BIG BOTTOM MASSACRE DEDICATION.
It is one hundred and fifteen years since the little band of pioneers
were massacred in their fort at Big Bottom on the Muskingum. This
settlement was an off-shoot of the one at Marietta. It was the remotest
outpost of the Ohio Company. Scarcely had Mari-
etta been settled when there pushed out from the
protecting walls of Fort Harmar small bands of
settlers , to build homes and clear the fields in other
favorable locations. Belpre on the Ohio and Water-
ford on the Muskingum were soon begun. In the
fall of 1790 thirty-six men departed from Marietta
and built a blockhouse on the east side of the Mus-
kingum along the line of the Monongahela trail,
about a mile and a half below the present village
of Stockport, Morgan county. The winter that fol-
lowed was a very cold one. Since the Indians were
not so apt to go on their predatory raids in winter
as at other times, the usual severity of the season
disarmed the vigilance of the inmates of the block-
house. In fact the fort had hardly been completed. Already cabins
had been erected and preparations for the spring planting were being
made. In this apparent security the work of clearing and building
On the second of January, 1791, along the high ridge on the oppo-
site side of the river, unnoticed by the inhabitants of the fort, a band
of Indians saw the settlement. During the day they continued their watch.
They noted the unprotected condition of the blockhouse and the prob-
able number of occupants. Early in the evening they crossed the river
on the ice and fell upon the unguarded frontiersmen. The deadly work
was soon accomplished. Several pioneers escaped and ran through the
woods to the settlement at Wolf's Creek.
No memorial of any kind had heretofore been erected to show the
passer-by that the place was historic. But now, thanks to Mr. Obadiah
Brokaw, who owns the land upon which the blockhouse stood, there is a
suitable and imposing monument that tells the story of that winter day's
massacre. The monument consists of a marble shaft whose apex is
Vol. XIV.- 30. (465)
466 Ohio. Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
twelve feet above the ground. The shaft is an octagon, seven and a half
feet high. On one of the faces are inscribed these words: "Erected by
Obadiah Brokaw, 1905." The shaft stands on a limestone base, which
in turn rests on another base of concrete. On the front of the lime-
stone base is carved, "Site of Big Bottom Massacre, Winter of 1790."
On the two sides are to be found the names of those killed, as follows:
"James Couch, Wm. Jones, Joseph Clark, Isaac Meeks, his wife and two
children, John Stacey, Zebulon Troop, Ezra Putnam, John Camp and
Jonathan Farewell." On the rear of the base are the names of those
who escaped, "Asa Bullard, Eleazer Bullard and Philip Stacey." The
monument displays excellent workmanship. It stands in a beautiful
meadow near the public road, and only a few rods from the bank of
the river. It is plainly visible to the passengers on the passing boats.
Mr. Brokaw, the patriotic possessor of the historic site upon which
this monument was erected, desired to make sure that it would be perma-
nently cared for and preserved.
This matter having been brought by Mr. Brokaw to the attention
of Trustee C. L. Martzolff, the latter visited Mr. Brokaw at Stockport
and broached the subject of the transfer of the monument property to
the society. Subsequently, on August 17th, Professor Martzolff and
Secretary Randall, accompanied by Mr. C. L. Bozman of McConnelsville,
who designed and executed the monument, visited Mr. Brokaw who
finally consented to transfer by deed the monument and two acres of
surrounding land to the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical So-
ciety, upon the condition that the society elect Mr. Brokaw a Life mem-
ber, and further that the society provide for the proper care of the
monument and land transferred as an historic park and monument, keep-
ing said property properly enclosed and protected from destruction and
injury by the public and maintain the same as a free public park. The
negotiations by Messrs. Martzolff and Randall with Mr. Brokaw were
approved and accepted by the Executive Committee at its meeting on
August 28th, 1905.
On Saturday, September 30th, the Society held dedicatory exercises
commemorative of the historic event which the monument marks and
celebrated the donation of the property by Mr. Brokaw. The Executive
Committee of the Trustees of the Society had appointed a Committee on
Arrangements, of which Prof. Martzolff was chairman. This committee
arranged for a most interesting program, which was successfully car-
ried out. The day proved to be one of almost perfect weather condi-
tions and an audience of some four thousand people from the surround-
ing country gathered to participate in the ceremonies. Secretary Randall
acted as chairman and addresses were delivered by President Brinker-
hoff, Trustees Martzolff, Ryan, Andrews, and Hunter, Hon. William B.
