ALONG THE PATHWAY OF A GREAT STATE
BY A. D. HOSTERMAN
The Great State to Which I Refer Is Ohio.
Standing the fourth of all the American states in
wealth and population and third in manufactures, the
contribution Ohio has made to the nation in great men,
great movements, great progress, and leadership, justi-
fies the claim that she is a great state.
It will be interesting briefly to touch some points
along her pathway.
In the beginning Ohio and the entire American con-
tinent was "without form, and void; and darkness was
upon the face of the deep." The earth gradually cooled
and the waters descended upon the solid portion. This
solid portion became the primordial bed-rock. It formed
the bottom of the ocean and the barren land which at
some places rose above it. In that far-away time what
is now the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys was a vast shal-
low salt sea. Upon the foundations of bed-rock was
formed through millions of years by the action of water
the series of sedimentary strata that form the super-
structure of the earth's crust in what is now Ohio.
Through the period of geological formation there were
elevations and subsidences. What was at times above
the sea was again submerged and later elevated until the
entire State became permanent dry land.
At a remote age an island emerged from the face of
624 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
the deep. It lay partly in the present states of Indiana
and Kentucky and embraced about one-eighth of the
State of Ohio, forming the first dry land within the
state. This formation belongs to the Ordovician period.
During the Devonian period, the eastern half of Ohio
was still covered by a vast sea teeming with sharks and
other fishes, some of immense size. Fossil remains of a
portion of one of these were found near Delaware.
At the close of the Devonian period, rock formations
had built up regularly. The epicontinental sea had grad-
ually been growing more shallow. The dense vegetation
of the Carboniferous period now appeared in all its
grandeur. Immense ferns and heavy mosses were in
evidence almost everywhere and dense thickets of cala-
mite rose from the fog-covered marshes to great heights.
These Carboniferous forests swarmed with enormous
dragon-flies. Through the thousands of years that these
later changes were in progress, vegetable growth accu-
mulated in enormous masses in the swampy regions of
southeastern Ohio where it was preserved as it accu-
mulated under the water. After periods of temporary
subsidences it was covered with silt and sand and gravel
and ultimately compressed into veins of coal.
During the Permian period, the remaining portions
of the State rose out of the marshy remnant of the inland
sea and Ohio's land formation was complete. Human
history was still thousands of years away.
Long after Ohio had become permanently dry land,
a great glacier slowly descended from the North, extend-
ing to the Ohio River, followed later by several ice-
sheets, the last epoch of geology. Great physical changes
of contour now occurred. The vast field of ice was
Along the Pathway of a Great State 625
slowly but powerfully grinding off the hill tops, wiping
out old river valleys and forming new ones.
Professor Orton called attention to the numerous
buried channels near Springfield, one of which is the
Mad River Valley. The buried channel at St. Paris is
more than 500 feet deep and illustrates what a network
of pre-glacial gorges has been closed up by the ice move-
ments. The glacier swept with a regular course through
the Maumee and Miami Valleys coming to an end at the
Ohio River. From its margin around Cincinnati and
southward, the hills remained undisturbed, furnishing
a picture of what the contour of Ohio would have been
but for the glacier. The ice and glacial periods finally
passed. The extreme frigid and possibly torrid ages
had been followed by an equable temperate climate, the
virgin soils "were bringing forth grass, the herb . . . and
fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind." The seasons
with days and years as we now know them followed in
Man's first occupancy of Ohio was perhaps before
the close of the glacial period. There is some evidence
that a primitive race inhabited this region at that time,
so we are able to speak with a certain confidence of the
pre-glacial man in Ohio.
How long it was after the glacial period until Ohio
was certainly occupied by man is a matter of conjec-
ture. The first people to occupy the State, who left
records, were called by archaeologists Mound Builders.
Every evidence shows that Ohio was their paradise. The
greater part of southern and south-western Ohio is
thickly dotted with the remains of their habitations and
memorials. The banks of the majestic Ohio, and the
626 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
picturesque and fertile valleys of the Miamis, the Scioto,
the Muskingum, and lesser tributary streams, were the
scenes of this people's most numerous, extensive and con-
tinuous mound building.
In the vicinity of Cincinnati, along the Ohio River
as far as Portsmouth and Marietta, and near Athens,
Chillicothe, Circleville, Newark, Springfield, Dayton,
Miamisburg, Middletown, Hamilton, Oxford and Eaton,
mounds and other archaeological remains are particu-
larly numerous. Over 12,000 of these testimonials, ex-
clusively of earthen material, have so far been definitely
located. These are in the form of enclosures on hilltops,
probably forts, walled-in areas in the valleys and stream
bottoms, sacred enclosures, religious temples, village
sites, and single mounds of various sizes and heights.
They are of various forms, combinations of circles,
squares and geometrical figures of great variety. Many
of the works give abundant evidence of engineering
skill. The enclosures are sometimes perfect circles and
the rectangular works are at times accurate squares.
Fort Ancient near Lebanon, is the greatest monument
to the Mound Builders still extant. It may have been
their national seat of government. It was surely the
center of a great Mound Builder population.
Whether the Mound Builders continued in Ohio in
small numbers through a long period, or occupied the
State in great numbers for a short period is not definitely
The three hundred miles of these gigantic earth-
works, the result of inconceivable labor, accomplished
without tools, animals or equipment such as we know,
Along the Pathway of a Great State 627
would indicate either that the laborers were many or the
time long for the completion.
There are many theories advanced as to the origin of
the Mound Builders. Archaeologists now generally
agree they were the ancestors, how remote may not be
known, of the historic or post-Columbian Indians.
