been

raised. In order to have a revival the minds of the people must

be concentrated on that one point. The daily newspaper distracts

the attention by its variety and sensational publications. The

free schools direct the minds of youth into various channels and

pursuits become innumerable.




In previous issues of the Quarterly I have given sketches of

all the prominent men hereunto mentioned, save Barton Warren

Stone. He was born near Port Tobacco, Maryland, Dec. 24, 1772;

in 1779 the family moved near the Dan river in what was then

the backwoods of Virginia; in 1790 he commenced the study of

Latin at Guilford (N. C.) Academy; active and a leader in the

Kentucky revival, during which time he was settled at Cane

Ridge; first married in 1801 and again in 1811; taught school;

commenced publishing the "Christian Messenger" in 1826, and

through his efforts the New Lights in Kentucky were turned

over to the Campbellites in 1832; removed to Illinois in 1834;

wrote his autobiography in 1843; died at the residence of his

daughter, in Hannibal, Mo., November 9, 1844. Besides writing

278 Ohio Arch

278       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


part two of the "Apology," in 1805 he published his "Letters on

the Atonement," and "Address to the Christian Churches," and

in 1822 appeared his "Letters to Dr. James Blythe." His au-

tobiography was edited by John Rogers and published in Cincin-

nati in 1847. The editor closes the volume with a lengthy and

wholesome chapter upon the bodily phenomena produced during

the great revival. Among other things he observes: "While it

is granted that genuine Christians have been, in many instances,

subjects of these strange agitations, this cannot be admitted as

proof, that they are the offspring of proper influences: for no

such cases occurred under the preaching of Christ, and His

Apostles. And we cannot doubt that under their ministry, all

proper influences were brought to bear upon their hearers. The

conclusion therefore cannot be avoided, that the gospel, preached

as it should be, never produces such results." "Where these ex-

ercises were encouraged, and regarded as tokens of the divine

presence there they greatly prevailed.  But where they were

looked upon as manifestations of enthusiasm, and fanaticism,

and therefore, opposed, they did not prevail" (p. 371).




Spasmodic efforts in behalf of mankind are not to be looked

upon with the eye of censure. While there may be much chaff,

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.                   279


yet it is out of the chaff that the grain of wheat is rescued.

Sometimes the cloud of dust obscures even the brightness of the

sun, yet when that dust is settled the road way may be more

passable. Thoughts are often quickened, and experience is a

tell-tale for future good. I have not condemned the Kentucky

revival. Good did flow from it. When all the circumstances are

considered it was an effort greatly demanded, however wild

was the revel, and grotesque the carnival.     Persecutions of all

descriptions must be condemned. The history of man proves that

in every instance the persecuted have been nearer the Kingdom

than the persecutors.

May 19, 1903.                           J. P. MACLEAN.

NOTE. On May 27th, I received from Eldress Jane Cowan,

the principal leader of the Shaker community at South Union, Lo-

gan county, Ky., the church records of that society.     Prefacing

these records is an autobiographical sketch of Rev. John Rankin

written in 1845. As this throws light on the Kentucky revival,

and what has never been published before, I herewith transcribe a

portion of it:

"In August, 1799, a sacrament was appointed at Gasper River, old

meeting house five miles below South Union. The preachers attended,

gifts were given to men, their language was clothed with power which

pervaded the congregation, many were convicted, some called on ther

neighbors to pray for them, one under view of his exposure to justice,

asked in consternation of soul: "Is there no hand to stay the justice of

God?" Some few could rejoice in hopes of mercy and promise of God,

et cetera. This same summer or early fall, at a sacrament held at Big

Muddy River Meeting House: a work of similar nature made its appear-

ance in a very striking manner; my text on this occasion was Acts 40

and 41. Beware therefore, lest that come upon you which was spoken

of in the Prophets; Behold ye despisers and wonder and perish; for I

work a work in your days, a work which you shall in no wise believe,

though a man declare it unto you: Due attendance, serious attention to

preaching, and solemn inquiry, what they should do to be saved appeared

to agitate the minds of the congregations throughout the following winter

and spring. In the mean time, the members of this society (Gasper) were

cordially engaged in building a meeting-house for their future accommo-


"Sometime in the month of June in the year 1800, the principal mem-

bers of the three awakened congregations met together at the Red River

Meeting house, with a large accession of citizens of every description, and

280 Ohio Arch

280        Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


also two zealous preachers from the state of Tennessee, in whom we could

confide, came to see the strange work, and take part in the labors of the

day. Believing them to be men of the same spirit with ourselves, we

made them more than welcome to participate on the occasion; and re-

joiced in hope that they might be instruments, destined to transfer the

same light and power to their respective neighborhoods, which was the

result. All our gifts and ministerial efforts were united and tended to

the same end; the conviction, conversion and salvation of souls.; The

surrounding multitudes sat and heard with reverence and awe, with in-

creasing solemnity depicted in their countenances through the meeting;