Crew of the Ohio Supreme Court, and Hon. Tod B. Galloway, Secretary
to the Governor. The program was most properly closed by an original
poem written and read by Dr. James Ball Naylor, the poet and historical
novelist. The Stockport Brass Band interspersed the program with
It was a unique and interesting event in the history of the society
as this is the first time that the society has come into the possession
of a purely historic site. The proceedings with the speeches in detail will
be published in the January Quarterly of the society.
The society will proceed without delay to protect the site with a
fitting enclosure, making it an attractive place of resort for all who may
care to visit this memorable spot.
Mr. Brokaw has certainly earned the gratitude of all lovers of early
pioneer history by the timely erection of this stone. It will stand as a
constant memorial to one of the gruesome chapters of the early history
of Ohio. It will be a reminder to the coming generations of what it
meant to plant settlements in the forests of the west. It will not only
be a tribute to those who perished on that January day over a century
ago, but it will be an ever present testimonial of the opportune thought-
fulness and the generosity of the man who has erected it.
OHIO IN THE CHINESE UPRISING.
We have been frequently asked the question whether it be true, as
often reported in the public press, that the American troops were the
first to enter the city of Peking at the time of the invasion by the allied
nations, and that Ohio soldiers were the first within the gates of the
Tartar City. In response to our inquiry, we received the following
from Colonel Webb. C. Hayes, who at the time was upon the staff of
WASHINGTON, February 1, 1905.
MR. E. O. RANDALL, Columbus, Ohio.
DEAR SIR:- The allied troops who marched to the relief
of Peking from Tien Tsin in 1900 consisted approximately
of 2,000 Americans, 2,000 British, 4,000 Russians and 8,000
Japanese. There were no German nor Italians in this column.
The Japanese headed the column all the way and did more
of the fighting than any other one of the allies. Peking con-
sists really of two cities side by side, enclosed by high walls -
The Tartar City and the Chinese City.
468 Ohio. Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
Under the plan of attack, the Japanese were to take gate
No. 1, the Russians gate No. 2, the Americans gate No. 3,
and the British gate No. 4.
The Americans reached the walls some time before the Brit-
ish, but through a mistake attacked and captured gate No. 4,
and then sent word to the British troops who marched in un-
opposed and then marched through the sluice-way (5) to the
legation, being the first to reach the legation. In the mean-
time the Americans, after opening up with artillery the gate
No. 4 for the British, then made their attack on gate No. 3.
the 14th U. S. Infantry scaled the walls and hoisted their
regimental flag on them - the first flag on the wall,- and at the
same time the Americans forced their way through gate No.
3, being the first troops to get inside the walls of the Chinese
City, and then fought their way to the sluice-way (5) through
which they followed the British, a close second, to the legation.
The Japanese and Russians entered through gates 1 and 2 the
next day. The Commander, Major General Chaffee, his Ad-
jutants General Captain Grote Hutcheson and Col. H. O. S.
Heistand, his Chief of Staff Capt. J. T. Dickman and myself,
all of General Chaffee's staff, besides many other officers are
WEBB C. HAYES.
DID THE MOUND BUILDERS HAVE HORSES?
"Did the Mound Builders Have Horses" is the subject of an editorial
in the last issue of the American Sportsman, March 2. The discovery
of the skeleton of a horse, dug up in the state of Nebraska, started a
discussion to which a number of the most eminent archeologists of the
country have contributed their opinions. Dr. Phyle treated the subject
at length in an essay some time ago. The editorial is as follows:
A horseman is curious to know, after reading Dr. Phyle's essay on
the evolution of the horse, whether the "Mound Builders" had horses.
We are not expected to answer this question, as all matters in the pre-
historic age are exclusively in the domain of speculation. A similar
question was asked during a race on the half-mile ring at Newark, Ohio,
the location of several notable memorial mounds.
It is supposed that the Mound Builders preceded the North Ameri-
can Indian, but it is not clear that the Indian is the lineal descendant
of the Mound Builders. When the white man invaded the Western Con-
tinent the Indians had no horses, but it does not follow that the race
that built the memorial mounds had no horses. The Mound Builders
are an extinct race, and their horses may have perished from off the
earth at about the same time.
Scientists and antiquarians who have examined the memorial mounds,
especially the famous ones at Newark and in Adams county, Ohio, as-
sert that they have full proof that the builders enjoyed a high degree of
civilization. The mound at the Newark Fair Grounds forms a perfect
circle, a mile in circumference and some twenty feet high. Upon it
stand very large maple, beech and hickory trees, showing, it is believed,
that the erection of this mound far ante-dated the arrival of Columbus,
over four hundred years ago.
It is thought that the Aztecs, found in Mexico by Cortez, and the
ancient Peruvians, whose empire was destroyed by Pizzaro, may have
been of the same race as the Mound Builders.
