UNVEILING OF THE CRESAP TABLET.
LOGAN ELM PARK-OCTOBER, 1916.
On Saturday, October 21, 1916, an interesting ceremony
was held at Logan Elm Park, under the auspices of the Ohio
State Archaeological and Historical Society. The program, ar-
ranged by Mr. Frank Tallmadge, comprised the erection of a
flag staff and the unfurling of the stars and stripes; the dedi-
cation of a log cabin, not a modern imitation but a well pre-
served relic of the real thing, a left over of the pioneer days,
secured on a neighboring farm and transported to the Park;
the unveiling of two bronze tablets attached to opposite sides of
a large boulder, firmly placed upon a concrete foundation. The
inscriptions on these two tablets read respectively as follows:
AMONG THOSE PRESENT
ON THIS SPOT AT THE
DUNMORE TREATY, OCT. 1774
WERE THE FOLLOWING
GEN. GEO. R. CLARK - KY.
CAPT. M. CRESAP - MD.
GEN. JOHN GIBSON -PA.
SIMON KENTON - - VA.
COL. BENJ. WILSON -MD.
LIEUT. J. CRESAP - MD.
BENJ. TOMLINSON - -MD.
GEN. DAN'L MORGAN - VA.
SIMON GIRTY - - PA.
COL. L. BARRET
Gov. JAMES WOOD - - VA.
CAPT. JNO. WILSON -KY.
LIEUT. GABRIEL Cox - KY.
CAPT. JOHNSON - -PA.
CAPT. JAS. PARSONS -VA.
CAPT. WM. HARROD -VA.
CAPT. WM. HENSHAW - VA.
LIEUT. M. CRESAP, JR. - MD.
CAPT. DAVID SCOTT -PA.
CAPT. MICHAEL CRESAP
A COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY HERO OF OHIO, VIRGINIA
AND MARYLAND, WHOSE MILITARY SERVICES ASSISTED IN
124 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
GAINING THE "DUNMORE TREATY," AFTER THE BATTLE OF
POINT PLEASANT, IN WHICH HE FOUGHT IN THE HAMPSHIRE
COUNTY, VIRGINIA REGIMENT. CAPTAIN MICHAEL CRESAP
WAS PRESENT HERE AND A SIGNER OF THE "DUNMORE
TREATY," IN OCTOBER 1774.
CAPTAIN MICHAEL CRESAP'S COMPANIONS IN ARMS,
EBENEZER ZANE, GENERAL GEORGE ROGERS CLARKE, COLONEL
BENJAMIN WILSON, BENJAMIN TOMLINSON AND OTHERS,
CORRECTED LOGAN'S MISTAKE IN ASSOCIATING CAPTAIN
CRESAP WITH THE YELLOW CREEK AFFAIR.
CAPTAIN MICHAEL CRESAP TOOK THE FIRST COMPANY
FROM THE SOUTH TO GENERAL WASHINGTON AT CAMBRIDGE.
HE DIED IN THE SERVICE AND WAS BURIED WITH THE
"HONORS OF WAR," AND HIS TOMB STANDS IN TRINITY
CHURCH YARD, NEW YORK CITY.
The day proved inclement in weather and not over a hun-
dred gathered to participate in the occasion. Conspicuous
among those present were twenty-one of the lineal descendants
of Col. Thomas Cresap of early American pioneer fame, and
whose son Captain Michael Cresap was the one designated by
the Mingo Chief Logan as the destroyer of the Chief's family.
After the unfurling of the flag by Mr. William Neil as
many of those present, as could, assembled within the log cabin,
in the ample fireplace of which the burning logs snapped and
sparkled as of "ye olden time," while Colonel Henry C. Taylor
read the following dedicatory address:
ADDRESS OF HENRY C. TAYLOR.
The ground on which we meet today has many interesting associa-
tions. It was the scene of conflict of two races of men, the white and
the red. Here were the troublous days of a retiring and oncoming race.
The aboriginal had roamed over these plains for uncounted years until
something like two centuries ago the pale face began here and there to
appear. In a short time antagonisms grew into open hostility and con-
tinued with increasing energy until at last treaties of peace were made,
the red men seeking other hunting grounds and the white men entered
in and possessed the land. After the conflict of many trying years, it is
recounted that the representatives of the Indian and the pale face as-
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 125
sembled here in friendly council. We are pleased to think of the times
when they met here, to smoke the pipe of peace.
The home of the red men was the wigwam and around this were
held the council fires and to these were brought the trophies of the hunt
for game, then so abundant. The wigwam was conical in shape with
long poles driven into the ground and was generally covered with bark
and skins. At the top an open space was left for the escape of smoke.
It was temporary in its structure, easily made and could be quickly taken
down and removed. The Indian wigwam was of the tent type, the home
of man in all countries in the early ages of the world. It is said that
when an Indian wandered far and wide and could not find his wigwam,
the wigwam was considered lost but not the Indian. Such was their
pride of location in forest and plain. In the now distant days the home
of the white man was the log cabin. This was their refuge from danger
and place of rest and protection. Around these log abodes clustered the
home ties of the pioneers. Living in these they went forth to subdue
the earth for their uses and purposes. Not relying on the woods and
streams for their sustenance they planted the Indian corn. Soon the
potato and cabbage found their way into the cleared ground, also some
wheat and patches of buckwheat grew about the cabins. Upon the sides
of the cabin were often stretched the skins of wild animals, especially
those of the coon, mink, opossum, groundhog and fox. The wolves were
at large in these plains and woods and their skins were turned to com-
mercial use by the pioneers. There was not so very much light in the
cabins, the windows being small and usually no light from the door. In
the evening and during the night a large open fire furnished the light
and made the interior bright and cheery, after the day of hardship, ex-
posure and toil. The back log was from four to five feet long and was
hauled to the cabin door by a horse. It was then rolled in and put into
place by two men and served the purpose for several days. The longer
pieces, consisting of limbs and split wood, were placed in front and a roar-
ing fire would be the result. The chimney would be so open and of such
large proportions that one could look up through it at night and see the
stars. Great care was exercised in selecting the back log and the kind
of wood largely determined the time it would last. It was said of the
buckeye that one good back log of this timber would last all winter and
then it could be taken out in the spring and planted and would sprout and
grow. In the interior of the cabin the ceiling on the first or ground
floor was generally low, probably 71/2 or 8 feet in height. Heavy timbers
extended across to support the loft or space above. From these timbers
were many wooden hooks made from the saplings to support different
household articles but especially the guns. It was customary to have at
least two rifles and probably a flintlock shotgun so suspended. In the
hands of the skilled hunters the rifles were deadly instruments; the flint-
lock was uncertain, not carrying far and was only fatal at short range.
