Ohio History Journal



Archaeological and Historical







Professor of Animal Husbandry,

Ohio State University


The following historical contribution relates to the

life of a man who became a notable figure in the pioneer

days of Ohio. The motive underlying the preparation

of this sketch is to pay tribute to the memory of Felix

Renick, in recognition of the great service he rendered

to the improvement of American Shorthorn cattle.

According to William Renick, the Renick family,

which has played a notable part in the history of the

state of Ohio, and especially the lower Scioto Valley

since the beginning of the nineteenth century, traces

back to German ancestry.1 Due to religious persecu-

tion, members of the family emigrated from Germany

to Scotland, and then later to Coleraine County, Ire-

land. The name in Germany had been Reinnich, but in

the course of events the spelling was changed to Ren-

nich, Rennick and Renick.2


1 Renick, William, Memoirs, Correspondence and Reminiscences.

Circleville, 1880, pp. 115.

2 History of Ross and Highland Counties, Ohio, 1880.


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"In the process of time," writes William Renick,

"three brothers of the family had a common inherit-

ance in an estate in Ireland.  One of these, being

created a peer of the realm, bought out the property

rights of his two brothers, who with their father, there-

upon emigrated to America. Tradition has it that the

brother was unable to pay cash, and agreed to send the

money overseas at a later date.  The vessel on which

the father and brothers crossed the Atlantic, was

boarded by pirates, led by 'Black Beard,' so it was

fortunate the Renicks had left the purchase money be-

hind. It is related that when the pirates boarded the

vessel, old man Renick was asleep. Being awakened

by the noise, he sought to ascertain the cause, and dis-

covered pirates opening a box of candles, upon which

he exclaimed, 'Hoot! Toot! What is all this fuss

about?' Thereupon the pirates said they would stop

his mouth, and so shoved a candle down his throat."

This first contingent of Renicks to come to America,

if so we may regard them, emigrated from Ireland and

settled in eastern Pennsylvania, where they remained

until the brother's settlement arrived. They then re-

moved to Hardy County, Virginia, on the south branch

of the Potomac River. Here one of their descendants,

William Renick, the father of Felix, became a deputy

under Lord Fairfax in the survey of the southern

counties of Virginia.

Felix Renick, the oldest son of William, was born

on November 5, 1770. That he was born on this date

is a record in the family Bible in the possession of his

great grandson, Mr. Renick Cunningham. Regarding

his boyhood career there is no information available so

far as the writer is aware. He must have had a fair

Felix Renick, Pioneer 5

Felix Renick, Pioneer                5

schooling for those days, however, this being manifest

in later years through his excellent penmanship, his

ability to express himself well, and the all-round part

he played in the affairs of his time. He had a knowl-

edge of surveying that he must have acquired in Penn-

sylvania, of which he made frequent use during many


Renick's removal to Ohio is narrated by himself in

interesting style,3 some abstracts from which here fur-

nish important connecting links in his life:

Some of our neighbors who had served in Dunmore's cam-

paign in 1774, gave accounts of the great beauty and fertility

of the western country, and particularly the Scioto Valley, which

inspired me with a desire to explore it as early as I could make

it convenient. I accordingly set out from the south branch of

the Potomac for that purpose, I think about the first of October,

1798, in company with two friends, Joseph Harness and Leonard

Stump, both of whom have long since gone hence.  We took

with us what provisions we could conveniently carry and a good

rifle to procure more when necessary, and further prepared our-

selves to camp whenever night overtook us.  Having a long

journey before us, we travelled slow, and reached Clarksburgh

the third night, which was then near the verge of the western

settlements in Virginia, except along the Ohio river.

They left Clarksburgh and set out for Marietta.

They camped the first night in the woods, and the fol-

lowing morning came upon a settler in the woods, who

had built a log cabin, and who "had also fixed up a

rack and trough, and exposed a clapboard to view, with

some black marks on it made with coal, indicating that

he was ready and willing to accommodate those who

pleased to favor him with a call." On suggestion of

Mr. Harness, they called for breakfast, horse feed, etc.

It was a very dirty service of corndodgers, fried bear


3 The American Pioneer, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1842, pp. 73-80.

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meat and "what he called coffee was also making, which

was composed of an article that grew some 800 or 1000

miles north of where the coffee tree ever did grow."

They camped two nights in the woods, and next day

arrived at Marietta where the land office was then kept

by General Putnam, and from his office they obtained

maps of the different sections they wished to explore.

"From thence," he writes, "we travelled up the Mus-

kingum river, on which there were some settlements up

as high as a small village called Waterford. From

there to where Zanesville now stands we passed no

settlement. At that place there was one log cabin occu-

pied and passed as a kind of excuse for a tavern, situ-

ated on what was then called Zane's Trace; there we

found a goodly number of Indians encamped for the

purpose of hunting, fishing, etc. and trading the fruits

of the chase with the landlord for whiskey."

They ate breakfast with a hunter in his cabin on

the west side of the river, who fed them meat "not

exactly like any flesh we had ever tasted before." It

proved to be panther meat, and when this was learned

"our meal was ended in pretty short order."

They travelled up the Licking River, exploring both

sides up to a place called Johnson's Station, situated in

the Wapatomaka bottom.    Here they unexpectedly

found an old widow named Johnson, who by intermar-

riage "was more or less connected" with him and both

his companions. She was a sister of the wife of Wil-

liam Robinson, who was taken prisoner by Logan.

Renick was taken ill the night they reached Mrs. John-

son's and was compelled to remain there, while his com-

panions went up as far as the mouth of Walhonding,

a branch of the Muskingum.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 7

Felix Renick, Pioneer           7

Mrs. Johnson's father was Frederick See, an uncle

of Mr. Renick's wife. Mr. See with some others had

settled on Greenbriar, a branch of Great Kanawha. A

war party of Indians killed Mr. See and his son-in-law

and carried off the women and children into captivity.

On the return of Renick's friends, he was enough

recovered to proceed on the journey. They followed an

Indian trail leading over to Licking, "thence up it to

a beautiful prairie called Bowling Green." Here they

found an old hunter in a bark camp, "solitary and

alone," some twenty miles in advance of his nearest

neighbor. He had raised a small patch of corn, pota-

toes, etc. They stayed over night with the hunter and

were very hospitably entertained.

They were much pleased with the valley of the Lick-

ing, "but thought its commercial advantages would be

much inferior to those of larger rivers."

After travelling up Licking some distance above

where the town of Newark now stands, they steered a

westerly course, "or as near so as we could with a

pocket compass," the sun being obscured for several

days with clouds and rain.

After leaving the forks of the Licking their course

took them through a dense forest, mostly of heavy

beech timber. Grass and vegetation was poor, trav-

elling was slow and game scarce.

"We pursued our westerly course," he writes, "until

we struck Whetstone, one of the principal branches of

the Scioto, some fifteen miles above its junction. Sup-

posing ourselves to be on the main branch of the Scioto,

and not wishing to go farther north, we turned south

to Franklinton, on the next morning, which was, I

think, the 22d of October." At Franklinton they found

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"a considerable number of log cabins, most of which

had recently been put up, and were without chinking,

daubing or doors."

They stopped a day or so at Franklinton and then

proceeded by slow marches south to Chillicothe, explor-

ing both sides of the river, finding a cabin every six,

eight or ten miles.

They were a few days at Chillicothe, and then ex-

plored the river to the Ohio. "No town, no commerce,

no steamboats," writes Mr. Renick, "were then to be

seen. The sameness of the prospect was broken only

by the flight of a few wild fowl, and once in two or

three days a poor little Kentucky family boat would float

silently by. From then by way of the Scioto salt works

and the Little Kanawha we went home."

This first visit of Renick to Ohio had made a deep

impression upon his mind as to the future possibilities

of the Scioto Valley for agricultural purposes. He was

not the first Renick to visit Ohio. In 1797 George and

Jonathan Renick had made a trip from Hardy County,

Virginia, to Marietta, Ohio, and each of these men

within a year located lands in the Scioto Valley. In

the fall of 1802, George Renick, who was a brother of

Felix, settled permanently in Ohio, and opened a gen-

eral store at Chillicothe. He, however, had important

farm interests and was from the first noted as a feeder

of cattle.

Felix Renick describes his second trip to the West,

and his permanent settlement in Ohio, as the introduc-

tory part of a discussion relative to the Indian chief,



4 The American Pioneer, Vol. 1, No. 9, Sept. 1842, pp. 329-332.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 9

Felix Renick, Pioneer          9

"Early in 1801," he writes, "I set out from the south

branch of the Potomac, in company with Jonathan

Renick and two hired hands, with the intention of rais-

ing a crop on Darby Creek. The land belonged to

Jonathan and my brother, Thomas Renick. We came

out also with a view of purchasing land at the congress

sales, which were to take place in the ensuing May at


"We had each a pack horse besides those we rode,

loaded with farming utensils, plows, axes, hoes, etc.,

not forgetting a little provender for ourselves, on which

our hired hands occasionally rode, on bad roads and in

crossing water. We crossed the Ohio at the mouth of

the Little Kanawha, and took a trace leading to the

Hockhocking, a few miles below the falls of that river,

intending to go up to Zane's trace, where the town of

Lancaster now stands, thence with that trace to the

Scioto Valley. Where we struck the Hockhocking an

old pioneer had squatted the year before, and raised a

small crop for the support of himself and family."

Due to high water, their party swam their horses

across the river, it being unfordable, taking the bag-

gage across in a canoe. They then climbed the hills

between the Hocking and the Scioto, crossing Scotch

Creek before leaving the Hockhocking. They camped

at night on the branches of Scippo Creek, a branch of

the Scioto. The next day they followed Dunmore's

trace down the creek to Camp Charlotte. After leav-

ing the camp they steered for the Scioto River, where

the town of Westfall was located, and then supposed

to be about six or eight miles from Camp Charlotte.

Following his original plans, Mr. Renick bought a

large tract of land at $2.50 an acre at the government

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land sale at Chillicothe, this being located "at the High

Bank" in Liberty Township, Ross County. The home

farm where he lived for many years, known as Indian

Creek Farm, is located about four miles south of Chil-

licothe on the main pike to Portsmouth.

Felix Renick was a born pioneer and explorer and

further reference to him in this connection is here espe-

cially appropriate. In the spring of 1810 he made a

trip to Tennessee for the purchase of cattle.   Refer-

ring to this trip in a letter to Jonathan Renick, dated

Chickasaw Nation, 5th May, 1810,5 he says:

I fear our adventure will be protracted very much beyond

my expectations. I find by your letter you had not yet received

any from me. I wrote several times by post time enough for

them to have got to Nacker before you got there. I fear your

delay will very much derange our arrangements. We came in

to Duck River and made a purchase of about 60 head of cattle

and got the promise of as many more.

After giving instructions regarding the urgency of

money to pay for the cattle and help to drive them out

of the country he concludes:

I have nothing more that I at present recollect of worth

relating, but wish you to send me some money as soon as pos-

sible so that I may get away from amongst those D---d In-

dians, for since I knew myself never did the time pass so

tedious and disagreeable.

In 1819 Felix Renick and his brother William be-

came impressed with the agricultural possibilities of the

land to the west of the Mississippi River, so on May

12, with George Davies, the three started on horseback

westward on a journey of exploration. In this expe-

dition they passed through Clarksville, Lebanon and


6 Letter loaned the author by Miss Anna Florence.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 11

Felix Renick, Pioneer                11

Cincinnati in Ohio; Rising Sun, Madison, Salem, Paoli,

Washington and Vincennes in Indiana; thence nearly

due west across Illinois to where the Missouri enters

the Mississippi. Crossing the river at St. Louis, for

five weeks they journeyed to and fro in a little known

country, following the more attractive regions tributary

to the two great rivers of that state. Felix Renick kept

a diary of this trip,6 in which he recorded in much de-

tail many things of interest, especially the character of

soil, timber, herbage, business possibilities, etc.   His

descriptions of the lands are remarkable in their com-

prehension of agricultural values. Several quotations

from this diary are worthy of a place here. When

near Jefferson, he writes:

There are some very fine lands in this bottom out of which

we pass over a bluff into a little town called Jefferson which is

situated in the upper end of the big bottom on a pretty good

site. The Missouri here has a low rock bank and a gradual

ascent back, and if situation and country will make a town, this

place must one day be a place of some importance.  It has Ed-

monson's bottom immediately above and the big bottom below

which contains a large quantity of the finest land in the country,

and large, extensive and rich plains setting in immediately

back of the town.  With these advantages, if it does not be-

come a place of considerable business the fault will not be in

the country but the want of energy in the inhabitants.