Whether the Mound Builders had horses we can only guess, but that
a race preceding the North American Indians had horses we know to
a certainty. The evidence of the skeleton horses recently discovered is
Prof. Starr, of the Chicago University holds, with many others of
the more advanced scientists, that the Mound Builders were Indians
and coarse barbarians. Prof. Starr also holds that some of these mounds
were built by Indian tribes not yet extinct. The French scientists. Lucien
Biart (who has written a very elaborate book on the ancient Aztecs of
Mexico), holds that they were a true type of Indians. Prof. John D.
Baldwin, author of the "Prehistoric Nations," in his notes on American
archaeology, holds that the Mound Builders were American aborigines
of the Indian type and not immigrants from another continent. Prof.
470 Ohio. Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
Baldwin holds that more than two thousand years have elapsed since the
Mound Builders lived in the Ohio Valley.
In conclusion we are not in a position to state whether the Mound
Builders were the race that exploited the pre-historic horse on this con-
tinent or whether they degenerated into Indians. All we know for a
certainty is that the pre-historic man had a pre-historic horse, and that
he both rode and ate him, and that the horse in improved form still sur-
vives, while the Mound Builders are extinct, and the Red Man is where
he can see his finish-Akron Democrat.
CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF CHAMPAIGN COUNTY.
Under the editorship of Mr. Howard D. Manington, a tasty little
volume, amply illustrated, has been issued, giving a detailed account of
the Centennial Celebration of Champaign County, held at Urbana on
the days of July 4th, 5th, and 6th. Under the energetic and patriotic
management of the good people of Urbana, the Centennial proved to be
an event of great interest, and well worthy the conclusion of one hun-
dred years of the historic county. The inauguarting day of the cen-
tennial being also the anniversary day of the nation's natal day, drew
an immense crowd of citizens representing all parts of the state to the
handsome little county seat. Vice President Fairbanks was the orator
of the day and made a patriotic address appropriate to the occasion.
One of the features of the day was a grand parade and "a more mag-
nificent spectacle was never witnessed in this state." The procession
consisted of platoons of soldiers from the United States Regular Army,
State Militia and a great number of novel features as "floats," decorated
vehicles, masqueraders in fantastic costume, etc. The day was closed
in the evening by a splendid pyrotechnic display in the City Park and
followed by a "smoker" under the auspices of the local press committee,
in honor of Vice President Fairbanks. This was presided over by Hon.
Howard D. Manington, and speeches were made by the Hon. Ralph D.
Cole and Messrs. John H. James, Henry C. McCracken, J. A. Howells
and L. D. Johnson.
July fifth was celebrated as "Pioneer and Home-coming Day," the
exercises being held in the county fair grounds, where several thousand
people, bringing their lunch-baskets, gathered from all sections of the
county and renewed their early memories of Champaign county life and
greeted long absent friends. The formal exercises of the day consisted
of an address by Secretary Randall of the Ohio State Archaeological and
Historical Society, the rendering of musical selections by the Urbana
Band and a mixed chorus of some two hundred voices. Judge E. P.
July sixth was known as "Military Day." A large section of the
state militia under the command of Brigadier General William V. Mc-
Maken paraded the streets of the city, headed by the Eighth Regiment
Band and the Marietta Guards. Governor Herrick and his military staff
reviewed the movements of the troops. This was followed by a gather-
ing at the fair grounds, where speeches were made by Col. W. R. War-
nock, Governor Myron T. Herrick and Senator C. W. Dick. In the
evening there was held a fitting closing feature which was really the
literary event of the week. The exercises were held in Clifford's Theatre,
which was filled to its utmost capacity by an interested audience who
listened to addresss by Governor Herrick, Senator Dick, Secretary of
State Laylin, Lieutenant Governor Harding and Mr. Howard D. Man-
ington, who presided.
The volume mentioned at the beginning of this item contains the
proceedings of these various days in full, with reports of the speeches
and much additional matter pertaining to the history of Urbana and
Champaign county. Particularly valuable is the historical matter by
Mr. John W. Ogden, Rev. Charles S. Wood, Mr. J. T. Woodward and
Mr. I. N. Keyser, Superintendent of the Public Schools of Urbana.