126 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
In the beginning of things in the history of our state it was a great
class of men and women that lived in the log cabins. They were the
stalwarts from the East and South, of English, Irish, Scotch, Welch, Ger-
man, Dutch and French descent. The prevailing type of the first settlers
was, I think, a mixture, and what is known as the Scotch-Irish. They
were the settlers of whom General Andrew Jackson was a representative
man. The characteristics of the people who built and lived in these cabins
were industry, economy, courage, self-sacrifice, morality and a firm belief
in churches and schools. Their education was often limited and some of
them who were most highly esteemed and honored could scarcely read or
write. Andrew Johnson was taught to read by his wife after he was
married. It is said that Andrew Jackson was always quite deficient in
spelling and one version of the original of O. K. is that on some measure
which met his approval he wrote O. K., which he supposed was the initial
letters for "all correct.' This branch of education is not now so highly
valued since the advent of simplified spelling and spelling reform.
The national compaign of 1840 resolved itself into a celebration of
the log cabin period of our country. The enthusiasm knew no bound
and the candidate whose name was associated with this humble structure
was elected president of the United States. On the 22nd day of Feb-
ruary, 1840, there was held in Columbus a political demonstration, the like
of which had never before been seen and which for many years after
was referred to with the greatest pride.
A log cabin with a coon on top was placed upon a wagon and hauled
down High Street, to the infinite satisfaction and amusement of the pub-
lic. On this occasion Mr. William Neil, the elder of two brothers who
came in an early day from Kentucky to Columbus, drove the six pairs
of horses for the float on which were seated the young ladies dressed in
white representing the different states of the Union. My father took a
part in this notable procession of that time, and today there are repre-
senatives here in the third generation of these two families.
The log cabin has a place in our literature in prose and verse. In
the winter of 1851 in the National Intelligencer, published in Washington,
D. C., a story was commenced which was destined to become, when pub-
lished in book form, the most effective work ever written by an American.
This story was finished in 1852 and was published under the title of
"Uncle Tom's Cabin." In a short time it gained a wide circulation and
continues to be largely read unto this day. It has been translated into
twenty different languages and has gone into all parts of the world. Its
effect in our country after the first year of its publication was tremendous
and it has been credited with having accomplished more in the work of
overthrowing the institution of slavery than all the abolition societies
ever formed and anti-salvery orations ever delivered. The alternative
part of the title, though seldom heard, is quite significant, the full title
being "Uncle Tom's Cabin or Life Among the Lowly."
128 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
Hurrah for our Country! May she ever be free.
Hurrah for our Patriots! On land or on sea,
Who gave this Liberty, to you and to me.
We will hold their deeds, and memory bright,
While the Sun and the Moon give us this light;
To their principles, we boys will be true,
And we will live and die, for the Red, White and Blue.
The speaker of the day was Hon. Henry J. Booth, who de-
livered the following address:
ADDRESS OF HON. HENRY J. BOOTH.
In the midst of the greatest war that has ever exposed the vices
and weaknesses of what we call civilization, we have met to commem-
orate events which were a prelude to another war, that ended at York-
town four generations ago. As to the results of the present world-wide
conflict let us not attempt to speculate, lest our opinions be colored by
our sympathies. But the heritage of the American Revolution is known
of all men. The supreme outstanding fact is that in the great family of
nations, for more than a hundred years our people have enjoyed the
best fruits of civilization to a greater extent than any other nation. And
now, in the great cataclysm of destruction and passion in Europe, our
country is the one great neutral, when enemies arrayed against each other
in the grapple of death are so many, and neutrals are so few. Hence
when the present war is ended, whether in victory or through exhaustion,
whether celebrated by triumphal entries into conquered capitals, or termi-
nated by the mutual withdrawal of shattered ranks from the blood-
soaked fields of conflict to their homes, where nearly every house will be
a house of mourning, the influence of America will be exerted to estab-
lish and maintain a world peace; and America, more than ever before,
will be an asylum for the oppressed of all nations.
A state as well as an individual is endowed with a personality. Its
history may long antedate its birth as a commonwealth. So it was with
the six states which were carved out of the Northwest Territory. But,
in one respect at least, more than any of the others, the history of Ohio
is unique. As a member of the sisterhood of states its history commenced
in 1803. But much of its most important history was written before that
time in events which fixed its status and molded its character.
Among the most important events which affected the early history
of the territory which we now call Ohio were the organization of the
First Ohio Company in 1748, although the grant to that company for six
hundred thousand acres was located on the northern and southern banks
of the Ohio river, the treaty between Lord Dunmore and the Indians in
1774, the adoption of the Ordinance of 1787, and the settlements during
colonial times of which the most conspicuous was the one at Marietta.
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 129
The First Ohio Company was composed principally of influential men in
Maryland and Virginia, including General Washington, Colonel Thomas
Cresap and Colonel George Mason. It was the name of George Mason
which was given to Mason and Dixon's Line, that for nearly two genera-
tions was the invisible line which served as the northern boundary of the
slave states. Lord Dunmore's treaty, concluded twenty-five years later, in
the shade of the giant elm under which we now stand, on the eve of the
revolution, broke the power of the Indians in what was then known as the
"Dark and Bloody Ground" north of the Ohio River. The peace so se-
cured effectually protected Virginia and the neighboring colonies for a
time at least from attacks in the rear while they were forming a con-
federacy of the colonies and launching the war of independence against
their white brethren across the sea.
In 1787 was secured the Magna Charta which defined the rights of
the few who had already settled, and the millions yet to come, in the great
Northwest Territory, from which slavery was permanently excluded. So
fundamental were the rights thus granted in perpetuity that even yet the
courts of Ohio recognize all provisions of that great compact, which are
not repugnant to the constitution of the state, as being still in force,
although granted fifteen years before Ohio became a state. Prior to the
adoption of that ordinance, which was in effect a constitution for six
central northern states, a few thousand adventurous spirits had found
their way as traders and settlers among the hills bordering the Ohio
River and into the fertile valleys of the larger streams which flowed into
the Ohio River from both the north and the south.