It is interesting to note that at a later date this little

town was selected for the site of the state capitol.

His analysis of the land situation in this new coun-

try illustrates his keen powers of observation.      "On

June 1," he writes, "we set out from St. Charles up

the Mississippi. The first ten or twelve miles we pass

over is generally a rolling country, something similar


6 Kindly loaned the author by his great grandson, Renick Cunningham.

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to the Green River bottoms, thinly timbered with a

mixture of black jack, jack oak, black oak, and some

white oak, and well set with a luxuriant growth of

sedge grass. We then come into land of a better qual-

ity, about one-half of which is smooth, open, rolling

prairie, generally high and dry. The limestone rock

appears in plenty about the creeks and we suppose may

with propriety be termed a limestone land. This kind

of country with little variation continues throughout

this day's travel -- say thirty-eight or forty miles --

and will afford a good settlement, but has not yet come

into market, except a few Spanish claims."

In going back from the river he notes that "the

encroaches of the white man has not yet extinguished

the native claim of the wild animals to the forest, and

they still in abundance hold almost undisturbed posses-

sion. The deer, the elk, and in some places the buffalo

are seen quietly grazing with their young. The prairie

dog or wolf, the catamount, as well as all other beasts

of prey, natives of these forests, are frequently heard

and continually seen skulking through the grass in order

to prey on their more innocent neighbors."

His experience with prairie flies sets forth some of

the trials of the early voyagers that are not commonly

given in books relative to American travel on our west-

ern prairie. "The scenery," he writes, "would have

been both romantic and agreeable had it not been for

the infernal prairie flies, which for the first time this

day attacked us, or rather our horses, soon after we

first entered the prairie, and increased with the day's

travel, and to them we are indebted for the speed and

diligence of our day's journey, for otherwise they

would not admit us to travel. The moment we made

Felix Renick, Pioneer 13

Felix Renick, Pioneer           13

a halt our horses were literally covered with them,

which caused the poor beasts to become frantic and

unmanageable otherwise than in a long trot or gallop.

These flies are similar to what we call the green headed

horse fly, and you can scarcely form an idea of their

numbers. They soon taught us that it would be neces-

sary to travel in Indian file and to go before by turns

as they were much worst on the foremost horse. We

accordingly agreed to take the lead alternately for one

hour at a time, with a bunch of bushes or weeds in our

hands to keep them off as well as we could. But we

soon had to reduce the time to half an hour, and finally

to fifteen minutes, as it was impossible for man or horse

to hold out any longer in the severe contest he had to

encounter." The afternoon of the first day they came

to some timber along a creek. Here they stopped, and

held a council, and decided that they might escape the

flies by travelling at night, there being some moonlight,

and camping in forests during the day. After several

days of very tedious travel, in which the horses suffered

greatly, they at last passed beyond the fly-infested


Mr. Renick and his brother William made several

land entries in the region contiguous to Franklin, Mis-

souri. He comments on the land being "the finest, rich-

est and most beautiful body of land that I ever saw."

"On July 3," he writes, "we again turned our faces to-

ward home, near the mouth of Crooked River, about

seventy-five or eighty miles above Franklin, to which

place we returned and made some more entries."

In the spring of 1829 Mr. Renick took passage on

the steamer Neptune, sailing from Portsmouth on the

Ohio River, for New Orleans. On this trip he wrote

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eighteen small pages of notes, recording his more im-

portant observations on the trip. The Neptune reached

New Orleans at 12:00 "p.m.", the 22d, and started her

return voyage the 27th at 7:00 p. m. Reaching Nat-

chez, Mississippi, on April 30, he writes, "the spring

here continues very backward for the climate. On the

morning of the 26th April there was a heavy frost in

this section of country that killed a great deal of their

cotton, and bit the corn, a circumstance that has never

but once been known before in the memory of the oldest


The experience of Mr. Renick in travelling about so

extensively and for so many years in the wilds of the

new West, brought him into intimate contact with the

Indians yet occupying the region east of the Missouri

River. In 1870 his nephew, William Renick, writing

of Logan's tree7 in the Herald and Union, refers to his

Uncle Felix as "the best posted man in Indian history

that there was in this part of the country." In 1774 a

military expedition under Lord Dunmore marched from

Virginia into Ohio, with the view of destroying Indian

towns in the Scioto Valley, and killing their inhabit-

ants. An important battle was held at Point Pleasant,

in which the Indians suffered defeat, leaving twenty-

one dead on the field, with a reported loss of 233 killed

and wounded. The Virginians lost half their commis-

sioned officers and fifty-two men were killed. The In-

dians retreated and were not pursued. Following this

battle, in the overtures for peace made by the Indians,

the chief Logan made the following famous address:8


7 Renick, Memoirs, Correspondence and Reminiscences, 1880.

8 Howe, Henry, Historical Collections of Ohio. Vol. II, 1888.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 15

Felix Renick, Pioneer              15


I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's

cabin hungry and I gave him not meat; if ever he came cold

or naked and I gave him not clothing.

During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan

remained in his tent an advocate for peace. Nay, such was my

love for the whites, that those of my own country pointed at me

as they passed by and said, "Logan is the friend of the white

men." I had even thought to live with you, but for the injuries

of one man, Colonel Cresap, the last spring, in cold blood and

unprovoked, cut off all the relatives of Logan not sparing even

my women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood

in the veins of any human creature.  This called on me for

revenge. I have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully

glutted my vengeance. For my country, I rejoice at the beams

of peace.  Yet do not harbor the thought that mine is the

joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn on his

heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not


Not far south of Circleville, one mile east of the

main highway to Chillicothe, is an elm of remarkable

size and age among notable American trees, the center

of attraction in a small reservation the property of the

State of Ohio. Under this tree tradition has it Logan

made his famous speech to the white conquerors.

There is no absolute historical evidence that Logan

made this noted speech under this tree, for this partic-

ular fact has been one of much controversy. However,

Chief Logan and the Logan Elm are indissoluble parts

of the history of Ohio.

On July 28, 1841, on suggestion of Judge Corwin

of Portsmouth, Ohio, at Westfall, in Pickaway County,

the Logan Historical Society was organized. Its pur-

pose was "to perpetuate those principles for which

Logan suffered the sneers of his red brethren, by the

erection of a monument to his memory, and by the care-

ful collection, safekeeping and lasting preservation for

the use of posterity of the many scattered but interest-

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ing fragments of the history of the early settlements of

the western country, as well as what remains of the

first and successive settlements of North America." In

recognition of his distinction as a citizen interested in

preserving the historical records of these early days,

Felix Renick, "another pioneer of the last century,"

was elected President of the Society.

The versatility of Mr. Renick may well be illus-

trated at this point. He took an active part in histor-

ical discussion and led in the work of this new society.

A number of his journals and letters that have been

loaned to the author are models of good penmanship

and are expressed with much clearness of thought,

though the spelling and punctuation is more or less de-

ficient, but not unduly so for a pioneer American

settler. Howe states9 that he was a fluent and instruc-

tive writer, a man fond of books, being especially fond

of Shakespeare and Addison, from which he frequently

quoted, and was President of the Logan Historical So-

ciety, and one of the first Associate Judges of Ross

County; and to his other accomplishments added a

knowledge of surveying. The interest shown by Mr.

Renick in historical matters is displayed in a remark-

able "Map of the Ancient Indian Towns on the Picka-

way Plain, illustrating a sketch of the country," which

he prepared, an original copy of which is preserved in

the archives of the Ohio State Archaeological and His-

torical Society. This map is about 12 1/2 by 14 1/2 inches

and shows the water courses, towns, timber and plain

land, unusual hills or Indian mounds, points of interest

relative to Lord Dunmore's campaign, etc. This is all

set forth in beautiful detail. Below the map proper is


9 Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, 1888, Vol. II.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 17

Felix Renick, Pioneer            17

a space four and one-half inches deep and the width of

the map devoted to "Remarks" and signed by Felix

Renick. "The above map," he states, "with the ap-

pended remarks, was prepared for the American Pio-

neer, but that publication having suspended, the author

was advised, by some of his friends, to have it en-

graved, and offered to the public. With this advice he

now complies; not doubting but that the work will re-

ceive all the patronage it may be thought to merit. Be

its favour great or small, he will at least have the grati-

fication of knowing that he is handing down to posterity

an accurate representation of matters and things of by-

gone days." One interesting phase of the remarks ap-

pended to this map, is the relating of a thrilling story

of the escape from the Indians of a white man named

Slover, taken prisoner at Crawford's defeat, and con-

demned to death.

Mr. Renick contributed two articles to The Ameri-

can Pioneer, one giving anecdotes of Joe Logston, a

noted frontier character in which a vivid description is

given of a fight of his with two Indians;10 the other

setting forth details of how pioneers camped and pre-

pared their food, describing the character of their dress,

and incidentally how Jesse Hughes and another man

had a fight with Indians. The latter article shows Ren-

ick's ability to write in interesting, descriptive style, as

quoted below:11

Habited in this manner, the pioneers, or frontier settlers

as they were called, thought themselves quite sufficiently equipped

to attend church, go to a wedding, quilting, or visit their sweet-

hearts, and even to get married. And under such circumstances,

10 American Pioneer, Volume 1, No. 6, 1842.

11 Ibid, Volume 1, No. 8, 1842.

Vol. XXXIII -- 2.


Felix Renick, Pioneer 19

Felix Renick, Pioneer              19


a new hunting shirt, leggins and moccasins had the same charm

to draw forth the loving looks and sweet smiles of the lassies

then, as the long tailed blues, the dandy dress, or the glittering

uniform now; and they were not a whit less appreciated by the

laddies, coming from rosy lassies in linsey woolsey, or per-

haps, partly in buckskin, than they are now after they have

passed lives in silks, laces and artificials.  Men who have been

reared in this manner, and the mothers of whose children were

wooed and wedded in this way, I have known afterwards to

occupy some of the highest stations in the gift of their fellow



Felix Renick, as has already been shown, was a per-

son of distinction in the community in which he lived,

but his reputation from a national, and even an inter-

national point of view, was based upon his work as a

feeder, breeder and importer of cattle.    The part he

played in this regard is herewith very appropriately in-

troduced in its historical relationship to the events of

his life.

The Scioto Valley was the first locality settled in

Ohio that obtained special note for the production of

fat cattle, and to the members of the Renick family is

this especially due. The first important exploration of

the valley was made in 1795 by Colonel Nathaniel

Massie and two other leaders, all from Kentucky, and

in 1796 Colonel Massie laid out the town of Chillicothe.

Thus the town was but two years old when first visited

by Felix Renick.

For many years following the settlement of the val-

ley, there were no railroads, and the marketing of farm

produce had to be sent long distances in wagons over

very poor highways. The Renick family, soon after

settlement, undertook farming operations, and this in-

cluded the feeding of cattle for beef. But no market

of consequence was at hand. In commenting on this

20 Ohio Arch

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situation, Mr. William Renick, a son of George, and

born in 1804 in Chillicothe, in his Memoirs states that

although the business of fattening cattle was well un-

derstood by many of the earlier pioneers, and to find a

market for corn was an anxious thought, yet they hesi-

tated to engage in it. By many it was considered that

the great distance from market would render that mode

of disposing of their surplus corn impracticable. Log-

ically speaking, the sensible way to market the corn

would be through feeding it to animals, which would

convert it into flesh that might be driven to market on

foot. The large eastern cities furnished the only mar-

ket of importance in those days, and to reach them re-

quired an overland drive of some 500 miles if cattle

were thus to be disposed of.  The prevailing opinion

at the time of this settlement was that the drive would

so reduce the animals in flesh as to make this method


In 1805, George Renick, the brother of Felix, made

a notable contribution to American live stock history,

when in the spring of that year he drove sixty-eight

head of fat cattle from the Scioto Valley to Baltimore,

Maryland. The cattle reached the market in good con-

dition and were sold to return Mr. Renick a good profit.

This was the first instance of an extended overland

drive of cattle in the United States, the beginning of

an experience in overland drives in this country involv-

ing the delivery of millions of cattle, first to the east-

ward over the Alleghanies, and later from the great

grazing grounds of Texas and the southwest to the

northern markets of the Middle West and North West.