RICHLAND COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
The Richland County Historical Society has just issued a neat little
pamphlet containing the proceedings of the society, beginning with its
first annual meeting, Saturday, June 10, 1899, and closing with the pro-
ceedings of its last annual meeting held in the G. A. R. rooms of the
Memorial Building, Mansfield, June 7th, 1905. At this latter meeting
a most interesting program was carried out. An address was delivered
by the Rev. Joshua Crawford on the ill-fated and memorable "Expedition
of Col. William Crawford" in the summer of 1782 against the Sandusky
Indians. Rev. Crawford is a collateral descendant of the famous subject
of his address. We regret that space does not permit of our publishing
this address, but the subject has been treated in a scholarly manner by
Judge J. H. Anderson in a previous number of the Quarterly. Other
addresses were delivered by the Hon. W. G. Geer, representing the Rich-
land County delegation; Mrs. James R. Hopley, Bucyrus, by special request
delivered the address given by her at the Ohio Centennial Celebration at
Chillicothe on "The Part Taken by Women in the History and Develop-
ment of Ohio;" Prof. Sample, of Perrysville, Mr. Hiram R. Smith and
Mr. Peter Bissman, of Mansfield, rendered short talks. Prof. Sample
has one of the largest collections of archaeological and historical relics in
Ohio. Mr. Hiram Smith has reached the honorable age of ninety-three
years, and when called for remarks responded by reciting,
472 Ohio. Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
"You may scarce expect one of my age,
To speak in public upon the stage."
Mr. Peter Bissman made a most interesting off-hand speech which
held the undivided attention of the audience. Prof. C. W. Williamson
of Wapakoneta read a very carefully prepared paper on "The Allied
Indian Tribes of Western Ohio." Prof. Williamson's address dealt in
detail with the early invasion of Ohio by the English traders and the
war for extermination which was waged against them by the French
from Quebec, who by the aid of the Indians were able to drive back
the first of the traders. He also graphically pictured the conspiracy of
Pontiac and the plan and efforts of that distinguished Indian chief
to regain the Ohio valley from the encroachments of the white men. The
Secretary of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society de-
livered an address entilted "Some Phases of Early Ohio History." Hu-
morous recitations were rendered by Miss Lenora R. Shaw of Ashland
College and Mr. M. A. Ricksecker of Galion.
This meeting of the Richland County Historical Society, both in
interest and attendance, proved to be the most successful of any in its
history. The society under the administration of Gen. R. Brinkerhoff,
President, and Mr. A. J. Baughman, Secretary, is doing splendid work
and gathering much historical material concerning the county and the
state which would otherwise be lost to future readers.
* * * * *
On August 3, 1905, by invitation from Mr. A. J. Baughman, Secre-
tary Randall paid a visit to the far-famed watershed barn, situated near
Five Corners, in Springfield township, seven miles west of Mansfield,
Richland county, on what is known as the Leesville road. The party
from Mansfield consisted of Gen. Brinkerhoff, Mr. A. J. Baughman, Mr.
Martin B. Bushnell, Mr. Peter Bissman and Mr. M. D. Frazier, Editor
of the Daily Shield and the writer. The party proceeded by trolley from
Mansfield to the farm, upon which the barn is located, said farm now
being the property of Mr. C. Craig. The barn, a large structure, stands
upon the roadside, facing the east and west, and not, as is generally sup-
posed, north and south. The barn rests upon a slight elevation, midway
between what are known respectively as the Palmer Spring and Little
Lake. Each of these water sources is about a quarter of a mile from
the barn. Palmer Spring is the head source of the Sandusky River,
which empties into Lake Erie, and the Little Lake is the head source of
Clear Creek, which finds its way to the Mohican, thence into the Tus-
carawas, the Muskingum, the Ohio and then into the Mississippi. The
geographical location at this point is, of course, upon the "divide," hav-
ing an elevation of 832 feet above Lake Erie, 965 feet above the Ohio
River, and 1,265 feet above sea level. Photographs were taken of the
barn and the two river sources. The visit proved to be one of special in-
terest, which was greatly heightened by the information gained of the
geological and historical features of the section as related by Mr. A. J.
Baughman, than whom few in the state are better qualified to speak
upon matters pertaining to its geology and history.
INDIAN VS. ABORIGINE.
The following communication is self explanatory. It is from the
pen of Prof. R. W. McFarland, Oxford, Ohio, who has contributed many
articles of value to the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society
Mr. E. O. Randall:
In reading your highly commendatory notice of Dr. Slocum's Histori-
cal work, I was pleased to see your remark about his use of the word
Aborigine instead of Indian. Allow me to say that the term has never
been recognized by Webster, or Worcester, by their co-adjutors, or their
successors, as belonging to the English language. It is found in the
Century and the Standard, -and we are entitled to suppose that its
presence there is because some writer had used it. The plural, Aborigines,
is applied to the first inhabitants of a country; it does not apply to
subsequent races. Unless the Dr. can show that the Indians were the
first inhabitants of America, the term cannot be applied to them at all.