Within a few years after the civil rights of the inhabitants north
of the river were fixed by law, colonies composed of the best blood of
the states along the seaboard were organized for the settlement of the
New West. The first and most conspicuous of these was composed prin-
cipally of men and women of New England, who settled at Marietta,
which marks the confluence of the Muskingum and the Ohio. They were
soon followed by others who settled in eastern, southeastern and southern
Ohio and later by colonists located farther north and west.
It was thus that the heart of our country was established in the
Central West comprising the states which were carved out of the great
Northwest Territory. It is not in any spirit of egotism that the men of
today pay tribute to their forbears who commenced to write history for
us, on the soil of what is now Ohio, more than a hundred and fifty years
The organization, development, growth and prosperity of colonies,
far more than the history of states, depend upon their natural leaders.
Those who are resolute, brave and strong become by common consent
leaders in every great emergency, whether in repelling force with force in
the acquisition or defense of new territory, or in the settlement and devel-
opment of large areas of fertile soil so acquired. Land is the ultimate
130 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
source of all wealth. Therefore, whether on the rocky shores of Massa-
chusetts, in the fertile valleys of Virginia, in the more fertile valleys of
Ohio and in the prairie states farther west, and on every other continent
as well as on this, the acquisition of land, by those we call civilized from
those we call savage, has been the potent cause of that ceaseless aggres-
sion to which neither precept nor practice has yet placed a limit.
On land so acquired stands the little cabin in which Lincoln was
born. now enclosed by a grateful people in a magnificent granite memo-
rial building near Hodgenville, Kentuckyy. So Washington's forbears
obtained their plantations east of the Alleghenies. So Washington himself
acquired extensive tracts of land in Western Pennsylvania. To this policy
the early settlers were indebted for the site of every cabin, every church
and every school. As the result of the inevitable race conflict between
the indigenous race which held the land and those who wished to im-
prove it, one hundred million American people are now enjoying peace
and plenty. The passing of the Indians east of the Mississippi is pathetic
beyond words; but the problem of their benevolent assimilation has never
yet been satisfactorily solved.
Sometimes it is quite as interesting and instructive to read history
backward as to attempt to trace it chronologically from cause to effect.
That method may furnish the better perspective. A picture so drawn
may be more true to life. That is also the quicker way when the facts
are not disputed. But what romantic incident has ever been embodied
in history without challenge? What important event has been accepted
from first to last as first told? What chapter of history has run the
gauntlet for the last time? Who knows?
The details of history are frequently obscured by the inherent de-
fects of human testimony. At best history is largely hearsay. As to
such testimony it is a rule of court, that its probative force is subject to
the criticism, that statements are often thoughtlessly made, imperfectly
heard, inaccurately remembered, and carelessly detailed. If the historian
is too near to the events described he fails to see their proportions and
their relationship to each other. If he be too far away he finds that the
details have faded into the uncertainties of mere tradition. Indeed, the
personal observations of honest and intelligent men are not always re-
liable. This is illustrated by a story told of Sir Walter Raleigh. It
relates to an incident which occurred when, after losing the favor of
Queen Elizabeth, he was confined as a prisoner in the Tower of London.
Quess Bess did not like her distinguished courtier so well then as she
did when he threw his cloak on a muddy pathway so that the Queen
could pass over it dryshod. If you have ever visited the Tower you
must have observed that its thick stone walls are pierced by high win-
dows, so narrow, however, that while a prisoner could readily see what
occurred in the courtyard below, he could not escape. While held a
prisoner there, so the story goes, Sir Walter occupied his time writing a
history of England and her colonies. One day, while looking down from
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 131
his window, he saw something unusual which especially attracted his
attention. Shortly afterwards a friend called to see him and narrated
the incident as he observed it while passing through the courtyard. Soon
another friend called and detailed the incident as he saw it. Each of the
three had an entirely different version of the affair from that narrated
by both of the others. Thereupon Raleigh exclaimed, "If I cannot be-
lieve what my own eyes have seen, how can I expect my countrymen to
believe events as narrated by me, many of which I did not see?" So he
threw his manuscript into the fire.
Various causes conspired to distort the history of our colonial he-
roes, whose activities were devoted to subduing the forest and in com-
bating enemies at home, as well as in repelling enemies from abroad,
and not in writing diaries.
Captain Michael Cresap made history but did not write it. There-
fore, much that pertained to important events in which he played a lead-
ing role were for a time lost in the mists of the almost forgotten past
until they were rescued from oblivion by the patient and persistent re-
search of members of the Cresap family and by them restored to their
proper place in well authenticated history.
Colonel Thomas Cresap, the founder of the American family of that
name, was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1702; emigrated to the new
world at the age of fifteen; first settled in Maryland on the Susque-
hanna, near what is now Havre de Grace; became a surveyor; espoused
the cause of Lord Baltimore; surveyed the line between Maryland and
Pennsylvania; shortly afterwards moved to what is now called Old Town
in Western Maryland; acquired fourteen hundred acres of land, and be-
came an Indian trader; was one of the members of the First Ohio Com-
pany, which made the first English settlement at Pittsburg; surveyed the
road from Cumberland to Pittsburg, over which General Braddock's
army marched to its defeat; was colonel of the Provincials from 1730
to 1770; in October, 1765, when the Provincial Assembly adopted resolu-
tions against the Stamp Act, organized the Sons of Liberty; was the
host of General Washington while on a trip to visit the Ohio country;
took an active part in the border wars with the Indians; was active in
making the most effective preparations for the war of independence; was
a delegate to the first convention of the Province of Maryland, which
met at Annapolis, June 22, 1774, and proposed the first Continental Con-
gress; in the year 1775 served as a member of the Committee of Obser-
vation of his county, to assist in carrying out the plans of the new Con-
gress, and in raising money to buy arms and ammunition; at the ad-
vanced age of 90 years made a business trip to Nova Scotia; and died
in 1808 full of years and honors, at the great age of 106 years.