Mr. Renick established the practicability of the over-

land drive, and following his experiment, for nearly

Felix Renick, Pioneer 21

Felix Renick, Pioneer           21

fifty years cattle were driven on foot from Ohio to the

great consuming markets of Baltimore, Philadelphia,

New York and Buffalo.

Felix Renick followed the course of his brother

George in driving cattle to the eastern market. In

1816 he bought 100 head of steers at $75 per head from

two men in Kentucky, which he brought home. From

these he culled out twenty-five and replaced them with

the same number of "tops" of his own breeding and

feeding. In 1817, according to his nephew, William

Renick,12 he drove these cattle to Philadelphia, the

largest and finest drove of 100 head of cattle that ever

crossed the mountains, averaging at home more than

1,300 pounds net. Twenty of the best he sold for $160

per head, the whole lot averaging $133, the market be-

ing $10.50 to $11 net. He was perhaps the most noted

steer feeder of his time, and his nephew states that he

always had twenty-five or thirty steers of his own rais-

ing, that could "top" any lot in the United States.13

Prior to a consideration of the more important part

played by Felix Renick in the cattle industry, it will be

pertinent to set forth briefly the introduction of im-

proved cattle into the West during its early settlement.

The first importation to America of what have been

thought to be pure bred cattle, occurred in 1783, by

Messrs. Gough of Baltimore, Maryland, and Miller of

Virginia. But little seems to be known of their breed-

ing, but they have been thought to represent two dif-

ferent English breeds, one a "milk breed," the other a

"beef breed." The descriptions of these cattle indicate

that the examples of the so-called milk breed were


12 Renick, Memoirs, Correspondence and Reminiscences, 1880, p. 97.

13 Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Record, Vol. 1, 1878, p. 31.

22 Ohio Arch

22      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Shorthorns and it has been generally assumed that

these were the first of this breed brought to America.

Report also has it that between 1790 and 1795 these

same two men made other importations. These Gough

and Miller cattle it is thought found their new home

in northern Virginia, on the fine grazing lands along

the south branch of the Potomac.

About 1791, a Mr. Heaton, a New York butcher,

who had emigrated from England in 1775, returned to

his native country and purchased several Shorthorns,

presumably secured from George Culley, a noted

breeder in Northumberland County, northeastern Eng-

land. Other importations were made along the At-

lantic coast states late in the eighteenth and early in the

nineteenth centuries.

The first cattle of improved breeding to be taken

west of the Alleghanies came from the Gough and Mil-

ler importation. In 1785, two sons and a son-in-law

of Matthew Patton, a Hardy County, Virginia farmer,

moved from that state to Kentucky. Along with their

possessions they took a young bull and several heifers

said to have been purchased from Mr. Gough. In 1790

Mr. Patton followed his sons to Kentucky, bringing

with him a bull and a cow descended from Gough and

Miller importation, said to have been of the milk breed.

The bull, a red in color, and named Mars, is recorded

as number 1850 in the American Shorthorn Herd Book.

The cow, white in color, with red ears, was named

Venus. Bred to Mars, she produced two bull calves.

Mars was kept in the Patton herd until Matthew Pat-

ton died in 1803, when he was sold to a Mr. Peeples of

Kentucky, in whose possession he died in 1806. One of

the sons of Venus was kept in Kentucky, but the other


24 Ohio Arch

24       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

was taken to Ohio, and Mr. L. F. Allen, who is cred-

ited with this information,14 states that he probably

located in the Scioto Valley.

In 1798 or 1799, John Patton, a son of Matthew,

moved from Kentucky to Chillicothe, Ohio, bringing

some of the cattle of Patton breeding.

In 1803 Messrs. Daniel Harrison, James Patton and

James Gray, of Clark County, Kentucky, bought of Mr.

Miller of Virginia, a two year old bull named Pluto,

recorded as number 825 in the American Shorthorn

Herd Book. This bull, which was a dark red-roan, or

red in color, being bred to Patton cows, sired some

superior milking stock for those days. This bull was

taken to Ohio in 1812, but died soon after.

In 1811 a bull named Shaker, recorded as number

2193 in the American Shorthorn Herd Book was

bought of Mr. Miller and used by societies of Shakers

on their farms about Pleasant Hill, Kentucky and

Union Village, Ohio.

These three bulls, Mars, Pluto and Shaker, and a

fourth named Buzzard used in Kentucky, are regarded

as pure bred Shorthorns, descendants from original

Gough and Miller importations.

The preceding statement is made to give a suitable

historical record of the introduction of Shorthorn cattle

to Ohio. There may be some question as to the true-

ness of breeding in Shorthorn ancestry of these early

cattle. They varied from those of milk to beef type,

and differed materially in head character.  Those

brought west by Matthew Patton and his sons, became

known as Patton cattle, and were in considerable favor.

Mr. L. F. Allen and later writers have classed these


14 Allen, Lewis F., History of the Shorthorn Cattle, 1872, p. 158.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 25

Felix Renick, Pioneer           25

Pattons as Shorthorns, but Mr. William Renick in his

Memoirs has expressed the opinion that they were

Bakewell or Long Horn cattle.15 To substantiate his

opinion, he writes as follows:

"John Patton, who was a very enterprising and

public spirited man, and a member of the Ohio Territo-

rial Legislature, as well as his brother Matthew, were

near neighbors of ours, the creek only dividing their

lands from father's and our families were particularly

intimate. John Patton died shortly after Ohio was ad-

mitted as a state, and my father, George Renick, and

Uncle Felix Renick, bought his entire stock of blooded

cattle at the administrator's sale. Thus was this cele-

brated stock introduced into Ohio, resulting in almost

incalculable benefit to the whole state. The English

origin of this stock was unknown to the pioneers of the

cattle trade in this country. Indeed they had scarcely

any knowledge of the different breeds then existing in

England, further than was derived from the general

names of Longhorn, Middlehorn and Shorthorn,

though the names of Holderness, Teeswater and Bake-

well were familiar, but the distinct characteristics of

those breeds were but slightly, if at all known to them.

But after long research it is my earnest conviction that

the Patton stock was of the Bakewell south interior of

England improved breed."

William Renick based his opinion on these cattle be-

ing Longhorns, because he understood that the Gough

and Miller stock had been imported from southwestern

England, and that their descendants possessed the char-

acteristics in color and head of this breed. He states

that their horns were so long and clear that they were

15 Renick, Memoirs, Correspondence and Reminiscences, 1880.

26 Ohio Arch

26      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

in vogue for powder horns, before flasks came into gen-

eral use. Mr. Renick remarks on seeing on the pasture

of Robert Cunningham in the blue grass region of Ken-

tucky, about the year 1823 or 1824, a most interesting

sight of 100 head of "half-blood Longhorn and half

Patton cattle." The horns of these cattle "were a won-

derful sight, on account of their immense length and

divergence from the head in every direction, and with-

out any regularity or similarity; in the same animal one

horn would run forward, the other back, one up, the

other down, and some of them had to have the tips of

their horns cut off, otherwise they could not have eaten

the grass, unless it was of great length."

Whether the opinion of William Renick as to the

ancestry or breeding of the Patton cattle is correct or

not, is not so important in this connection as the fact

that he states that his father and Felix Renick bought

the "entire stock of blooded cattle" of John Patton, sold

at administrator's sale presumably within a year or so

after Ohio was admitted as a state, which was in 1802.

Possibly these were the first "blooded" or improved

cattle purchased by Felix Renick, although no doubt

from our present point of view, they were rather in-

ferior at best. Mr. Renick as has already been shown,

was handling cattle in an extensive way for his time.

William Renick states in his Memoirs that his father

and Uncle Felix had for a long time much the largest

stocks of thoroughblood Patton cattle in Ohio, indeed

for a considerable time they were almost the only rais-

ers of pure bloods in the state. In an early day Felix

Renick gave, or sold at a nominal price, five or six year-

ling bulls, and about as many heifers, to William Ren-

ick, of Greenbrier County, Virginia. This gentleman

Felix Renick, Pioneer 27

Felix Renick, Pioneer         27

kept all the heifers and one of the bulls, but gave away

or loaned without charge, the other bulls to persons who

lived in Greenbrier and adjoining counties, his special

purpose being to improve the cattle in that locality. This

was accomplished to a gratifying extent, and the de-

scendants of this stock were highly valued for about

forty years thereafter by the large feeders on the south

branch of the Potomac.

In 1816 Colonel Lewis Sanders of Kentucky sent an

order to England for some Shorthorns, with the result

that in 1817 he received an importation of twelve ani-

mals, eight Shorthorns and four Longhorns.  The

Shorthorns consisted of four bulls and four heifers.

Three of the cows of this importation, Mrs. Motte, the

Durham cow and the Teeswater cow, dropped twenty-

six calves. Three daughters of Mrs. Motte were also

very prolific. These cattle and their descendants played

an important part in the improvement of the cattle of

Kentucky and Ohio, and Felix and George Renick no

doubt benefited by their blood.

In 1833 Mr. Walter Dun of Lexington, Kentucky,

imported a pure bred Shorthorn bull and five heifers,

these being delivered on November 26 at Lexington.

These were excellent animals that bred successfully,

their descendants being placed in many herds of Ohio

and Kentncky. This importation was suggestive to Mr.

Renick and some of his friends of the desirability of

making an importation from England. Mr. Dun was

a friend of Mr. Renick, and on December 6, 1833, he

wrote him "that Mr. Smith priced heifers, one-half

Seventeen Shorthorn and one-half Longhorn blood, at

$50 each; that Mr. Smith had sold his yearling heifer

Cleopatra by Accommodation, out of Nancy Dawson

28 Ohio Arch

28        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

(pure Seventeen blood), for $400, and a seven-eighths

heifer for $100. These Mr. Dun thinks are pretty fair

prices, and wonders what the Scioto people will think

of them."16

The initial steps were taken late in 1833 to organize

a company to import some improved cattle from Eng-

land, and on November 2 of that year, through the

agency of Felix Renick there was organized at Chilli-

cothe "the Ohio Company for Importing English Cat-

tle." Some of the most prominent men of Ohio were

in this company, including ex-Governors Allen Trimble

and Duncan McArthur, were among the forty-eight

stockholders, all of whom were of Ohio excepting two.

There were ninety-two shares of stock in the company,

with a par value of $100. The following is a list of the

stockholders which the writer has arranged in alpha-

betical order, from a list prepared by John L. Taylor,

Secretary of the Company, in an article on "The His-

tory of the Ohio Company for Importing English


County                         Shares

Stockholders                   resident                      held

1. Alkire, John M................ Pickaway ........ 1

2. Bodkin, Davis J............... Pickaway ........ 1

3. Boggs, Sr. John............... Pickaway ........ 1

4. Campbell, Francis ............ Pickaway ........ 1

5. Claypool, Wesley ............. Ross                               ........... 1

6. Crouse, John ................. Ross                                   ........... 1

7. Cunningham, Isaac ............ Kentucky ........ 8

8. Cunningham, W. H ............. Virginia ........ 4

9.  Davis, Charles  ............. Ross  ........... 1

10. Denny, S. S. & William Renick  Pickaway ........ 2

11. Florence, Elias .............. Pickaway ........ 1

12. Foster, John ................. Ross ............ 1

16 Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Record, Vol. 1, 1878, p. 40.