at the conclusion of which, a part of the people went out of the house,

in order to return to their places of residence. A large part remaining

on their seats in contemplative silence. But wonderful to be seen and

heard; on a sudden, an alarming cry burst from the midst of the deepest

silence; some were thrown into wonderful and strange contortions of

features, body and limbs, frightful to the beholder-others had singular

gestures, with words and actions quite inconsistent with Presbyterial

order and usage-all was alarm and confusion for the moment. One of

the preachers, a thorough Presbyterian, being in the house beckoned me

to one side, and said, in evident perturbation of mind: What shall we

do? What shall we do? He intimated some corrective to quell the con-

fusion. I replied: We can do nothing at present. We are strangers to

such an operation. We have hitherto never seen the like; but we may

observe, their cry, and the burden of their prayers to God is for mercy

and the salvation of their souls. This prayer is both scriptural and ra-

tional, and therefore it is most safe to let it work; lest in attempting to

root out the tares, we should root out the wheat also. Let the disorder

stand to the account of human imperfection. At this instant the other

preacher from Tennessee, a son of thunder, came forward and without

hesitation, entered on the most heart stirring exhortation, encouraging

the wounded of the day never to cease striving, or give up their pursuit,

until they obtained peace to their souls. On seeing and feeling his con-

fidence, that it was the work of God, and a mighty effusion of his spirit,

and having heard that he was acquainted with such scenes in another

country, we acquiesced and stood in astonishment, admiring the wonder-

ful works of God. When this alarming occurrence subsided in outward

show, the united congregations returned to their respective abodes, in

contemplation of what they had seen, heard and felt on this most oppres-

sive occasion.

The next large meeting was held on Friday week after the before-

mentioned meeting on Red River, being an appointment for a sacra-

mental meeting at Gasper River, at the new meeting house one mile and

a half below South Union in the month of July, 1800.

In the intervening two weeks, the news of the strange operations

which had transpired at the previous meeting had run throughout the

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.                 281


county in every direction, carrying a high degree of excitement to the

minds of almost every character. The curious came to gratify their curi-

osity. The seriously convicted, presented themselves that they might re-

ceive some special and salutary benefit to their souls, and promote the

cause of God, at home and abroad. The honorable (?) but sentimental

exemplary and strictly formal Presbyterians attended to scrutinize the

work, and judge whether it was of God and consistent with their senti-

ments, feelings and order, or whether it was a delusive spirit emanating

from the Prince of darkness, of which they were very apprehensive. * * *

On Friday morning at an early hour, the people began to assemble in

large numbers from every quarter, and by the usual hour for preaching

to commence, there was a multitude collected, unprecedented in this or

any other new country of so sparse a population. The rising ground to

the south and west of the meeting house, was literally lined with covered

wagons and other appendages--each one furnished with provisions and

accommodations, suitable to make them comfortable on the ground during

the solemnity. When I came in view of this vast assemblage I was as-

tonished." On the evening of the following Monday "inquirers began to

fall prostrate on all sides, and their cries became piercing and incessant.

Heavy groans were heard, and trembling and shaking began to appear

throughout the house; and again in a little time, cries of penitential and

confessional prayer sounded through the assembly. Toward the approach

of night, the floor of the meeting house was literally covered with the

prostrate bodies of penitents, so that it became necessary to carry a num-

ber out of doors and lay them on the grass or garments, if they had them."

Rev. John Rankin was born November 27, 1757, in North

Carolina.  He took charge of the Presbyterian church on the

Gasper (now South Union), in December 1798.        Similar to the

other revivalists, his views were not in harmony with those of

his co-religionists. On October 28, 1807, he avowed his belief in

Shakerism and confessed to Issachar Bates, Richard McNemar

and Matthew    Houston.   He was the preacher at South Union

until his death, which occurred July 12, 1850.



It may be of interest to future investigators to know some-

thing of the books published by the Shakers. Their literature is

extensive. A bibliography is appended to Axon's Biographical

Notices of Ann Lee, but this I have never seen. The following

is a list of such works as the Shakers have presented to me:

282 Ohio Arch

282       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.