Condensing a statement of Mrs. Mary Louise Stevenson, one of his
descendants, and now the official historian of the Cresap family:
132 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
"Colonel Cresap's voice has echoed in the halls of Congress
through his descendants. On the Judge's Bench, from legal forums,
and in Legislative Assemblies in most of our states, including Ohio,
his descendants have served with the hereditary wisdom for which
he was so esteemed in the Assemblies of the Province and State of
Maryland. From that time to this on land and sea they have proved
worthy of the example of the American founder of the Cresap fam-
ily, in the war of 1812, in Sherman's march to the sea, with Grant at
Vicksburg, Shiloh and Appomattox, at San Juan Hill in Cuba and at
Manila, -where his children's children to the seventh generation
have fought for "Old Glory," and supported the cause which he
loved and for which he suffered, the cause of liberty, loyalty and
Colonel Thomas Cresap had five children, three sons, Daniel,
Thomas and Michael, and two daughters, Sarah and Elizabeth, whose
descendants have been; and are, as prominent and influential as they are
numerous. Michael Cresap, in whose honor an appropriate historic me-
morial has been unveiled here today, was the youngest and most dis-
tinguished son of Colonel Thomas Cresap. He was born June 29, 1742,
in Allegheny County, Maryland. He was sent to school in Baltimore,
but, finding his work uncongenial, he left school without leave or license
and walked home, a distance of 140 miles. But the Colonel promptly gave
the truant Michael a severe flogging and compelled him to walk back to
school, where he remained until his studies were finished.
Soon after leaving school he married a Miss Whitehead, of Phil-
adelphia, and the young pair, described as being a little more than chil-
dren, established a modest home in the mountains on or near the Colonel's
All three of the sons were actively engaged in Indian warfare, mak-
ing common cause with their father, whose home, protected by a stockade,
was always a rallying point for all the settlers in his neighborhood.
Daniel, a farmer, was twice married, and the father of eleven chil-
dren. Thomas, the second son, while yet a young man, was killed in a
battle with the Indians at the west foot of Savage Mountain. He and
the Indian who shot him fired at each other at the same instant, and both
fell dead. He was survived by a widow and one child, Charity, of whom
the Cresaps of this state, in Fairfield, Licking and Franklin Counties, are
Young Michael, son of Colonel Thomas, soon after his marriage,
was established in business by his father as a trader. Of his life for
the first few years after his marriage we know but little. Abandoning
his business as a trader near the old home, like Washington and many
others at that time, he became interested in the rich bottom lands of the
Ohio Valley in Western Pennsylvania, and later much farther down that
stream. About 1770 he took measures to secure title to several hundred
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 133
acres of land above Pittsburg by the customary method then known as
"a tomahawk improvement." That was accomplished by girdling a few
trees and blazing others as evidence of possession and ownership. It is
said that "in order that his act and intention might not be misconstrued,"
he built a house of hewed logs with a shingle roof nailed on, which is
believed to have been the first building of that kind in that part of our
great domain west of the mountains.
During this period he was carrying on his business as a frontier
trader and at the same time locating and improving land for himself and
for others farther down the Ohio, below Wheeling and finally as far west
as the mouth of the Scioto. For his last expedition of this kind he left
Maryland early in the spring of 1774 with laborers employed to improve
the farms he located.
Of Captain Cresap's plans and purposes we may adopt the estimate
of an author who made a careful study of conditions during that critical
period, and expressed his views as follows:
"He was there neither as a speculator nor a land jobber, as
many of the emigrants of those days were unjustly stigmatized.
His purpose was peaceful settlement, and he is no more to be blamed
for his manly progress into the wilderness in the quest of land,
than were Washington and many other distinguished Americans of
those days who possessed themselves of property in the prolific val-
leys of the west."
Hostile demonstrations and actual conflicts between the pioneers and
the Indians, fomented by influences which were not fully appreciated at
the time, and for which neither side was responsible, became so frequent
and so alarming that the work of peaceful settlement along both sides
of the Ohio River was perforce soon practically abandoned, and the axe
and the surveyor's compass were exchanged for the rifle.
In 1774 a state of actual warfare existed. It was not a mere war
of races, but a prelude to a greater war, the seven years' conflict between
men of the same race, the colonist and the Briton. That phase of the
conflict which developed along the Ohio and its tributaries in the spring
and early summer of 1774, and terminated by a treaty on this spot a few
months later, has sometimes been called "Cresap's War." If by that it
is meant that Captain Cresap instigated the conflict, the phase is obviously
a misnomer. If it is used to imply that Cresap led or directed certain
attacks which were exploited as excuses for bloody reprisals, it is no less
a distortion of the verities of history. But the history which some men
make is not always the history which other men write.
Did Cresap's self interest lie on the side of peace or of war? Did
he enlist an army for the invasion of the Ohio country, or employ and
equip men to locate, survey and settle plantations in its fertile valleys?
If they were enlisted to fight for the Province, why were they not paid
134 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
by the Province? When nearly a hundred white men, hunters and emi-
grants, believing that the Indians were determined to make war, knowing
Cresap's experience in Indian warefare farther east, as well as his in-
trepidity, his intelligence and his skill in organization and leadership, in
the early spring of 1774 decided to attack an Indian town called Horse-
Head Bottom on the Scioto River not far from its junction with the
Ohio, and besought him to act as their leader, who was it that counseled
peace, dissuaded them from their purpose, and induced them to retire to
Wheeling? Captain Cresap. Who was it a few days later that refused to
attend a conference with the Indian Chief Kilbuck, lest he might be
tempted to kill that notorious scalp-lifter who had lain in wait to kill his
father, Colonel Cresap? Michael Cresap, the son. Who was it late in
April of that year that refused to attack the Camp of Logan composed of
two or three men and a few women and children? Captain Cresap.
Throughout his strenuous career Captain Cresap displayed the essen-
tial qualities of the successful soldier, not only in actual battle and in his
memorable march to Boston, but also in recruiting only the best men,
and in personally looking after their equipment, health and training. Like
all soldiers born to command, no details were too small to receive his
constant personal attention. For instance, it is recorded of him by one
of his soldiers, Abraham Thomas, that, in what is known as "The Wo-
kotamica Campaign," in the early summer of 1774, when four hundred
frontiersmen left Wheeling to attack the Indians in their villages at
Wokotamica, "on the waters of the Muskingum," on the night before the
"Captain Cresap was up the whole night among his men, going
the rounds and cautioning them to keep their arms in condition for
a morning attack which he confidently expected."