17 Report of the United States Commissioner of Patents, 1851. Part

II Agriculture.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 29

Felix Renick, Pioneer                  29


County                       Shares

Stockholders                    resident                               held

13. Galloway, H. P. ............... ?  .............. 1

14. Gwynne, E. W................... Franklin ........ 1

15. Harness, Edwin J............... Ross ............ 3

16. Harrison, Batteal ............. Fayette  ........ 1

17. Hegler, A. and Patterson M..... Fayette ......... 1

18. Huston, Thomas ................ Pickaway ........ 3

19. McArthur, Duncan .............. Ross ............ 6

20.  McNeil, John  ................ Ross  ........... 3

21. McNeil, Strawder .............. Ross ............ 2

22. Morris, Presley ............... Ross ............ 2

23. Pancake, Sr. John.............. Ross                                ........... 1

24. Pratt, Elias  ................. Pickaway                              ....... 1

25. Pratt, E. and Asahel Renick.... Pickaway ........ 1

26. Radcliff, George .............. Pickaway ........ 1

27. Renick, Asahel ................ Pickaway ........ 2

28. Renick, Felix              ................ Ross                        ........... 2

29. Renick, George          ............... Ross                         ........... 6

30. Renick, Harness ............... Pickaway ........ 1

31. Renick, Jonathan .............. Pickaway ........ 3

32. Renick, Josiah ................ Pickaway ........ 1

33. Renick, Thomas ................ Pickaway ........ 1

34. Renick, William ............... Pickaway ........ 1

35. Renick, Jr. William ........... Pickaway ........ 2

36. Seymour, R. R.................. Ross ............ 2

37. Starling, Lynn ................ Franklin ........ 2

38. Stevenson, Evan ............... Pickaway ........ 1

39. Stewart, Archibald ............ Ross ............ 1

40. Stewart, Robert  .............. Ross  ........... 1

41. Sullivant, M. L................ Franklin  ....... 1

42. Taylor, John L................. Ross ............ 1

43. Trimble, Allen ................ Highland ........ 5

44. Van Meter, John J. ............ Pike ............ 2

45. Vance, James             ................. Ross ............ 1

46. Watts, Arthur            ................ Ross  ........... 3

47. Webb, John T................... Ross ............ 2

48. White, Joseph G................ Ross ............ 1

It is interesting to note that the ninety-two shares

of stock value at $9,200 were held by forty-eight dif-

ferent persons, twenty-eight of whom held but one share

each. Nine Renicks held nineteen shares, of which

Felix had but two while his brother George owned six.

30 Ohio Arch

30      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

The original intent of the stockholders was to im-

port from England some of the best improved cattle

of that country although the Shorthorn breed was more

especially in mind. Mr. Felix Renick was commis-

sioned to execute the purpose of the company, and he

had as companions and assistants on the trip Messrs.

Josiah Renick and Edwin J. Harness.

The Honorable Henry Clay of Kentucky, the "Great

Commoner," who imported the first Hereford's to

America, and who was a lover of good cattle, became

much interested in the mission of Felix Renick. On

December 13, 1833, he wrote a letter from Washing-

ton to Governor Trimble, and suggested that the com-

pany import good examples of Durhams, Herefords

and Devons. He emphasized the value of the Here-

ford and Devon for working purposes and thought it

important to consider what breeds for Western graziers

could be best marketed in a journey on foot of five or

six hundred miles. He looked with favor on the Devon.

Mr. Renick and his associates left Chillicothe on

January 29, 1834, on their long journey overseas. On

their way to New York, from which port they sailed,

they stopped at Baltimore to look at a herd of Devons

owned by a Mr. Patterson, and on which they looked

with favor. Arriving at Philadelphia they stopped off

long enough to inspect a herd of twenty-three Short-

horns owned by Colonel John H. Powel, who for many

years was a very well known importer and successful

breeder of Shorthorns and other improved stock. Fol-

lowing this visit Mr. Renick is credited with stating

that the Powel herd was probably equal to anything

they would see in England. From Colonel Powel they

derived valuable suggestions relative to their trip

Felix Renick, Pioneer 31

Felix Renick, Pioneer         31

abroad. It is probable that the inspection of the Powel

herd as well as the enthusiasm of Colonel Powel for

the Shorthorn, convinced Mr. Renick that they would

make no mistake if they restricted their purchases to

Shorthorns only.

Mr. Renick and his two associates landed at Liver-

pool on March 24, and at once proceeded to get in touch

with the cattle situation. They inspected several herds

near Liverpool, perhaps due to conversation they had

with Colonel Powel who had stated prior to Mr. Ren-

ick's visit, that most of the Shorthorns imported were

"selected near Liverpool, by cow keepers, with regard

rather to the state of their udders, for the supply of

milk on shipboard, than with reference to pedigrees or

their fitness to improve our farm stock."18 From Liver-

pool they journeyed northeasterly across England to

Yorkshire and the native territory of the Shorthorn.

They first stopped at Leeds, where they looked over the

herd of W. F. Paley and secured options on several

animals, which they later purchased.  After stop-

ping at Ripley to attend an English agricultural and

livestock show, they called upon Richard Booth at Stud-

ley. The cattle here met their favorable consideration,

but none were for private sale, the surplus being re-

served for a forthcoming auction. They also saw the

herds of Mr. Booth at Killerby, A. L. Maynard, J.

Woodhouse and J. Clark.

The fame of Thomas Bates of Kirklevington, as a

Shorthorn breeder, was at this time surpassed by none

in England. Naturally the Ohio visitors should look

to the herd of that great breeder. They drove to Dar-

lington, a market town of importance not far from


18 Memoirs Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, 1824.

32 Ohio Arch

32        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Kirklevington, the name of the Bates estate, and put

up at the King's Head Inn. In view of the fact that

Felix Renick here began a very important acquaintance

with Bates, it will not be inappropriate at this point to

introduce some phases of this experience, as set forth

by a nephew of this great breeder, Mr. Cadwallader

John Bates:19

On Easter Monday, 1834, Bates was as usual at the Dar-

lington Great Market.  Some Americans staying at the King's

Head came up and spoke to him.   They were it appeared the

representatives of the Ohio Company for Importing English

Cattle -- Mr. Felix Renick of Chillicothe and his two assistants,

Edwin J. Harness and Josiah Renick.  In the course of con-

versation, Bates soon found that they possessed a great knowl-

edge on the subject of Shorthorns, and invited them to Kirklev-

ington. He regretted his house was not more comfortable, but

promised he would improve it by the time they came to England

again.  He gave them full details of his Shorthorn experience

* * * showed them his own cattle and took them to see the

principal herds in the neighborhood.

Bates was anxious that America should obtain the

best of Shorthorns and he astonished his friends by

offering Renick six of his finest cows and heifers. This

offer, however, was not seriously considered at first.

Mr. Renick wished to look further among the English

herds.  With Mr. Bates he called on Jonas Whitaker,

a breeder who had recently dispersed his herd, who

soon after and for several years acted as the British

agent and adviser of Mr. Renick. Several other herds

were visited by Mr. Renick, among others Lord Al-

thorpe's and Lord Feversham's. Later, when the sub-

ject of the six animals offered by Mr. Bates to the


19 Bates, Cadwallader John, Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington

Shorthorns: A contribution to the history of pure Durham cattle. New-

castle Upon Tyne, 1897.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 33

Felix Renick, Pioneer               33

Ohio Company was renewed, Mr. Renick expressed a

desire to first consult Mr. Whitaker:

Although among the six animals offered were Duchess 33d,

priced at 150 guineas,20 Duchess 34th (or Brokenleg) at 100

guineas, and the Matchem Cow at 15 guineas, "surrendering his

judgment to Whitaker," Renick finally settled on 14th April,

1834, to take only Red Rose 11th, by Belvedere, at 150 guineas,

and Teeswater at 50 guineas, "the two worst of the lot" in the

breeder's opinion.  In case Red Rose 11th did not produce a

living calf, Bates volunteered to furnish the first sister-in-blood,

gratis.  *  *  *  Bates also sold Renick the two calves,

Earl of Darlington (1944) and Young Waterloo (2817) for 100


Duchess 34th above referred to was one of the most

famous cows of her time, and the dam of the Duke of

Northumberland, the most notable bull produced in Mr.

Bates' herd. Mr. H. H. Dixon says21 that "Mr. Bates

was within an ace of selling her to the Americans, but

luckily Mr. Whitaker got him off it, and she lived to

produce the great Duke of Northumberland a few

months after." Mr. Cadwallader Bates however says,

"He no doubt persuaded the Americans not to buy her

-- a very different matter."

The opinions of Mr. Whitaker were not received

with favor by Mr. Bates, and they engaged in wordy

clashes and radical differences of opinion as to the

merits of the animals considered. This is well illus-

trated by Cadwallader Bates in the following incident:22

"A little later," following the purchase of Duchess

33d, "as Bates and the Americans were seated around

Whitaker's table at Greenholme, their host burst out

into a tirade against Duchess 33d: 'she was a bad one


20 A guinea has a value of about $5.00.

21 Dixon, H. H., Saddle and Sirloin, p. 155.

22 Bates, Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington Shorthorns, p. 248.

Vol. XXXIII -- 3.

34 Ohio Arch

34       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

if he ever saw a bad one.' Bates gave this the lie direct

by declaring that she was better than any other animal

Whitaker had ever seen, and told the Americans that

if they would lay down 300 guineas for her he would

not now accept it." Bates seemed convinced that Whit-

aker was endeavoring to prejudice the Americans, not

only against his cattle, but also the value of his judg-


"On August 6, 1834," writes Cadwallader Bates,23

"Whitaker and Bates compared the two year old Red

Rose 11th, just as she was leaving for America with

Duchess 19th, a heifer of about the same age. Whitaker

considered Red Rose 11th 'very good; her horns a little

wide; head, eyes, crop, back, sides, all good, and bosom

extra, but shoulders a little upright.' Bates stood to it

that Duchess 19th was the better animal. Whitaker, on

the contrary criticized her crops as deficient and her

body as too large, though he was compelled to admit

that her head, eyes and horns were most beautiful."

It is of special importance to note here that Red

Rose 11th, later known in America as Rose of Sharon,

became the foundress of one of the most famous fam-

ilies of Shorthorns developed in America in the 19th


In his purchases Mr. Renick bought a heifer named

Young Mary from J. Clark, that even excelled Red Rose

11th as a dam and foundress of a Shorthorn family,

for she lived to the ripe old age of twenty-one, and is

said to have dropped sixteen heifer and four bull calves.

It is fair to state that the bringing of these two heifers

to America by the Ohio Company was one of the most


26 Bates, Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington Shorthorns.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 35

Felix Renick, Pioneer                  35

noteworthy events of its kind in the history of Short-

horn importations.

Mr. Renick and his associates purchased nineteen

head of Shorthorns, seven bulls and twelve females.

These were presumably shipped on a sailing vessel from

Liverpool late in May in 1834. The cattle landed at

Philadelphia and were driven overland to Chillicothe,

arriving there in good condition in October.

Among the correspondence and papers of Felix

Renick placed at the disposal of the author of this bio-

graphical sketch by Mr. Renick Cunningham, to whom

he is greatly indebted, was found the original record

prepared by Mr. Renick relative to the cost of each of

the nineteen animals bought. This statement, in Mr.

Renick's characteristic handwriting, dated at Liverpool,

is clearly legible, although during the ninety years since,

the ink is rather faded. Inasmuch also as the old Ren-

ick home in which Mr. Cunningham resides was partly

submerged in the great 1913 flood in the Scioto Valley,

most of these papers are soiled by the dirty water which

suddenly took possession of the first story of the house.

In view of the historical interest of this record, it is

here reproduced exactly as given by Mr. Renick.

LIVERPOOL 20th May 1834.






1. Duke of York, purchased of J. B. Sedgewick,

Esq., price ...........................??175 00 $777 00

2. Rantipole, purchased of W. F. Paley, Esq, price                                                  40 00  177 60

3. Earl of Darlington, purchased of Thomas

Bates,  Esq.,  price ...................... 52 10  233 10

4. Young Waterloo, purchased of Thomas Bates,

Esq., price  .............................. 52 10                                                        233 10

5. Reformer, purchased of Mrs. Raine, price......... 45 00                                           199 80

36 Ohio Arch

36          Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications



AND C. J. HARNESS -- Concluded.




6. Matchem, purchased of J. Woodhouse, price...                                                      30 00                  133 20

7. Exponent, purchased of J. Whitaker, Esq., price                                                   10 10                  46 62

Total  first  cost ..........................  ??405 10                                           $1800 42

s. d.

Average first cost .......................      57-18-7    $257 20



1. Rose of Sharon, purchased of Thomas Bates,

Esq.,  price  .............................      130 00     577 20

2. Lily of the Valley, purchased of William

Raine,  Esq.,  price .......................      45 00     199 80

3. Teeswater, purchased of Thomas Bates, Esq.,

price ......................................      80 00     355 20

4. Lady Blanche, purchased of W. F. Paley, Esq.,

price  .....................................                                                                        35 00                  155 40

5. Matilda, purchased of J. Woodhouse, price..........                                                 42 00                  180 48

6. Calypso,.purchased of J. R. Tutley, Esq., price....                                                 40 00                  177 60

7. Young Mary, purchased of J. Clark, price...........26 10                                        117 66

8. Blossom, purchased of Mr. Ashcroft, price..........                                                  31 10                  139 86

9. Fiddler, purchased of J. Whitaker, Esq., price.....                                                  31 10                  139 86

10. Flora, purchased of A. L. Maynard, Esq., price.....                                                30 00                  133 20

11. Gaudy, purchased of A. L. Maynard, Esq., price.....                                             30 00                  133 20

12. Dutchess of Liverpool, purchased of A. R.

Cowjober, price ........................          20 00      88 80

Total first cost ..........................    ??541 00   $2404 26

s. d.