Further; four hundred years ago when this continent was discov-
ered, it was supposed to be what is now called the East Indies; in dis-
covering the error, the term West Indies was given to the islands be-
tween North and South America, and they have borne the name ever
since. The inhabitants of these islands were naturally and properly
called Indians, the name subsequently being applied to all the race,
whether on continent or island. And from that day to this, the word
has been used alike by writers of fiction as well as of history, -by
Cooper, Irving, Bancroft, Prescott, McMaster, Wilson, - indeed, by all
standard authors. It has been used by the authorities of the country,
both state and national, in regard to civil cases as well as to military;
and such has been the practice ever since the English occupied this
country. The Spaniard, the Portugese, the French also used the like
word. This term has been too long in vogue, and has covered too wide
a territory to be called in question at this late day.
It seems to me that the careful and judicious reader of the work
in question may be led to suspect that such a lapse may not be an iso-
lated one, but may be accompanied by others no less bad. The tendency
474 Ohio. Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
would be to detract from the estimate in which the work might be held.
The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society cannot, of course, agree
to sanction such vagaries.
R. W. MCFARLAND.
ITINERARY OF THE SECRETARY.
On August 18th, Secretary Randall made a trip to Chillicothe and
procuring conveyance drove out some seven miles to the location of
the "Harness Mounds," where Prof. W. C. Mills, Curator of the So-
ciety's Museum, was conducting his explorations. The Secretary spent
the day at the mounds, and while there was fortunate to see the discov-
ery of a grave and its opening by the explorers under the direction of
Prof. Mills and his assistant, Mr. A. B. Coover. Portions of a human
skeleton were exhumed and some fine copper ear-rings and other orna-
ments were taken from the gave. Prof. Mills was unusually successful
in his finds during the summer explorations. He explored completely
the largest of the Harness Mounds which had been opened at previous
periods, respectively, by Squier and Davis, Prof. F. W. Putnam and
Prof. Warren K. Moorehead. Prof. Mills had under his direction an
excellent force of eight or ten men. Prof. Mills will prepare and publish
in due time in the Quarterly a detailed statement of his explorations for
the past summer.
* * *
On Friday, August 25th, the Secretary journeyed to Piqua, where
he was met by Judge E. L. Hoskins of the Probate Court of Shelby county,
Mr. H. R. McVey, Superintendent of the Shelby schools, and Mr. A. J.
Hess, President of the Sidney Board of Education. In company with
these gentlemen a trolly car was taken to the historic residence of John
Johnson, who for many years was the government agent for the Ohio
Indians during their residence on the Ohio Reservation. Near this John-
son residence was the old stockade fort known as "Pickawillany," pic-
turesquely located on the banks of the Great Miami River. The party
also visited the monument close by, erected by the Daughters of the
American Revolution, to commemorate the spot of the last battle of
"The French and Indian War." It is a splendid granite rock, upon which
is this inscription:
"Erected 1898 by the Piqua Chapter of the Daughters of
the American Revolution in Memory of the Last Battle of the
French and Indian War, Fought near This Spot 1763."
From this point the party took the trolley to Sidney and thence by
carriage conveyance drove to the site of old Fort Laramie on the banks
or Loramie Creek. This town is now named "Loramie." The site of
the old fort is on the farm of Mr. F. C. Arkenberg. While at the site of
the old fort the party met Mr. F. J. Uhrich, Superintendent of Schools
of Loramie, who imparted to the party much information of historical
* * *
Col. John W. Harper of Cincinnati represented the Ohio State Ar-
chaeological and Historical Society at the "White Water Valley Associa-
tion" meeting, held September 9th, at White Water, Hamilton county,
on which occasion he delivered an address setting forth the history and
purposes of the society.
* * *
Mr. W. H. Hunter, Trustee of the Ohio State Archaeological and
Historical Society, delivered an address to the students of Marietta Col-
lege and the members of the "Ohio Valley Historical Association" upon
the evening of Friday, September 29th, in the college chapel at Marietta,
his subject being "General Arthur St. Clair, Territorial Governor of
* * *
On Saturday, September 9th, Trustee B. F. Prince made a visit of
inspection to Fort Ancient, and on Saturday of the following week, Sep-
tember 16th, Secretary Randall was the guest of Mr. Warren Cowen,
Custodian of the Fort. The Secretary remained several days, during
which time he made extended examination of the archaeological con-
struction of the Fort and noted also the result of the custodianship of
Mr. Cowen. The Fort never was in such excellent condition, and in its
state of transition from summer to winter-in its all coloring-pre-
sented a most attractive and picturesque appearance.