Young Thomas describes his own enlistment and his determination
to enter the service as follows:
"The collected force consisted of four hundred men. I was
often at their encampment; and against the positive injunctions of
my parents could not resist my inclination to join them. At this
time I was 18 years of age, owned my own rifle and accoutrements
and had long been familiar with the use of them. Escaping, I made
the best possible provision I could from my own resources and has-
tened to enter as a volunteer under old Mike, then Captain Cresap."
The naivete with which this youngster refers to the difference be-
tween his own age and that of the gallant young captain under whom
he served becomes all the more impressive when we are reminded that
the man he describs as "old Mike, then Captain Cresap," was only 32
years of age. Possibly he meant that Captain Cresap was a veteran in
the service compared with less efficient officers, of greater age, including
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 135
Colonel Angus MacDonald, the ranking officer in that little army. But
it seems more probable that his artless description but illustrates the
fact that in 1774, as well as in 1916, to a boy of 18 a man of 32 was as
he is today an old, old man, notwithstanding the fact that nearly all of
the officers now in general command in Europe are considerably more
than 60 years of age.
Always and everywhere Captain Cresap's men loved him and re-
spected him. He seems to have been the most popular young officer in
the service, whether in recruiting men to fight the Indians or to fight the
British. Therefore, when he called for volunteers there was always a
surplus of those who wished to join his command, to be assigned against
their wish to other officers less popular than himself. He was a strict
disciplinarian, but not a martinet. His sense of discipline was inherited
from his father and confirmed by his own experience.
The Captain mentioned in the memorial unveiled today is some-
times referred to as Captain Michael Cresap, Sr., because there were
other Cresaps in Dunmore's army. The Captain Michael Cresap whose
life we now commemorate, commanded a company in the famous in-
vasion of Ohio, known as Lord Dunmore's War, which terminated in
the historic treaty between the white men and the Indians on this spot
on the 19th day of October, 1774, almost exactly 142 years ago today.
With Captain Cresap, and serving in his command, were his three
nephews, sons of his brother Daniel, viz.: Daniel Cresap, Jr., who be-
came a Colonel in the Revolutionary War, and Michael Cresap, Jr., and
Joseph Cresap, both of whom became lieutenants. The army of invasion
was composed of two divisions, one under the command of Lord Dun-
more, which reached here shortly before the treaty was signed, and the
other commanded by Colonel Andrew Lewis, who fought a bloody but
decisive battle with the Indians at Point Pleasant, West Virginia, on the
10th of October, but did not join Dunmore's division until the 24th of
that month, too late to attend the conference at which the terms of the
treaty were agreed upon. Having already expressed my own views con-
cerning the results of the treaty and the battle at Point Pleasant, I take
the liberty of quoting the following lines concerning that great battle
from Theodore Roosevelt's "Winning of the West":
"The battle of Point Pleasant was the most extensive, the most
bitterly contested, and fought with the most potent results of any
Indian battle in American history."
After the close of the Dunmore War Captain Cresap returned to
Maryland and spent the latter part of the fall and following winter with
his family; but early in the following spring he hired another band of
young men and repaired again to the Ohio country to finish the work
which had been interrupted the year before. On this trip he stopped on
the Kentucky side of the river, where he made some improvements. Be-
136 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
ing ill, however, he soon left his workmen and departed for his home
on the other side of the mountains in order to rest and recover his
health. But before he had crossed the Alleghenies he was met by a
friend bearing a message that the Committee of Safety at Frederick,
Maryland, had appointed him as the first of two captains selected and
commissioned to recruit and command the two Rifle Companies required
of Maryland by a resolution of the Continental Congress. The Com-
mittee of Safety demanded the most experienced officers and the very
best men who could be secured, "as well from affection to the service
as for the honor of the Province."
It is said that when he received the message, instead of being elated,
Captain Cresap seemed to be depressed, as if he had a presentiment that
the service required of him was his death warrant. He told the mes-
senger that he was in bad health and that his affairs were in a deranged
condition, but that, nevertheless, as the Committee had selected him, and
as he understood from the messenger that his father had pledged himself
that his son would accept the employment, he would go, let the conse-
quences be what they might. His friend was directed to proceed to the
west side of the mountains and call upon his old friends for recruits.
This was done and in a short time young frontiersmen appeared at his
residence in Old Town, who are described as "about 22 as fine fellows
as ever handled a rifle, and most, if not all of them, completely equipped."
These young men had already marched nearly one hundred miles, after
receiving the message to join the standard of their former captain. This
was in June, 1775.
The result of his efforts to recruit his Company of Riflemen and
report to Washington with his company as soon as possible was that
within about sixty days from the date of his commission he was march-
ing at the head of a company of more than 130 men from the mountains
and the backwoods, the pick of their class.
I take the liberty in quoting, from a letter written about that time,
apparently by some one in Frederick, Maryland, a description of Cresap's
Riflemen and of a test of their skill in marksmanship:
"Yesterday the company were supplied with a small quantity
of powder from the magazine, which wanted airing and was not in
good order for rifles; in the evening, however, they were drawn
out to show the gentlemen of the town their dexterity at shooting.
A clapboard with a mark the size of a dollar was put up; they began
to fire off-hand, and the bystanders were surprised, few shots being
made that were not close to or in the paper. When they had shot
for a short time this way, some lay on their backs, some on their
breast or side, others ran twenty or thirty steps, and firing, appeared
to be equally certain of the mark. With this performance the com-
pany were more than satisfied when a young man took up the board
in his hand, not by the end but by the side, and holding it up, his
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 137
brother walked to the distance and very coolly shot into the white;
laying down his rifle, he took the board and holding it as it was
held before, the second brother shot as the first had done. By this
exercise I was more astonished than pleased. But will you believe
me when I tell you that one of the men took the board, placing it
between his legs, stood with his back to a tree, while another drove
the center ?"
This remarkable body of men, not surpassed if equalled in its per-
sonnel by any other body of troops during the Revolution, furnished their
own accoutrements. Starting promptly on their long journey they
marched from Frederick, Maryland, to Boston, Massachusetts, through
a country, for the most part sparsely settled and much of it as wild as
when the first white man trod the soil of the new world, subsisting on
parched corn and such game as they could procure on the way, 550 miles
in 22 days, an average of 25 miles per day, and, as the report comes to
us, without the loss of a single man, a feat rarely if ever surpassed in
ancient or modern warfare.