Average first cost .......................       45-5-1     200 35


At this point it may be pertinent to present the

reasons which influenced Mr. Renick and his associates

to purchase only Shorthorns. It may be easily under-

stood that upon the arrival of these cattle at Chillicothe,

Mr. Renick would be called upon by many persons for

information concerning them. Therefore, in order to

meet this demand, he prepared and had printed on a

sheet seventeen by twenty-one inches, under date of

January 12, 1835, specific information regarding the

reasons for purchasing Shorthorns, followed with a list

Felix Renick, Pioneer 37

Felix Renick, Pioneer                37

of the nineteen animals, with pedigrees in detail of each

one excepting Duchess of Liverpool. On the reverse

side of the sheet was reproduced an article from "The

Farmer's Series," an English publication which was

copied into the Farmer and Mechanic of Cincinnati.

Following this article was a reproduction of the cata-

logue of the 1810 sale of Charles Colling, with prices

secured at this sale. On the front of this sheet, follow-

ing the heading in large type "Ohio Company's Im-

portation of 1834," Mr. Renick gives as follows his

reasons for purchasing Shorthorns:

The undersigned, Agent of the "Ohio Company for the

Importation of English Cattle," having been frequently applied

to for copies of the Pedigrees of the stock imported by the Com-

pany during the year 1834, deems it proper to publish the fol-

lowing list, which has been carefully made out from certificates

obtained in England at the time the purchases were made by

him and now in his possession. And as the question has also

been frequently asked, why the exclusive preference was given

to the particular breed we selected over all others, and why such

high prices were paid, it may not be improper to give some of

the most prominent reasons which influenced us in both cases.

At a meeting of the stockholders of the Company, previous

to our starting to England, various breeds and prices were spoken

of; but it was finally unanimously agreed that we should be

confined neither to any particular breed or price; but that after

a careful examination of the various breeds, weighing well and

fairly their claims to a preference, we should select from the

breed or breeds that would, in our opinion, best promote the

interest of the Western farmer or agriculturist, and of the

breed or breeds we should select, to bring the best specimens

we could procure, without regard to the price. In order, there-

fore, to meet these views as near as possible, soon after we

landed at Liverpool, we commenced examining the stocks of

several breeders of fine cattle in the vicinity of that great com-

mercial town.  Here we found no other breed than the "Im-

proved Short-Horn;" and as we considered it very desirable to

to have a combination of the beef and dairy qualities in the

same breed if practicable, we also visited the great dairy estab-

lishments in and near Liverpool.  Here also, as well as other

38 Ohio Arch

38        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

dairy establishments at other large towns we afterwards visited,

we found all or nearly all the Cows used for dairy purposes to

have more or less of the Short-horn crosses and approaching

as near the full-blood as would justify the proprietors to go.

This we thought the best test of their dairy qualities we could

have; and after carefully viewing and examining all the stocks

of any notoriety in the great agricultural district of Yorkshire

and Durham -- and particularly the celebrated valley of the

Tees River in its whole extent, -- and also Nottinghamshire,

Derbyshire, Herefordshire, &c., &c., getting all the information

we could procure (as well from books as from gentlemen in

whom we could place confidence,) we felt no hesitation in giving

a decided preference to the "Improved Short-Horns," as best

adapted to meet the views of the Company.   Their superior

milking qualities; their early arrival at maturity; their extraor-

dinary adaptation to receive flesh and fat on the most desirable

points, to almost any extent the feeder may choose; their small

bone -- light offal; their great portion of fine, and small portion

of coarse flesh, -- the fine colour and beautiful marl or mixture

of fat and lean rendering the beef superior in quality; the great

essential of good handling they possess (which is now in Eng-

land, and sooner or later will be here, considered the touchstone,

as it were, or index, of the fattening propensity of the animal;)

their hardy habits and excellent constitutions; place them so

far in advance of any other breed of the present day, that in our

opinion, it would have been folly in the extreme not to have

given them the preference. We accordingly made our selections

from what are thought the best stocks of that breed; taking but

few from each stock; so that, by a judicious management, the

deteriorating effect of breeding "in and in" too much may be

for a long time avoided.

As to the price being too extravagant, in the opinion of

those perhaps not well acquainted with the prices of this stock

in England, we have only to ask such to refer to the catalogues

of public as well as private sales that have taken place in Eng-

land since Mr. Charles Colling's sale in 1810, and they will at

once see that the prices we have given (say ??175, equal to say

$777.77 for the highest priced Bull, and 150 guineas now nearly

equal to $750, for the highest-priced Cow,) is not extravagantly

high, as the best blooded "Improved Short-Horns" have not

sold for lower prices for twenty-five years past, but sometimes

much higher.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 39

Felix Renick, Pioneer                39

In a letter to Mr. J. S. Reynolds giving his reasons

for buying Shorthorns24 Mr. Renick gives essentially

those quoted above with this additional:

We believe them to be better milkers than either the Here-

fords, Devons or Long-Horns -- We got the best we could find

regardless of price -- The object was first conceived, and has

been so far carried out, for the good of the country. Whether

it has been well or illy carried out is not for us to say; all we

can say is, that if the selection is not as good as could be made

in England, nothing but our want of judgment in making the

purchases has made them so.

Below is a copy of a letter written to Mr. Felix

Renick by ex-Governor McArthur, relative to his in-

structions by the company, that may well be introduced



Ross County,

State of Ohio,

United States.

SIR: --

The Ohio Company for the Importation of English Cattle,

reposing special confidence in your prudence, judgment and

integrity, have selected you as their Agent to proceed to England

and purchase for them the cattle they desire to import.

To accomplish this you are furnished with eight thousand

one hundred dollars. In making your purchases, you will ob-

serve the instructions given you at the last meeting of the com-

pany, and whatever expenses may attend the transportation or

feeding and attending the cattle to be procured, after they may

be landed in the United States, shall be furnished you upon

your return.  You will advise us from time to time of your

progress in this business, and of the time when you may be

expected to return. This trust is one in which our country

at large feel great interest; and as one of our fellow citizens,

long and favorably known and esteemed, the Society feels as-

sured that you will in all things faithfully and advantageously

discharge it, and thus not only fulfil the expectations of your

24 Early History of Shorthorn Breeding, in Ohio Shorthorn Breed-

ers' Record, Vol. 1, 1878.

40 Ohio Arch

40       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


friends, but contribute to the prosperity of our common coun-

try, for whose welfare you are known to cherish an ardent love.


President of the Ohio Company for

the Importation of English Cattle.


Sect. of the Ohio

Co. Im. Cattle.

I hereby certify that Josiah Renick of Pickaway County

and Ed. Harness of Ross County, in the state of Ohio, are

selected by Mr. Renick, and approved by the within named

company, as his assistants.  Given under my hand at Chilli-

cothe this 29th January, 1834.


Pres. Ohio Im. Company.



After his return to America, Mr. Renick was in

constant correspondence with Mr. Whitaker, letters of

great length and detail regarding the purchase of more

cattle, passing between them, several of Mr. Whitaker's

now being in the hands of the author. The claim is

also made by Mr. Cadwallader Bates25 that Mr. Renick

wrote his uncle that he would take any cattle he chose

to send him at his own price. Soon after this letter

came from Mr. Renick, Mr. Whitaker called on Mr.

Bates and informed him that he also had received a

letter from Mr. Renick in which he had advised him

that "all the American trade was to pass through his

hands and he was to make the best bargains he could

for the Ohio Company on commission. He looked

through the Kirklevington herd but never then nor

afterwards asked Bates to sell any animal to the Com-


In the late summer of 1835 Mr. Whitaker for-


25 Bates, Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington Shorthorns, p. 251.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 41

Felix Renick, Pioneer          41

warded a small consignment to Mr. Renick consisting

of seven head for the Ohio Company. In connection

with this lot, Mr. Bates sent as a gift to the Bishop of

Ohio, at Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, the bull Skip-

ton Bridge (5208). He also sent a heifer, the Hon.

Miss Barrington, by Belvedere (1706) as a present to

Mrs. McIlvaine, the wife of the Bishop. These animals

were later placed in charge of General Wilson, of New-

ark, to the advantage of Shorthorn stock in Licking

County. It may be stated here that Mr. Bates became

interested in American conditions, and at one time it

is said considered removing to America and locating

near Gambier.

In 1836 a third consignment of cattle selected by

Mr. Whitaker was forwarded to the Ohio Company.

This included thirty-five head, some of which were of

unusual excellence and did much to improve the Short-

horn stock of the Middle West. Notable among the

cows of the 1835 and 1836 importations were Young

Phyllis, by Fairfax (1023); Josephine, by Norfolk

(2377); Harriet, by Young Waterloo (2817), and

Illustrious, by Emperor (1974).  The bulls of special

note were Comet Halley (1855) by Matchem; Gold-

finder (2066); Prince Charles (2461), and Nimrod


These last two importations were landed at the port

of New York and either driven overland or shipped up

the Hudson River by boat, and thence by the Erie Canal

from Albany to Buffalo, and then by a lake vessel to

Cleveland, from which place they were driven overland

nearly 200 miles to Chillicothe.

As a result of these importations the Ohio Com-

pany finally had in its possession a choice herd of Short-






1834, '5 AND '6,






List of the








Printed Up S. W. El??.

October, 1836.


Felix Renick, Pioneer 43

Felix Renick, Pioneer         43

horns that must be sold to meet the demands of the

stockholders and others among whom were breeders

who wished to purchase from the company at public

sale. The cattle were under the care of Mr. Renick at

his Indian Creek farm, and he gave much time in prepa-

ration for a sale. In order to meet the requirements,

in addition to the publication of the printed matter

already referred to on page 37, he prepared a quantity

of printed pedigrees, the name of each animal and its

breeding, being given on a separate sheet. A number

of these pedigrees were found in an old family bureau

by Mr. E. Hegler of Washington Court House, Ohio,

a grandson of Mr. A. Hegler, a stockholder of the Ohio

Company, who kindly presented several copies to the

writer and the Ohio State University. Mr. Renick also

prepared a catalogue of seventeen pages, with the fol-

lowing inscription on the title page: "A Catalogue of

the Improved Short-Horned Cattle, Imported from

England in the years 1834, '5 and '6, by the 'Ohio Im-

porting Company for Importing English Cattle,' to-

gether with a list of the Increase of Stock since their

Arrival in this Country: to which is added, the Pedi-

grees of Bulls and Cows referred to in the Text. Com-

piled by Felix Renick, Esq., Agent of the company,

Chillicothe, O., Printed by S. W. Ely, October, 1836."

This catalogue lists fifty-four imported animals in one

group, followed by a progeny list of ten bull calves and

eleven heifer calves. More or less abbreviated refer-

ences are then given to forty-five animals related to the

ones catalogued. Pedigrees of the Ohio importation of

1836, (not previously inserted), follow with a list of

twelve head.

Undoubtedly this catalogue was prepared for use in

44 Ohio Arch

44       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

connection with the sale, but it is interesting to note that

the five last pages consist of quotations of articles

printed in the Scioto Gazette giving reports of the two

sales by which the herd was dispersed. The copy of

the catalogue above referred to was the personal prop-

erty of Mr. Renick, and is fastened in the back part of

volume three of the Coates' Herd-book which was a

part of his library. It is reasonable to assume that Mr.

Renick had these additional pages printed after the sale

to become a part of his personal catalogue, for purpose

of preservation and reference.

The above described catalogue is of special historic

interest, aside from its relationship to this sale, from

the fact that it is one of the earliest, if not the first

catalogue printed in America of a sale of farm animals.

Many thousands of catalogues of different sales of

horses, cattle, sheep and swine have been printed in the

United States since 1836, involving wide variety of

make-up and expense, beautiful examples of the print-

er's art, but not one of these is entitled to such distinc-

tion as this of the Ohio Company for Importing Eng-

lish Cattle.

The first sale of these cattle was held on October

29, 1836, at Indian Creek Farm, where the cattle had

been held under the care of Mr. Renick. Mrs. Cun-

ningham, a grand-daughter of Mr. Renick, who died at

about eighty years of age in the old Renick home, in-

formed the writer that the sale was held in the open

field lying between the Columbus-Portsmouth turnpike

and the residence. The cattle were said to be in good

condition, the attendance was large, and the demand

great.  The Scioto Gazette reported that "notwith-

standing the high prices at which the cattle were sold,

Felix Renick, Pioneer 45

Felix Renick, Pioneer               45

some of them exchanged owners immediately, at very

considerable advances; and for others, more than fifty

per cent on their cost was offered and refused."