1. The Kentucky Revival, or a Short History of the late

extraordinary out-pouring of the Spirit of God, in the Western

States of America, agreeably to Scripture promises, and prophe-

cies concerning the latter day: with a brief account of the en-

trance and progress of what the world call Shakerism, among

the subjects of the late revival in Ohio and Kentucky. Pre-

sented to the true Zion-traveller, as a memorial of the Wilder-

ness journey. By Richard McNemar. Cincinnati 1807. It also

contains Shaker mission to the Shawnee Indians, and observa-

tions on church government. Total number of pages 143.

2. Another edition of same of 156 pp. published in New

York, 1846.

3. The testimony of Christ's Second Appearing; contain-

ing a general statement of all things pertaining to the faith

and practice of the Church of God in this latter day. Published

by order of the Ministry, in union with the church. Third edi-

tion, corrected and improved. Union Village (Ohio), 1823.

577 PP.

4. Same. Fourth edition. Enlarged by Benjamin S.

Youngs and Calvin Green. Albany, 1856. 631 pp. The first

edition (1808) was the work of Youngs.

5. The Manifesto, or a declaration of the doctrines and

practice of the church of Christ. By John Dunlavy. Pleasant

Hill, Ky., 1818.* 520 pp.

6. Another edition of same of 486 pp., published in New

York in 1847.

7. A summary view of the Millennial Church, or United

Society of Believers, commonly called Shakers, comprising the

rise, progress and practical order of the society, together with

the general principles of their faith and testimony. Second edi-

tion, revised and improved. Albany, 1848. 384 pp.

8. A holy, sacred and divine Roll and Book; from the

Lord God of Heaven, to the inhabitants of earth: revealed in

the United Society at New Lebanon, county of Columbia, state

of New York, United States of America. In two parts. Can-

terbury, N. H., 1843, 407 pp.

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             283


9. The divine book of holy and eternal wisdom, revealing

the word of God; out of whose mouth goeth a sharp sword. In

two volumes. Written by Paulina Bates, at Watervleet, N. Y.

Canterbury, N. H., 1849. 696 pp.

10. Shaker Sermons: scripto-rational. Containing the sub-

stance of Shaker theology. Together with replies and criti-

cisms logically and clearly set forth. By H. L. Eads, bishop of

South Union, Ky. Fifth edition. Revised and enlarged. South

Union, Kentucky, 1889. 366 pp.

11. Testimonies concerning the character and ministry of

Mother Ann Lee and the first witnesses of the gospel of Christ's

second appearing; given by some of the aged brethren and sisters

of the United Society, including a few sketches of their own

religious experience: approved by the church. Albany, 1827.

178 pp.

12. Testimonies of the life, character, revelations and doc-

trines of Mother Ann Lee, and the elders with her, through

whom the word of eternal life was opened in this day of Christ's

second appearing, collected from living witnesses, in union with

the church. Second edition. Albany, 1888. 302 pp.

13. Millennial praises, containing a collection of gospel

hymns, in four parts; adapted to the day of Christ's second

appearing. Composed for the use of his people. Hancock

(Mass.), 1813, 292 pp.

14. A selection of hymns and poems; for the use of Be-

lievers. Collected from sundry authors, by Philos Hamoniae

(Richard McNemar). Watervleit (Ohio), 1833. 184 pp.

15. A sacred repository of anthems and hymns, for devo-

tional worship and praise. Canterbury, N. H., 1852. 223 pp.

16. A collection of hymns and anthems adapted to public

worship. East Canterbury, N. H., 1892. 144 pp.

17. A juvenile guide, or manual of good manners. Con-

sisting of counsels, instructions and rules of deportment, for

the young. In two parts. Canterbury, N. H., 1844. 131 pp.

18. The same. Third edition. East Canterbury, N. H.,

1899. 79 pp.

7 Vol. XII-3.

284 Ohio Arch

284       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


19. Pearly gate of the true life and doctrine for believers

in Christ. By A. G. Hollister and C. Green, Mount Lebanon,

N. Y., 1894. 299 pp.

20. The same. Second edition improved and enlarged,

1896. 255 pp.



1. Transactions of the Ohio Mob, called in the public pa-

pers, "An expedition against the Shakers." By Benjamin Seth

Youngs, Miami county, state of Ohio, August 31, 1810.

2. Autobiography, by Elder Giles B. Avery, of Mount

Lebanon, N. Y. Also an account of the funeral service. East

Canterbury, N. H., 1891. 34 pp.

3. Affectionately inscribed to the memory of Eldress An-

toinette Doolittle, by her loving and devoted gospel friends.

Albany, 1887. 32 pp.

4. Investigator; or a defence of the order, government

and economy of the United Society called Shakers, against sundry

charges and legislative proceedings. By the Society of Believers

at Pleasant Hill, Ky. Lexington, K., 1828. 47 pp.