The difference between Cresap's volunteer riflemen in 1775 and
some of the New York troops recently sent to the Mexican border is well
illustrated by the public complaints of the latter, that the government did
not promptly furnish them the latest thing in modern arms, or transpor-
tation in Pullman parlor cars from their homes to their destination, that
they were not provided with the luxuries of the table, that some of their
uniforms did not fit, and that they were compelled, on their arrival, to
remove the sage brush and cactus from their camp sites. The contrast
is further emphasized by the following description by an eye witness of
the Maryland troops under the command of Captain Cresap:
"I have had the happiness of seeing Captain Michael Cresap
marching at the head of a formidable company of upwards of 130
men from the mountains and backwoods, painted like Indians, armed
with tomahawks and rifles, dressed in hunting shirts and moccasins,
and though some of them had traveled near eight hundred miles
from the banks of the Ohio, they seemed to walk light and easy,
and not with less spirit than the first hour of their march. Health
and vigor, after what they had undergone, declared them to be inti-
mate with hardship and familiar with danger. Joy and satisfaction
were visible in the crowd that met them. Had Lord North been
present, and been assured that the brave leader could raise thousands
of such like to defend his country, what think you, would not the
hatchet and the block have intruded on his mind?"
Ridpath, the historian, after referring to the arrival during the sum-
mer of 1775 of the troops which were hurried to Washington's assistance
in the east, as being "the first gleam of better hopes," and as "a begin-
138 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
ning towards making the army really continental," pays them the follow-
ing well merited compliment:
"These were ten companies of riflemen from the mountain
regions of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, so dreaded by the
British that the latter outlawed them, by a proclamation that no one
of them captured should be treated as a prisoner of war. The
Riflemen soon gained prisoners enough so that the British never
dared to carry out the threat."
Soon after he reported for duty at the head of his famous Sons of
liberty, Captain Cresap was commissioned by General Washington
as a colonel and detailed on some mission to New York City, where
within a few days he died, a martyr to his country, leaving a widow and
five children. As said by Mr. Frank Tallmadge, a loyal and enthusiastic
Cresap, in an address delivered on this spot four years ago:
"He was buried with military honors in Trinity Churchyard.
When you are walking down Broadway, go in the open gate and
turn to your right. Just opposite the north transept door you will
find this hero's grave next to the walk, and if your experience should
be like all of mine, you will find fresh flowers upon the monument."
Captain Cresap's career may not have been so picturesque as that
of General Custer, but Cresap's men were never led into an ambuscade.
His death was not tragic like that of Major Andre, who fell a victim
to Benedict Arnold's perfidy, but Cresap never betrayed his country. He
did not leave to his descendants the lustre of battles won during the Rev-
olutionary War, like Captain, afterwards General, Henry Lee, "Light
Foot Harry," or Captain, afterwards General, Daniel Morgan, who was
recruiting his Company of Riflemen in Virginia while Captain Cresap
was performing a similar service in Maryland, and many others who
entered the service with less prospect of great achievement than the first
Captain of the Maryland Rifles. Nor could he acquire post-bellum fame
in civil life like General Rufus Putnam and others of the fifty-two officers
of the Revolutionary armies who won fame as founders of the Marietta
Colonoy in 1788. If the arbiter of human destinies had prolonged Cap-
tain Cresap's life and smiled on his ambition, he might well have organ-
ized a colony from the best blood of Virginia and Maryland for settle-
ment beyond the Beautiful River, for his heart was in Ohio. But with
Captain Cresap, like many other young heroes who so promptly answered
their country's call with the laconic phrase, ad sum, I am here, the path
of glory led to an early grave. How appropriate it is, then, that repre-
sentatives of his family, under the auspices of the Archaeological and
Historical Society on Ohio soil in the shadow of the historic Logan Elm,
now dedicate to the memory of Captain Michael Cresap a monument as
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 139
simple as his life and as rugged as his character. And it is equally
appropriate that we dedicate at the same time a fitting memorial to those
historic characters, among whom Captain Cresap was so conspicuous,
whose sacrifices secured to the people of six great states those funda-
mental rights which did not come to our country as a whole until gen-
erations afterwards by the gage of civil war.
On this spot and under the shadow of this historic and time honored
tree it might be expected that I say something of the famous Indian
Chief, Logan, whose simple burst of native eloquence, traditionally
uttered near where we now stand, has placed his name in the fore rank
of aboriginal orators, but time does not permit and I assume you are
all familiar with that story as your chairman has at length related it in
Randall and Ryan's "History of Ohio."
But in closing, permit me to say a few words, speaking not by the
book, but as I feel at the moment, concerning another great represent-
tive of his race, Chief Cornstalk, who for many years and until his
death, was the master spirit of the great Indian Confederacy of the Ohio
country. Of the three Indian Confederacies whose domains extended
from New York to the Gulf the Ohio Confederacy was the strongest.
The seat of its power was in what was then known, and is still known,
as the Pickaway Plains. That region included the fertile low grounds
and surrounding hills a few miles northwest of this beautiful park. In
that neighborhood were located a number of Indian villages. In a sense
that was the capital of the Ohio Confederacy. It was the home of Chief
Cornstalk and his noted sister, known as the Grenadier Squaw. It was
the rendezvous for representatives of a large region extending both east
and west, and perhaps also south, of what is now embraced within Ohio,
for the purpose of discussing tribal relations, and the momentous ques-
tions of peace or war with the whites.
Of the chiefs who met there Cornstalk was the greatest warrior.
As an Indian diplomat he had no equal. He was the most conspicuous
representative of the race during his generation. No Indian chieftain
at any time has had a greater or more loyal following. None has ever
commanded such universal admiration from his contemporaries among
the white race. He was a man who knew not fear, was just to all ac-
cording to his lights, generous to his friends, indomitable in war, but
faithful to every compact whether of war or of peace.
Consonant with the spirit of this occasion there is another man who
deserves mention at the same time and in the same connection. Captain
Michael Cresap also was courageous, intrepid, resourceful, a natural
leader of men, just, generous, not implacable towards his enemies. They
were worthy counterparts of each other and splendid representatives of
the races from which they sprung.