The following report of the cattle sold, for con-

venience is arranged in two groups, alphabetically in

each case, with such references as may be desirable:



-- SALE OCT. 29, 1836.


Commodore Perry (1859), catalogued as Perry, red

yearling; sire, Reformer; dam, imp. Teeswater.

Buyer, W. H. Creighton, Madison County, Ohio.... $400

Davy Crockett (3571), roan, calved Dec. 5, 1834; dam,

imp. Young Mary. Buyer, Peter L. Ayres, of Ohio.  490

Duke of Leeds (1938), roan, calved Sept. 21, 1834; sire,

Norfolk (2377); dam, Vinca, by Frederick (1060).

Buyer, John Crouse, Jr., Ross County, Ohio.......  575

Duke of Norfolk (1939), red-and-white, calved March

21, 1835; sire, Norfolk (2377); dam, Modesty, by

Sir Anthony (1435). Buyer, Robert Stewart, Ross

County, Ohio .................................. 1,255

Later sold for $1400 to Gov. Vance and J. H. James.

Duke of York (1941), red-and-white, calved July 18,

1833; sire, Frederick (1060); dam, Bernice, by

Charles (878).  Bred by J. Whitaker.  Buyer, R.

R. Seymour, Ross County, O..................... 1,120

Earl of Darlington (1944), roan, calved April 4, 1833;

sire, Belvedere (1706); dam, Trinket, by Symmetry

(643).  Bred by Thomas Bates.     Buyer, Batteal

Harrison, Fayette County, O......................710

Goldfinder (2066), roan, calved 1835; sire, Charles

(1815); dam, by Driver. Bred by J. Lawson. Buyer,

Isaac Cunningham of Kentucky ...................  1,095

Goliah (2068), red, calved Sept. 10, 1836; sire, Durock;

dam, imp. Calypso. Buyer, Isaac V. Cunningham,

Scioto  Co., O...................................  300

Greenholm Experiment (2075), roan, calved Feb. 14, 1834;

sire, Camden; dam, Fidelle, by Peacock's bull. Bred

by Jonas Whitaker. Buyer, Jas. M. Trimble, High-

land County .................................... 1,150

46 Ohio Arch

46        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


Independence (2152), roan, calved July 4, 1835; sire, Earl

of Darlington (1944); dam, imp. Matilda. Buyer,

Hegler and Peterson, Ross County, O.............  400

John Bull (2161), red, little white, calved Nov. 27, 1835;

sire, Earl of Darlington (1944); dam, imp. Gaudy.

Buyer, William Renick, Jr., Pickaway Co., O.......  615

Logan (2218), roan, calved Oct. 27, 1835; sire, Duke of

York (1941); dam, imp. Young Mary. Buyer, Elias

Florence, Pickaway County, O....................  750

Matchem (2283), roan, 5-year old; sire, Imperial (2151);

dam, Red Lady. Bred by John Woodhouse. Buyer,

Abraham Renick, of Kentucky .................... 1,200

Nimrod (2371), roan yearling; sire, Norfolk (2377) ; dam,

Bell. Bred by Charles Tempest. Buyer, Elias Flor-

ence, Pickaway  Co., Ohio ........................  1,040

Rantipole (2478), red-and-white, 4-year old; sire, Buck-

ingham; dam, Fanny. Bred by W. F. Paley. Buyer,

Arthur Watts, Ross County, O....................  810

Snow Drop (2654), white yearling; sire, Reformer; dam,

Lily of the Valley of Tees. Buyer, Stewart and Mc-

Neil, Ross  County, O............................  480

Whitaker (2836), roan, 2-year old; sire, Norfolk (2377);

dam, Minna. Bred by Jonas Whitaker. Buyer, Wil-

liam M. Anderson, Ross County, O................  855

Windham   (2845), red-and-white yearling; sire, Faby

(1040); dam, Eloquence.  Bred by Earl Spencer.

Buyer, Charles Davis, Ross County, O.............  500

Young Waterloo (2817), roan, 3-year old; sire, Belvedere

(1706); dam, Red Princess. Bred by Thomas Bates.

Buyer, R. D. Lilly, Highland County, O............ 1,250

Two other bulls were sold as unsound, one Reformer,

bringing $48, the other Columbus, bringing $180.



Beauty of the West, red, calved Nov. 26, 1834; sire, Wil-

liam; dam, Blossom, imp. by Fitz Favorite. Buyer,

Asahel Renick, Pickaway County ................. $900

Blossom, red-and-white, calved Sept. 24, 1830; sire, Fitz

Favorite (1042). Bred by Michael Ashcroft. Buyer,

R. R. Seymour, Ross County ..................... 1,000

Calypso, red-and-white, calved March, 1831; sire, Bertram

(1716); dam, Briceis, by Points (511). Bred by J.

P. Tutley. Buyer, Strawder McNeil, Ross County..  325

Felix Renick, Pioneer 47

Felix Renick, Pioneer                         47


Celestina, roan, calved 1834; sire, Atlas; dam, Countess,

by Regent. Bred by Jonas Whitaker. Buyer, Thomas

Huston, Pickaway County ......................                930

Duchess of Liverpool, pedigree not supplied.  Buyer,

William M. Anderson, Ross County ...............              570

Flora, roan, calved April 16, 1830; sire, by son Young

Albion (730); dam, Young Red Neck, by Marton

(420).  Bred by A. L. Maynard.   Buyer, George

Renick, Sr., Ross County ...................... .........   1,205

The bull calf Powhatan (828 1/2), by Comet Halley, at

foot also.

Gaudy, red-and-white, 5 years old; sire, by son Young

Albion (730); dam, Patch, by Mr. Maynard's red

bull, by Sterling (622).  Bred by A. L. Maynard.

Buyer, Jas. A. Trimble, Highland County..........            985

Illustrious, roan, calved March, 1835; sire, Emperor

(9174); dam, Peeress, by Snow Drop. Bred by Mr.

Crofton. Buyer, Abraham Renick, Kentucky ......              775

Lady Abernethy, roan, calved Feb. 8, 1835; sire, Physi-

cian; dam, by Hector (1105). Bred by Mr. Wiley.

Buyer, Thomas Huston, Pickaway County .........              815

Lady Blanche, white, calved April 24, 1832; sire: Prince

William (1344); dam, White Cow, by Agamemnon

(9). Bred by W. F. Paley. Buyer, Charles Davis,

Ross County. Not guaranteed a breeder ..........             250

Lady Colling, red-and-white, calved April, 1833; sire,

Magnum Bonum; dam, Rachael, by Frederick (1060).

Bred by John Colling. Buyer, John T. Webb, Ross

County. Sold as a very doubtful breeder ..........           205

Lady of the Lake, red-and-white, heifer calf; sire, Re-

former; dam, Rose of Sharon. Buyer, R. R. Sey-

mour, Ross County .............................              775

Lady Paley, red-and-white, calved Nov. 27, 1835; sire,

Rantipole (2478); dam, Flora. Buyer, Alexander

Renick, Ross County ............................             510

Lilac, red, little white, calved April 15, 1835; sire, Ranti-

pole (2478); dam, Duchess of Liverpool.  Buyer,

Elias Florence, Pickaway County .................            425

Lily of the Valley of Tees, roan, calved March 6, 1831;

sire, Young Rockingham (1547); dam, by Wonder.

Bred by William Raine. Buyer, Thomas Huston,

Pickaway County ...................... .........             950

48 Ohio Arch

48        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Lucy, roan, calved May 16, 1836; of doubtful pedigree.

Buyer, George Ratcliff, Pickaway County ..........             405

Malina, red-and-white, calved in 1834; sire, Atlas; dam,

Mary, by Regent. Bred by Jonas Whitaker. Buyer,

Isaac Cunningham, Kentucky ....................              1,005

Matilda, red-and-white, calved April 12, 1831; sire, Im-

perial (2151) ; dam, White Face Lady. Bred by John

Woodhouse. Buyer, Arthur Watts, Ross Co. ......              1,000

May Flower, red-and-white, calved May 2, 1836; sire,

Duke of York (1941) ; dam, Matilda. Buyer, Batteal

Harrison, Fayette County ........................              405

Moss Rose, roan, calved October, 1834; sire, Stapleton

(2698) ; dam, by Stephen (1456). Bred by Mr. Law-

son. Buyer, Jonathan Renick, Pickaway County....             1,200

Pink, red and-white, calved March 3, 1836; sire, Duke of

York (1941); dam, Duchess of Liverpool.   Buyer,

William Trimble, Highland Co ...................               575

Poppy, red-and-white, calved Dec. 21, 1835; sire, Ranti-

pole (2478); dam, Blossom. Buyer, Harness Renick,

Pickaway County ................................               610

Teeswater, roan, calved Oct. 22, 1832; sire, Belvedere

(1706); dam, by Joseph Fletcher's bull, by Wynyard

(703). Bred by Thomas Bates. Buyer, John I. Van

Meter, Pike  County  .............................           2,225

Teeswater had a heifer calf at foot, named Cometess,

by Comet Halley.

Young Mary, roan, calved April 15, 1832; sire, Jupiter;

dam, Mary, by Saladin. Bred by J. Clark. Buyer,

Edwin J. Harness, Ross County. Young Mary had

a heifer calf at foot, Pocahontas. by Comet Halley...       1,500



19 bulls brought .................$14,995, averaging $789.20

24 females brought .............. 19,545, averaging                                         814.37

43 animals brought .............. 34,540, averaging                                         803.25

These cattle were purchased to distribute them as

follows in Ohio counties: Ross, 18; Pickaway, 11;

Highland, 4; Fayette, 2; Pike, Scioto and Madison, 1

each; not specified, 1. Four head were also bought to

go to Kentucky.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 49

Felix Renick, Pioneer             49

A bull calf, Paragon of the West (4649), was pre-

sented Mr. Renick at the time of the sale, by the stock-

holders, as an expression of appreciation for his serv-

ices. This calf was sired by the imported Duke of

York (1941), and had for his dam the noted imported

Rose of Sharon. Thus it may be seen that this calf

was of exceptionally good breeding, while individually

he was one of the better bulls in the sale. Paragon of

the West (4649), proved a valuable sire and attained a

reputation of distinction.

At the conclusion of this sale the company still had

a number of cattle on their hands. This venture of the

company had proved a great success and a period of

inflation was on. Many persons, stimulated by the suc-

cess of the Ohio Company, became importers. This

made it an opportune time to close up the affairs of the

company, so a dispersal sale was planned for, and which

was held on October 24, 1837, on which occasion there

was a large attendance, and under very spirited bid-

ding the following cattle were disposed of, at the prices







Acmon (1606), roan, calved 1833; sire, Anti-Radical

(1642); dam, Sally, by Young Rockingham (2547).

Bred by W. Raine. Buyer, M. L. Sullivant and Co.

Columbus, Franklin County ......................      $2,500

Bouncer (3196), roan, calved March 18, 1836; sire, Mag-

num Bonum; dam, by Forester (1055). Bred by Col.

Craddock. Buyer, John Walke, Pickaway County ..          453

Comet Halley (1855), light roan, calved December, 1832;

sire, Matchem (2281); dam, by Frederick (1060).

Bred by John Maynard. Buyer, George Renick and

Co., Ross  County  ...............................     2,500

Vol. XXXIII -- 4.

50 Ohio Arch

50        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


Hazlewood (2098), red roan, calved April 9, 1836; sire,

Norfolk (2377); dam, Princetta, by Prince William

(1344). Buyers, Allen Trimble and R. R. Seymour.              700

Powhatan (828 1/2), red-and-white, calved Oct. 6, 1836;

sire, Comet Halley (1855) ; dam, Flora. Buyer, Har-

ness Renick, Pickaway County ...................               500

Santa Anna, roan, calved July 4, 1837; sire, Comet Halley

(1855); dam, Lily of the Valley of Tees.  Buyer,

Joseph C. Vance, Ohio County, Virginia ...........            425



Arabella and calf (imported), red-and-white, calved

March, 1834; sire, Victory; dam, Sally, by Major

(546).  Bred by Mr. Harrison.    Buyer, Arthur

Watts, Ross County .............................            1,200

Blush (imported), white, calved Jan. 10, 1835; sire, Mon-

arch; dam, Rachael, by Herod (583). Bred by Mr.