5. The same, enlarged. New York, 1846. 103 pp.

6. Authorized Rules of the Shaker community. Mount

Lebanon, N. Y., 1894. 16 pp.

7. Supplementary rules. Mount Lebanon, 1894. 4 pp.

8. Sketches of Shakers and Shakerism. Synopsis of the-

ology of United Society of Believers in Christ's second appear-

ing. By Giles B. Avery. Albany, 1884.  53 pp.

9. A review of Mary M. Dyer's publication, entitled "A

portraiture of Shakerism;" together with sundry affidavits, dis-

proving the truth of her assertions. Concord, 1824. 70 pp.

10. A brief exposition of the established principles, and

regulations of the United Society of Believers called Shakers.

Edited by Richard McNemar and David Spinnig. Watervleit,

Ohio, June 30, 1832. 49 pp.

11. The same. New York, 1879. 32 pp.

12. The same. East Canterbury, N. H., 1895. 24 pp.

13. A discourse on the order and propriety of divine in-

spiration and revelation, showing the necessity thereof, in all

The Kentucky Revival, Etc

The Kentucky Revival, Etc.             285

ages, to know the will of God. Also, a discourse on the second

appearing of Christ, in and through the order of the female.

And a discourse on the propriety and necessity of a united inherit-

ance in all things, in order to support a true Christian community.

By Wm. Leonard Harvard: 1853. 88 pp.

14. The nature and character of the true church of Christ

proved by plain evidences, and showing whereby it may be known

and distinguished from all others. By John Dunlavy. New

York, 1847. 93 PP.

15. Plain talks: upon practical, Christian religion; being

answers to ever-recurring questions concerning the Shakers,

prominently among which is the answer to "What must an

individual do to be a Shaker?" Shakers, N. Y., n. d. 24 pp.

16. The youth's guide in Zion, and holy mother's promises.

Given by inspiration at New Lebanon, N. Y., January 5, 1842.

Canterbury, N. H., 1842. 36 pp.

17. The manifestation of spiritualism among the Shakers

1837-1847. By Henry C. Blinn. East Canterbury, N. H., 1899.

1O1 pp.

18. Tests of divine inspiration; or the rudimental prin-

ciples by which true and false revelation, in all eras of the world,

can be unerringly discriminated. By F. W. Evans. New Leba-

non, 1853. 127 pp.

19. Scientific demonstration of theology, prophecy and

revelation. By H. B. Bear. Preston, Hamilton Co., Ohio, 1900.

56 pp.

20. A scientific demonstration of the prophecies of Daniel

and St. John. H. B. Bear. Preston, Ohio, n. d. 13 pp.

21. Interpreting prophecy and the appearing of Christ.

Third edition. A. G. Hollister. Mount Lebanon, N. Y., 1892.

42 pp.

22. Mission of Alethian Believers, called Shakers. A. G.

Hollister. Mount Lebanon, N. Y., 1892-1899. 28 pp.

23. Synopsis of doctrine taught by Believers in Christ's

second appearing. A. G. Hollister. Mount Lebanon, N. Y.,

second edition enlarged, 1893. 30 pp.

286 Ohio Arch

286       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


24. Divine judgment, justice and mercy. A revelation of

the great white throne. A. G. Hollister. Mount Lebanon, N.

Y., 1895. 48 pp.

25. The day of judgment as taught by the Millennial

Church. By Arthur W. Dowe. San Francisco, 1896. 24 pp.

26. The divine afflatus: a force in history. Published by

the United Society, Shirley, Mass. Boston, 1875. 47 pp.

27. A concise statement of the principles of the only true

church, according to the gospel of the present appearing of

Christ. Bennington, Vermont, 1900. 16 pp.

28. The law of life. Extract from a writing in the name

of the prophet Joel. Mt. Lebanon, N. Y., January, 1841. Calvin

Green, amanuensis. 16 pp.

29. Shakers: a correspondence between Mary F. C. of Mt.

Holly City and a Shaker sister, Sarah L. of Union Village.

Edited by R. W. Pelham. Cincinnati, 1869. 23 pp.

30. The Shaker's answer to a letter from an inquirer. By

R. W. Pelham. Union Village, Ohio, 186*. 23 pp.

31. A Christian community. By Henry C. Bluin. East

Canterbury, N. H., ud. 16 pp.

32. True source of happiness. Anna White. Mt. Lebanon,

N.Y.n.d. 6pp.

33. Pearly Gate of the true life and doctrine for Believers

in Christ. Part II. By A. G. Hollister. Mount Lebanon, N.

Y., 1900. 18 pp.