This Society, numbering many representatives of the Cresap family,
will doubtless meet in this beautiful grove many times in the future,
under the spreading branches of this surviving monarch of the forest,
140 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
to commemorate the historic events which culminated in the most im-
portant treaty ever made between the red man and the white man. On
the monument which you dedicate today there is one space that is not
yet occupied by any memorial. Permit me to suggest that on some future
occasion when the Society meets here an appropriate tablet be placed
on this granite monument to commemorate the respect and admiration
to which Chief Cornstalk is entitled from the members of the present
race who have succeeded to the domains of the race which has departed.
The name Chief Cornstalk deserves a place on the same monument
which now bears a memorial to Captain Cresap. The life of each was
sacrificed for the race from which he sprung. They were friends. On
the memorable return trip of Dunmore's army, from Camp Charlotte to
Point Pleasant, Captain Cresap and Chief Cornstalk and his son, Ellin-
ispsico, it is said, occupied the same tent. Having gone to another
sphere let us hope that their spirits have met in a compact of mutual
confidence, admiration and friendship which shall bless them as they
dwell together in peace and amity forevermore.
* * * *
At the close of Mr. Booth's address, Mrs. Anna Cresap
Bibb, of Kansas City, Mo., who was the donor of the tablet to
the memory of Captain Michael Cresap, Sr., in behalf of the
Cresap descendants who were present, read the following tribute:
To the Trustees of the Ohio State Historical and Archaeological Society.
GENTLEMEN-You are the directors of an organization of which every
Patriot of the Great State of Ohio is justly proud, for the noble work
which you have done for twenty-five years, and will continue to do in the
We, the Cresap descendants, of Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, the Great
West, and the representatives of other States, greet you:
We come to you with thankful and appreciative hearts, for the
privilege you have accorded us, of placing this Tablet, in this beautiful
and historic Park, to the memory of Captain Michael Cresap, Sr., a Co-
lonial and Revolutionary hero of Ohio, Maryland, and Virginia, who was
first, last, and always, a friend of humanity.
Who stood for just what your noble Society stands for, American
valor, patriotism, and loyalty to American ideals, principles and heroes.
We thank you that you inaugurated the ceremonies as the old patriot
would have wished, by prayer and the raising of the Flag of many stars,
whose hues were all born in heaven.
We, the Cresaps, are proud of this your splendid organization, and
its history. We are proud of its preservation of the records of the Red
Men as well as of our pioneers. We are proud of your careful conser-
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 141
vation of their historic sites, mounds, circles, squares, and the tokens
of a bygone civilization found therein.
To you, and to your keeping, we present this Tablet, and are happy
in so doing.
We realize that you, and the great State of Ohio, are leading in the
procession of progress. To you, the custodian of the glories of the past,
peoples, records, and their trophies of valor, we consign this Tablet, and
leave it under your protection, and that of "Old Glory." Once again in
behalf of the Cresap Clan, we thank you.
With like purpose words of appreciation in behalf of the
descendants of Captain Michael Cresap were tendered to the
State Society by Mr. Charles H. Lewis, who is a descendant of
the one in whose honor the tablet was erected. His closing words
"In this beautiful setting, now filled with peace and plenty,
unafraid we breathe the spirit of pioneer heroism. Here met civil-
ization and savage. Short the story-
Buried, -lost forever is the tomahawk;
Broken, and useless is the flintlock;
The voice of Logan is silenced."
In connection with this occasion Mr. Frank Tallmadge had
offered a money prize to the school pupils of Circleville for
the most meritorious essay on the historical plains of Pickaway
Township. The prize was awarded to Miss Arista Arledge.
The essay is here given in full:
Pickaway County is one of our most historical counties in Ohio.
It was formed January 12, 1810. The name is a misspelling of Piqua,
the name of a tribe of Shawnee Indians. We learn that most of our
formal Indian settlements were near the Scioto river in the Pickaway
The remarkable Pickaway Plains may be designated as the section
lying between the Scioto on the west, Salt Creek on the east, and extend-
ing north and south between lines which would run respectively east
and west through Circleville and Chillicothe. This rich bottom land, the
most fertile in Ohio, was the most favorite location of the prehistoric
Mound Builders, as well as the most historic field of the Ohio Indians.
Of the earliest inhabitants of the Ohio Valley, the Indians had
neither knowledge nor tradition. They belong to the prehistoric ages
and, -"These ages have no memory, but they left a record."
142 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
Ohio is rich in its records of a prehistoric people. The records are
the mounds raised, in some far off time by their hands. They are found
in various forms. Some of them represent animals. The most noted of
them is the famous Serpent Mound of Adams county. Some were for
purposes of defense and some for religious rites and burial. Whence the
builders came and whither they departed is an unsolved mystery. Some
conclude that they were a distinct race; others say they were the an-
cestors of the Indian race.
In the Pickaway Plains on Scippo Creek just north of where Congo
Creek empties into it, was Grenadier Squaw's town, a wigwam center
which was named from a Shawnee woman of great muscular strength,
who was the sister of one, who at that time was the ablest and most influ-
ential chief of his nation. This man was Keightughqua, signifying a
blade or stalk of the maize, hence the cornstalk, or chief support of the
people, was therefore known as Cornstalk to the people.
Cornstalk was born about 1720, in one of the Scioto towns of the
Shawnees and first appears in history as a leader in a Shawnee band
into the settlements of Virginia during and after the French and Indian
war and Pontiac's war. During his raids inhabitants were being mur-
dered and many were taken to the Shawnee towns on the banks of the
Scioto River. His capital, called Cornstalk's Town, was located on the
north bank of the Scippo Creek, a short distance from his sister's village,
Grenadier Squaw Town.
The Indians had five villages, named Chillicothe. 1-The Chillicothe
on the Great Miami, on the present site of Piqua; 2-Chillicothe, often
called "Old Chillicothe," located about three miles north of Xenia; 3-
Chillicothe also called "Old Chillicothe," on the west bank of the Scioto
River, at present ocation of the village of Westfall; 4-Chillicothe, now
called Hopetown, often designated as "Old Town," three miles north of
present Chillicothe; 5-Chillicothe now Frankfort, Ross county. These five
historic Chillicothes were Shawnee villages. The word Chillicothe, meaning
"the place where the people live" or "a village."