Bowen. Buyer, John H. James, Champaign County.              1,015

Charlotte (imported), calved March, 1833; sire, Alderman

(1622); dam, Red Rose, by Blucher (1725). Bred by

R. Pilkington. Buyer, Joseph G. White, Ross County            630

Elizabeth (imported), roan, calved 1832; sire, Memnon

(2293); dam, Blanche, by St. Ledger (1414). Bred

by Thomas Harrison. Buyers, J. and William Vance,

Champaign County ..............................             1,450

Emily (imported), flecked, calved Feb. 25, 1835; sire,

Maximus (2284); dam, by Rockingham (3549).

Buyer, Asahel Renick, Pickaway County...........              875

Fiddle (imported), roan, calved March 7, 1837; sire,

Comet Halley (1855); dam, Matilda. Buyer, Gov.

Allen Trimble, Highland County ..................             601

Flora (imported).  Sold in October 29, 1836 sale to

George Renick, Sr., for $1205.  Consigned to this

sale, bought by M. L. Sullivant, Columbus ..........        1,300

Matilda (imported). Sold in Oct. 29, 1836 sale to Arthur

Watts for $1,000.                  In this sale sold to Gov. Allen

Trimble, Highland           Co. ...........................          1,220

Victoress, roan, calved Jan. 8, 1836; sire, Norfolk (2377);

dam, Meteor of the West. Buyer, M. L. Sullivant,

Columbus ......................................               700


6 bulls brought ............... $7,075, averaging           $1,179.15

9 females brought .............. 9,000, averaging                                                      1,000.00

15 animals brought ............. 16,075, averaging                                                     1,071.65

Felix Renick, Pioneer 51

Felix Renick, Pioneer               51

"The Ohio Company for Importing English Cattle"

had conducted its affairs with great success, for which

Felix Renick was largely responsible. Not only was

this the most epoch-making cattle sale held in America

up to this time, but it is doubtful if any sale of Short-

horns, thus far held in the history of this country, has

had such far-reaching beneficial results. Not only this,

but as a financial proposition the Company made a

showing beyond the expectations of its most sanguine


The following comment on the returns to the stock-

holders, as given by William Renick in his Memoirs26

is appropriate here:

It is pretty generally known, I believe, that the stock in that

company proved in the end highly remunerative to stockholders,

but the difficulties attending its organization may not be so

well known, and a few   words on the subject may not be

out of place here.  Therefore, I will say that  it was not

by any means considered a speculative scheme, but on the

contrary, it was deemed of too chimerical a character for

safe investment, or to risk much money in, and it was

with great difficulty that the desired amount of $10,000

was finally raised, and that was only accomplished by a

majority of the stockholders doubling the amount of their

original subscriptions, and admitting a few Kentuckians as stock-

holders.  None but ardent friends of improvement would take

any stock. As an example of the views then generally held of

the enterprise, I will narrate a little anecdote about one of the

stockholders, Mr. Lynne Starling, of Columbus, who, at the

instance of Mr. Felix Renick (who was an intimate personal

friend of Starling's) was induced to take one share ($100),

and after the closing of the company's business, Mr. Renick

called on Starling to pay him the proceeds of his share, and after

counting out the money to him, Starling exclaimed, "What!

What does all this mean?"  Mr. Renick asked him if he did

not remember taking and paying for one share of stock in the

Ohio Importing Company. Starling had forgotten it, but finally

said, "What of that?" he had subscribed for said stock solely


26 Renick, Memoirs, Correspondence and Reminiscences, 1880, p. 61.

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because he (Mr. Renick) had requested him to do so, but that

he had never expected to have one dollar principal or interest

returned, and concluded, "You have counted me out $300, mak-

ing it the most productive stock I ever owned."

A reference to the list of stockholders would indi-

cate that Mr. Renick is in some error regarding the per-

sonel of the company, because but one Kentuckian is

reported by the Secretary as holding stock. Neither

could a majority of the stockholders have doubled their

stock subscriptions, as 29 of the 48 stockholders owned

but one share each.

It will be of interest here to introduce the opinions

of two of the most eminent Shorthorn authorities, Mr.

Alvin H. Sanders, an American, and Mr. James Sin-

clair, of Great Britain, as to the influence of the Ohio

Company importations on the improvement of Ameri-

can cattle.

"It is indeed difficult to overestimate the value of

the Ohio Company's work," writes Mr. Sanders.27 "It

gave to the West not only the Roses of Sharon, Young

Marys, Young Phyllises, and Josephines, but supplied

crosses of fresh blood that proved powerful influences

for good upon the herds derived from earlier importa-

tions. The entire industry in Ohio and Kentucky felt

the quickening touch, and in later years the full frui-

tion of the fondest hopes of the company were more

than realized."

Mr. Sinclair discusses various phases of the influ-

ence of the cattle imported,28 from which the following

is abstracted as especially pertinent to the line of pre-

sentation here:


27 Sanders, Alvin H. A History of Shorthorn Cattle, 1918, p. 204.

28 Sinclair, James, History of Shorthorn Cattle, London, 1907, p. 594.


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Mr. Felix Renick was selected as the agent to purchase the

cattle, thus introducing into the history of Shorthorn cattle the

name of a family which has played a very important part in it. Mr.

Renick was a thoroughly competent man, a good judge of cattle,

and an excellent man of business.  The prices in England at

this time were low, and Mr. Renick was able to purchase the

highest class of animals at such a price as enabled the Company

to realize very handsome profits on their venture.  Forty cows

and twenty-six bulls were imported between 1834 and 1836,

a very large number for so short a period.

Among these animals were some of the most famous in

our annals. Among the bulls I may note: Goldfinder (2066);

Comet Halley (1855); Matchem    (2283); Duke of Norfolk

(1932) ; Acmon (1606); Armitage (1655) ; Greenholm Experi-

ment (2075); and Nimrod (2371). These bulls were good in-

dividually, and proved excellent as breeders.  Unfortunately

they have not continued to be remembered as the females have.

* * * They were the observed of all observers, eagerly

sought after and widely praised.  But the present generation

scarcely remembers their names, while those of some of the

cows, such as Young Mary, Young Phyllis, Rose of Sharon,

Illustrious and Josephine, are familiar to even the most ignorant

neophytes. These cows, and such others as Matilda, Teeswater

and Fidelle, fairly divided the honors with the bulls and proved

what sort of a judge Mr. Renick was to the satisfaction of all.

The merit they possessed in esse was nothing to the merits which

was theirs in potential.  It is in their descendants that these

cows really lived and still live.

When in England Mr. Renick interested himself

in the work of George Coates in preparing his "Herd-

Book: Containing the Pedigrees of the Improved

Short-Horned Cattle." The first two volumes were

probably brought to America by Mr. Renick, and they

are now held by his great-grandson at Chillicothe. In

this connection, it is of special interest to note that Mr.

Renick must have had under consideration the publica-

tion of an American herd book. The author has before

him at this writing, a very interesting letter from Jonas

Whitaker to Mr. Renick, dated at Burley, June 6, 1835,

from which the following is here quoted:

Felix Renick, Pioneer 55

Felix Renick, Pioneer              55

Mr. Paley I find has been applying to Mr. Coates for some

points to enable you to publish a herd book in America. This

has roused the old gentleman and his son, and by a letter I have

just received they assure me they will publish the first volume,

of which you may have .any number, and by the end of the year,

you may depend on having as many as you please -- which will

include all the stocks up to that period or nearly so.  They

urge me to use my influence with you not to interfere with this

work, being the only resource they have to depend on -- And as

they speak so confidently of bringing it out at that time, I

sincerely hope you will wait, as no man can give so faithful a

history of Shorthorns as Mr. Coates.

The first volume of the Coates Herdbook of Short-

horn cattle was published in 1822. This is notable as

being the first herdbook of any breed of cattle. Vol-

ume three is dated 1836.

Following the dispersal of the cattle of the Ohio

Company, Mr. Renick did not lose his interest in Short-

horns. He was nearly sixty-seven years of age at the

time of the dispersal sale, and his vitality naturally

would not withstand the strenuous service he had

passed through in handling the importations. In fact

he complained to Whitaker of ill-health, and the lat-

ter's letters to Mr. Renick express the hope that his

health is better. Mr. Renick, however, was in corre-

spondence with English breeders, and attempted nego-

tiations with them. In April, 1838, Thomas Bates

wrote him a letter of considerable length, which is re-

produced by his nephew Cadwallader.29 In this letter

Mr. Bates says he had better not send him any of his

own cattle this season, but next year might send him

ten young heifers or young cows having had a calf or

two, and five or six young bulls, "as you say you intend

to continue importing." Mr. Bates was famous for his


29 Bates, Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington Shorthorns.

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independence in dealing with buyers, and in this letter

he brings out in interesting manner this feature of his

character. "By putting Duke of York (1941) to the

heifers you got of me," he writes, "you will bring their

produce into disrepute.  I will, on no consideration

whatever (if you would give me ten times the price I

would otherwise have charged you for a heifer) sell

you any heifers to put to any bulls but what I have bred,

or are of my blood. Nor will I sell you any at any

price till you and the company you act with, under your

joint hands, have solemnly promised not to do so. My

object has never been to make money by breeding, but

to improve the breed of Shorthorns; and if I know it,

I will not sell any to any one who has not the same

object in view. On this principle I began breeding, and

I am convinced I have a better breed of Shorthorns in

my possession at present than there has been for the

last fifty years, even in the best days of the Messrs.


In view of the fact that following the time of this

correspondence, a stringent financial period occurred in

the United States, the time was not opportune for such

as he to take on himself the financial risks of importing,

even were he in the prime of life. Apparently he in a

measure gave up business activity, and devoted much

of his time to his family and rendering service to the


He married Hannah See of Virginia about 1795,

and they were the parents of nine children, the names

of which are herewith given, with the years of their

birth: George, 1796; Juliet, 1798; Elizabeth, 1800;

Rachael, 1802; Thomas, 1805; Henry, 1807; William,

1809; and Mary and Elizabeth, twins, 1811.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 57

Felix Renick, Pioneer             57

Mr. Renick took much interest in the education of

his children, and erected at his own expense on his

farm and beside the turnpike and southwest of his resi-

dence what was long known as the Felix Renick School-

house. In this building some neighbors and himself,

jointly employed a teacher by the name of Wait to in-

struct the children of that neighborhood. This school-

house was abandoned to other uses years ago, and

finally was destroyed in 1922.

Local historians say that the Renick home was the

scene of much hospitality and many festivities, and that

his dinner parties, dances and fox hunts were of fre-

quent occurrence. He was a man of refined tastes and

gentle manners, and the evidence indicates that he was

universally respected and admired.

Mr. Renick lived to the ripe old age of seventy-

seven, most unfortunately coming to his end by an acci-

dent, being killed by a timber falling upon him at the

Paint Creek ferry, near Chillicothe, on January 27,

1848. While waiting for the boat, a piece of hewed

timber which was planted in the river bank for the pur-

pose of attaching the rope holding the boat to the shore,

fell upon him as he sat in his carriage, demolishing the

vehicle and causing his almost instant death. In com-

menting upon his death, the Scioto Gazette of Chilli-

cothe alludes30 to his usefulness as a citizen in the fol-

lowing words:

Thus has perished, full of years, though in the midst of

usefulness, one of the most enterprising and public-spirited men

of this section of the state. Though he had attained to an

unusual age -- seventy-seven years -- his active and practical

mind remained in undiminished vigor. In projects of improve-

ment, he was always on the side of "progress," and led the van

30 Ohio State Journal, February 4, 1848.

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with his own purse, hands and head. On the recent organiza-

tion of the Belpre and Cincinnati Railroad Company, he was

at once preferred as its president, and at the time of his death

he was president of the Portsmouth and Columbus Turnpike

Company.   In fact he was ever fertile in expedients for in-

creasing the resources and conveniences of the industrial com-

munity, and it will be difficult to fill his place in this particular

line of usefulness * * * His history is the history of the

southern section of this state -- while his admirable social and

kindly qualities won for him a large circle of devoted friends.

On a high, tree-crested knoll by the side of the

Portsmouth turnpike, and overlooking the old farm and

the beautiful river valley to the east, is located a little

family cemetery, and here by the side of his beloved

wife and some of their descendants, lies all that was

mortal of Felix Renick. It is an ideal spot in which

to lay one away for all time who has loved nature in

her varying moods, and who found keen satisfaction

through much of his life in studying the beauties of

nature, and in finding contentment in the open and

among the trees.




For nearly fifty years there has existed in Ohio an

organization for the promotion of Shorthorn cattle,

known as the Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Association.

It was started in 1875 and is the oldest organization

in Ohio devoted to the promotion of improved live stock.

Once or twice a year, but usually in January, this asso-

ciation holds a meeting in Columbus.     On this occa-

sion addresses of interest to Shorthorn breeders are

delivered and such business is transacted as may be

regarded as desirable for the welfare of the breed.

Felix Renick, Pioneer 59

Felix Renick, Pioneer             59

In January, 1920, at a largely attended meeting of

the association, held at the Deshler Hotel in Columbus,

it was suggested by the writer that it would be appro-

priate to erect a monument in the Scioto Valley, at the

old Indian Creek Farm, as a memorial to Felix Renick

and the Ohio Company in recognition of what they did

in bringing the first great shipment of Shorthorns to

America. This suggestion met with favor and a com-

mittee was appointed to investigate the subject, consist-

ing of C. S. Plumb (Chairman), James A. Huston,

W. H. Pew, P. C. Ross and Thomas D. Phillips. This

committee gave considerable time to the subject, and in

due season was authorized to erect a monument and to

provide dedication exercises of the same. This cere-

mony took place on October 29, 1922, on the anniver-

sary of the sale, under perfect weather conditions. A

copy of the program is as follows:



At the Unveiling of a Monument

to the memory of

Felix Renick and the Ohio Company for

Importing Improved Cattle

Sunday, October 29, 1922, at 2:00 P. M.

On Indian Creek Farm, Four Miles South of Chillicothe

Now occupied by Mr. Renick Cunningham, a great-grandson

of Felix Renick


Under the auspices of the

Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Association

W. H. Pew, Ravenna, President; P. G. Ross, Mansfield, Sec-



Presiding -- James A. Huston, Granville, Vice-President.

Invocation -- Rev. Kelley Jenness, Chillicothe.

Report of Committee on Monument -- C. S. Plumb, Chairman.

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Unveiling of Monument and Presentation to the Ohio Archaeo-

logical and Historical Society as Custodian. By Vice-Presi-

dent Huston of the Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Association.

Address of Acceptance.  By Mr. C. B. Galbreath, Secretary of

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society.

Address, Felix Renick and the Ohio Importing Company. By

Professor W. H. Pew, President Ohio Shorthorn Breeders'


Address, Scioto Valley Reminiscences.  By Mr. I. S. Cook,

Chillicothe, on whose farm Shorthorns have been bred for

seventy years.

Address, Shorthorn Development in Ohio.    By Mr. W. C.

Rosenberger, Tiffin.

Address, The Ohio Shorthorn and Its National Influence.  By

Mr. Will Johnson, Representing The Shorthorn World,



Persons attending the exercises may be interested to visit

the grave of Felix Renick at the top of the hill on the west side

of the highway, opposite the entrance to the farm. This is a

fine old family cemetery.


Space will not permit reproducing here the details

of the program of the day, but certain features of it

should be here recorded for their future historical asso-


The essential features of the report of the commit-

tee on the monument are as follows: The monument

stands by the side of the highway, but on the farm land,

the fence back of it being given a curve into the field

so as to provide an appropriate setting. The monu-

ment consists of a granite stone four feet high of

glacial drift, from the farm of Mr. W. S. West, north

of Chillicothe, who kindly contributed it for this pur-

pose. The Barnhart Granite Company of Chillicothe

moved the stone to its site and established it on an en-

during concrete foundation. A fine bronze plate twenty


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by thirty inches made by the James Matthews Company

of Pittsburgh, on which is shown in relief a copy of

the head of Avondale, a noted Shorthorn bull, with an

inscription below, states the purpose of the monument.

The total cost of this memorial, which was financed by

members of the Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Association,

was about $500. The American Shorthorn Breeders'

Association also generously contributed to this fund.

The inscription is as follows:

This monument is dedicated to the memory of Felix Renick

and his associates, members of the Ohio Company for Importing

Improved Cattle, who in 1834, 1835 and 1836 imported from

England the first noteworthy consignment of Pure-bred Short-

horns. On this, the Felix Renick Farm, a few rods east of this

monument, on October 29, 1836, was held the first public auction

sale of Shorthorns held in America, forty-three cattle selling

for $34,540, an average of $803.25. Erected in grateful memory

by the Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Association.

October 29, 1922.


It is appropriate to state here that this is the first

historical monument of its kind to be erected in

America. The year before, however, a monument had

been erected in Warren County to commemorate the

writing of the first pedigree of Poland-China swine.

The monument was unveiled by little Miss Gladys

Cunningham, in the presence of about 500 people, many

of whom had travelled long distances to be present on

this occasion. Little Gladys, the daughter of Mr. and

Mrs. Renick    Cunningham, is a great-great-grand-

daughter of Felix Renick.

Mr. James A. Huston, Vice-President of the Ohio

Shorthorn Breeders' Association, and presiding, in a

very few words transferred the monument to the cus-

Felix Renick, Pioneer 63

Felix Renick, Pioneer               63

todianship of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical

Society. Mr. C. B. Galbreath, representing the Society,

accepted the charge in the following brief address:

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:

For a long time we have paid tribute to spectacular achieve-

ments in statesmanship and war. We have erected monuments

to congressmen and cabinet officers and presidents and generals.

Statues have been raised on our battlefields.  In granite and

bronze we have perpetuated the fame of the soldier sons of the


But we are coming, I think, if you will permit me to use

the expression, to the age of the interrogation point. We are

raising questions in regard to our heroes.  Whence came the

meat on which they grew so great and whither flowed the milk

and honey of the land -- this land, the source of the sustenance

and vigor of our remarkable civilization in this Middle West?

It may be that questions of this kind had something to do with

the inception of the uniquely appropriate monument that you

dedicate this day.

I need not remark here that we are standing in the midst

of a region that is rich in archaeological remains and history,

in mystery and tradition and romance. With apologies to Mc-

Guffey, "Here lived and loved another race of beings."  The

first of these to leave any evidence of their existence were the

Mound Builders. Now as you know, the Mound Builder was an

interesting sort of fellow and his life was not without many of

the enjoyments that are known to us. He ate wild turkey, wild

duck, squirrel, rabbit venison and coon and bear meat; but one

thing he lacked; he never knew the luxuries of the dairy or beef-


The successor of the Mound Builder, the American Indian

who dwelt here when the white man came, had made great for-

ward strides; he had added to his diet beefsteak. Our Chair-

man will be surprised when I tell him that the Indian was the

original Shorthorn breeder in this country. His were the buffalo

herds that roved up and down this valley. Now the buffalo did

not consent to be domesticated. In this respect he was a little

like the Indian and for that reason he and the Indian disap-

peared together.

But on this occasion, Mr. Chairman, I do not think we

should forget what the Indian did for American agriculture and

American history.  He developed Indian corn, that marvelous

and priceless gift of a vanished race to his successors. Think

64 Ohio Arch

64       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

what Indian corn has meant to Shorthorn breeders in this coun-

try and in fact to all interested in the live stock industry.

*  *  *  *  *

Mr. Chairman, I congratulate you further and those that

are assembled here today upon what you have done here.

This is a tribute to a worthy and eminent pioneer and to an event

which your action adds to the recorded history of this valley.

The contribution of Felix Renick to our material progress

should be remembered with the achievements of our statesmen

in legislative halls and our generals on the field of battle. I

thank you, Mr. Chairman and ladies and gentlemen, and in be-

half of the Society I represent and the State I now accept this

substantial and appropriate monument with the assurance that

it shall have our unfailing interest and care.

Professor William H. Pew, of Ravenna, Ohio,

President of the Ohio Shorthorn Breeders' Associa-

tion, and recently Professor of Animal Husbandry at

the Iowa State College, gave the principal address of

the day, on the subject of "Felix Renick and the Ohio

Importing Company." This address referred to the

difficulties of the early pioneers, of their ideals and

accomplishments, with special emphasis on the work

of Mr. Renick and the Ohio Company.

Mr. I. S. Cook, of Chillicothe, on whose farm Short-

horns have been bred for seventy years, gave some in-

teresting reminiscences of the cattle industry in the

Scioto Valley.

Mr. W. C. Rosenberger gave a brief talk upon

Shorthorn development in Ohio, dealing more especially

with conditions in more recent days.

Mr. Will Johnson, a representative of The Short-

horn World of Chicago, and owner of a herd of this

breed, spoke of the Ohio Shorthorn and its national

influence. Three paragraphs from this address may

well be introduced here as the concluding part of this

Felix Renick, Pioneer 65

Felix Renick, Pioneer               65

story of Felix Renick and the Ohio Company for Im-

porting English Cattle:

It seems fitting as a conclusion to this program that some

one express the appreciation of the farmers and especially the

livestock farmers of the United States for the wonderful con-

structive work that has been accomplished by Ohio breeders

and importers. As we look back on the work that has been

accomplished by men in Ohio, naturally we think of the import-

ing that has been done. This event today is in celebration of

an importing company. We have had that discussed thoroughly

but it did not end with the Ohio Importing Company, as it has

been carried on for a good many years since. It would seem

as though the greatest blood has come to America entirely

through Ohio.

Mr. Kelly of Springfield, when he imported Bapton Pearl,

could not realize what her arrival was to mean to America. No

one could have foreseen it. If they could have foreseen that a

son of Bapton Pearl would have been one of the greatest Short-

horn sires there would have been no sum of money that would

have been too great to pay for her. Villager is another of the

great importations that we owe to Ohio men. They must have

been good men to appreciate and understand mating and to con-

tinue the great breed of those on the other side of the water.

Ohio has been responsible for building up great breeding estab-

lishments in our country. Many men who have become famous

Shorthorn breeders began in Ohio. We have others that have

come from Ohio. There is Mr. John Garden of Iowa, who did

his first constructive work in Ohio at the Hanna farm, and Mr.

Milne, without whose help we never would have had Whitehall

Sultan, for it was he who took care of the cow that produced

this bull.

I have been introduced as being from Chicago, but I wish

to say that while I temporarily reside there, my home is in a little

district in Indiana where there are just twelve bulls, all of which

came from Ohio.   Throughout the entire length and breadth

of the land you find the influence of Ohio cattle building up

continually, resulting in better cattle, more prosperous farms and

better communities. These are the things that Ohio Shorthorns

have done to influence better livestock in a national way.



Allen, Lewis F. History of the Short-Horn Cattle:   Their

Origin, Progress and Present Condition.  Buffalo, N. Y.,

1872, pp. 266.

Vol. XXXIII -- 5.

66 Ohio Arch

66        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

The American Pioneer, a Monthly Periodical, devoted to the ob-

jects of the Logan Historical Society, Chillicothe, Ohio,

Vols. I and II, 1842-43.

Bates, Cadwallader John. Thomas Bates and the Kirkleving-

ton Shorthorns: A contribution to the history of Pure

Durham cattle. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 1897, pp. 513.

Bates, Thomas. The History of Improved Short-Horn or Dur-

ham Cattle and of the Kirklevington Herd, from the notes

of the late Thomas Bates.  With a Memoir by Thomas

Bell. Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, 1871, pp. 371.

Dickson, H. H. Saddle and Sirloin, London, 1870.

History of Ross and Highland Counties, Ohio. Cleveland, 1880.

Memoirs Pennsylvania Agricultural Society, 1824.

Ohio Short-Horn Breeders' Record, containing pedigrees of most

of the Ohio herds of Short-horn cattle, together with the

constitution of the Short-Horn Breeders' Association, with

much interesting matter in regard to the characteristics and

history of the Durham breed of cattle, Vol. I, Columbus,

Ohio, 1878, pp. 388.

Ohio State Journal, 1848.

Pennsylvania Agricultural Society. Memoirs, 1824.

Renick, William.  Memoirs, Correspondence and Reminiscences

of William Renick. Circleville, Ohio, 1880, pp. 115.

Report of the United States Commissioner of Patents for the

Year 1851.  Part II, Agriculture, Washington, 1852.

Sanders, Alvin H. Shorthorn Cattle. Revised edition, Chicago,

1918, pp. 1021.

Sinclair, James.  History of Shorthorn Cattle.  London, 1907,

pp. 895.