Black Mountain is a ridge located on the farm where D. E. Phillips
now resides. It is somewhat in the shape of an inverted boat, elevated
from one hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty feet above the
bottom of the prairie immediately in its vicinity, and commands from its
summit a full view of the high plains and the country around it to a
great extent. This elevated ridge answered the Indians some valuable
No enemy could approach in daytime, who could not from its sum-
mit be descried at a great distance and by repairing there the Red Man
could often have a choice of the game in view, and his sagacity seldom
failed him in the endeavors to approach it with success.
The burning ground in the suburbs of Grenadier Squaw's Town
was also situated on an elevated spot, which commands a full view of all
the other towns for a distance around, so that when a victim was at the
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 143
stake and the flames ascending, all the inhabitants of the other towns
who could not be present, might, in a great measure, enjoy the scene by
sight and imagination. The burning ground at Old Chillicothe was some-
what similar, being in full view of the burning ground at Squaw's Town
and Black Mountain, and two or three other small towns in other places
of the plains.
In 1770, the first congress of the various tribes met at the Shawnee
In July, 1772, another congress was held at the Pickaway Plains at
which the confederacy was consummated, if indeed, it had not been fully
organized a year before. Thus on the banks of the Scioto were united
Shawnees, Delawares, Miamis, Ottawas, Wyandottes, Illinois and western
tribes. The Shawnees were the chief constituency of this union and
Cornstalk, their leader, was recognized as the head of the tribal alliances,
About six miles south of Circleville, the county seat of Pickaway
county, in an open field by the roadside, stands an ancient elm tree, whose
broad branches stretch over a wide space and whose sturdy trunk has
withstood the storms of two centuries. With each passing year it be-
comes more and more an object of interest and veneration. Under its
falling autumn leaves, almost one hundred and forty years ago, Logan,
"the friend of the white man," delivered the famous speech that has since
become familiar in almost every home in the middle west. Who has not
read the following eloquent and pathetic words?:
"I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's
cabin and I gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked and
I gave him not clothing. During the course of the last long and
bloody war, Logan remained in his tent, an advocate of peace. Nay,
such was my love for the whites that those of my own country
pointed at me as they passed, and said, 'Logan is a friend of the
white man!' I had ever thought to live with you, but for the in-
juries of one man, Colonel Creasap, last spring, in cold blood and
unprovoked, cut off all the relatives of Logan, not sparing even my
women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the
veins of any human creature. This called on me for revenge. I
have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my ven-
geance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. Yet do
not harbor the thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never
felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is
there to mourn for Logan? Not one."
In this burst of Indian eloquence Logan told the truth in regard to
his friendship for the white man and the murder of his family. He was
mistaken, however, in placing the blame on Colonel Cresap. The deeds
of unprovoked violence of which he complained were perpetrated near the
144 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
mouth of Yellow Creek, a short distance below the sight of Wellsville,
in the spring of 1774.
A man by the name of Daniel Gratehouse enticed some Indians
across the Ohio near this point, gave them liquor until they were help-
lessly drunk, and then slew them. He and his followers afterward sur-
prised and killed other Indians on Yellow Creek. Among those slain
were the mother, brother and sister of Logan.
This outrage aroused his fury against the whites. After the battle
at Point Pleasant, in which the Indians led by Cornstalk, Logan and other
chiefs were overwhelmingly defeated, October, 1774, a peace was con-
cluded on the Pickaway Plains, not far from the site of Circleville.
Here Lord Dunmore at the head of the victorious army met the van-
quished chiefs in council. Logan refused to be present but sent by Col-
onel John Gibson the famous speech already given. Of the later years
of Logan, little is definitely known. While he did not renounce the nobil-
ity of his nature and on different occasions still manifested humane sym-
pathy for the whites he withdrew from the borders of civilization, be-
came sullen and moody, often sitting for hours, "buried in thought."
As he sat thus, so runs the story, one of his own race, to satisfy
some personal grudge, slipped up behind him and slew him with a toma-
hawk. But the great tree still stands and flourishes greenly where he
told the immortal story of the wrongs he had suffered at the hands of
the white man.
At the ceremonies of the unveiling of the Cresap Tablet,
at Logan Elm Park there were present the following descend-
ants of Colonel Thomas Cresap: Friend Cox, Brent Cresap Cox,
and J. Frank Cox, Wheeling, W. Va.; B. O. Cresap and B. O.
Cresap, Jr., Wellsburg, W. Va.; B. Worth Ricketts, Willis H.
Cresap, and Ernest Wilfred Cresap, Coshocton, Ohio; Anna
Sanford Cresap Bibb, Kansas City, Mo.; Charles Henrickson
Lewis, Harpster, Ohio; Ellen Brasee Towt, Lancaster, Ohio;
Ella Ogle Shoemaker, Massillon, Ohio; Mrs. M. L. C. Stevenson
and Anna Thistle Cresap Dorsey, Dresden, Ohio; Blanche
Cresap Longstreth, Union Furnace, Ohio; Frank Tallmadge,
Howard Cresap Lemert, Madge Hibbard Potter and Hibbard
Bethlo Potter, Columbus, Ohio.
These Cresap descendants, on the evening following the ex-
ercises at the Logan Elm, assembled at the Chittenden Hotel,
Columbus, and organized "The Cresap Society," with the fol-
lowing officers: Honorary President and Official Historian,
Mrs. Mary Louise Cresap Stevenson, Dresden, Ohio; President,
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 145
Friend Cresap Cox, Wheeling, W. Va.; Vice-President, Rev.
Sanford Cresap, Nebraska City, Neb.; Secretary, Mrs. Anna
Sanford Cresap Bibb, Kansas City, Mo.; Treasurer, Frank Tall-
madge, Columbus, Ohio.
Advisory Board: B. Worth Ricketts, Chairman, Coshocton,
O.; Ellen B. Towt, Secretary, Lancaster, O., E. W. Cresap,
Coshocton, O.; Richard K. Cresap, Wheeling, W. Va.; Charles
H. Lewis, Harpster, O.; Logan Cresap, Sr., Lieut. Commander,
U. S. S. Delaware, address Annapolis, Md.