There seems no proof that the Mound Builders were
driven away by a powerful enemy, but much evidence
that they moved leisurely down the streams. The earth
structures left by them were found abandoned, yet com-
pleted and in perfect shape, when Europeans first reached
the American shores. Ages had evidently gone by since
the builders had left. Silence and mystery alone re-
What the origin of the Mound Builders, whence they
came, where they went, or when they occupied the land
is the great American riddle. Their temples, fortifica-
tions and works give no answer to these questions.
The limits of this paper will not permit following
the Ohio Mound Builders farther. Their course along
the pathway of Ohio is full of interest. They enriched
the State with a wonderful antiquity that has long
claimed and will continue to claim the consideration of
scholars and archaeologists, not only of America but the
How long Ohio remained without habitation after
the silent, mysterious departure of the Mound Builders
is not known. The Red Men found here by Europeans
had no traditions, much less knowledge, of the builders
of the mounds, that could throw any light upon the ob-
scurity of the subject.
In its historic beginning the territory now known as
628 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
the State of Ohio, belonged to Spain by right of dis-
covery, supplemented by papal decree. Rumors of the
beauty and extent of a river called "Oyo," the Ohio,
early reached the French settlements on the St. Law-
rence. It remained for LaSalle to be its discoverer on
a journey begun in 1669, and to appropriate the Ohio
Valley as the property of the Bourbons.
About 1680 the French established a trading post
near the mouth of the Maumee River, probably the first
permanent evidence of French occupancy of Ohio. The
English claimants were close behind, for as early as 1686
Colonial Governor Dongan of New York, on the
strength of the English-Iroquois treaty, began to issue
licenses to his colonists for trading, hunting, and dis-
covery in the direction of Ohio.
Intimate contact between the Indians of the Ohio
country and the whites very naturally first came with
the advent into their territory of these French and
English traders--and following closely after these, the
missionaries. These traders found many tribes in the
The favorable living conditions of the Ohio country
had made it preeminently the Indian's happy hunting-
The Shawnee Indians came from west Florida the
early part of the sixteenth century. Their territory lay
principally in the valley of the Scioto. They were a
restless, fearless, aggressive tribe, one of the best type
of the aborigines of the State. Tecumseh and his
brother, the Prophet, became their prominent chiefs and
The Delawares, coming from lower Pennsylvania
Along the Pathway of a Great State 629
and New Jersey, were located on the Muskingum and
other eastern Ohio streams. This strong and trouble-
some tribe, during the French and Indian War and sub-
sequent campaigns, were the Shawnees' allies, in oppos-
ing the advance of the white settlers into Ohio.
In the same section along the Ohio river were the
Mingo tribes, whose illustrious chief was Logan.
The Miami Indians had their principal town at the
beginning of the eighteenth century at Pickawillany,
styled "the Ohio capital of the western savages," at the
juncture of Loromie Creek and the Great Miami River
near the present city of Piqua.
The Wyandots, coming from near Quebec probably
in the fourteenth century, occupied the greater part of
Northern Ohio--becoming the dominant tribe between
the Ohio River and the Great Lakes. They were a brave
and noble people. Tarhe, called the Crane, one of the
greatest of Ohio chieftains, was of the Wyandot tribe.
This was about the distribution of the tribes in Ohio
as the first whites found them. These various tribes
were resolved to make the Ohio wilderness the scene of
another attempt at centralization of savage power sur-
passing all previous efforts, and by the fall of 1770 they
were busy with plans for an invincible confederation.
The Indians traced out numerous trails in all parts
of the region. Some of these are as old as the human
occupation, often following the high ground through
which they passed and later becoming the "ridge roads
of the present time." Along these aboriginal trails the
native tribes passed from one location to another,
whether engaged in warfare, the chase, trade or migra-
tion. Later, together with the navigable streams, these
630 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
trails served as the means of entrance into Ohio for the
white traders and settlers. Their importance as factors
in the settlement and development of the State can
hardly be over-estimated.
In time, the trader became a very well defined insti-
tution with fixed posts where the trinkets and commodi-
ties of the white man were exchanged with the Indians
for furs and other products. The year 1745 found these
traders, both English and French, persistently pushing
their way into the Ohio wilderness.
The Governor-General of Canada, in order to estab-
lish the French claims of ownership, sent Captain Bien-
ville de Celeron in 1749 on a historic mission through
the Ohio country for the purpose of preempting that ter-
ritory to themselves. Celeron's mission was most spec-
tacular and dramatic, an ambitious move to develop
French interests in America. A chain of forts was
planned and built along the Great Lakes and down the
valley of the Mississippi. The settlement of the Ohio
country by 10,000 French peasants was recommended by
the Governor General.
With a small party of Canadians and Indians, Cele-
ron took possession of the Ohio Valley in the name of
the French sovereign and buried leaden plates bearing
appropriate legends of preemption at Warren, Pennsyl-
vania, at the juncture of French Creek with the Ohio,
near the mouth of Wheeling Creek, and at the mouths of
the Muskingum, the Great Kanawha, the Scioto and the
Great Miami Rivers.
Companies began to be formed for taking up land in
Ohio. The Ohio Company, organized by a number of
Virginia colonists in 1748, was headed by Thomas Lee
Along the Pathway of a Great State 631
and two brothers of George Washington. The Missis-
sippi Company was another land development company
projected by Washington and his two brothers, four
members of the Lee family and others. The original
articles setting forth its purposes in the handwriting of
George Washington, are in the Congressional Library.
The Ohio Company received a royal grant of one-
half million acres within the limits of the Virginia colony
on both sides of the Ohio River between the Mononga-
hela and Kanawha Rivers. The services of Christopher
Gist, a surveyor and trader, were secured to examine
and report on the Ohio country and its inhabitants. He
visited the Indian towns on the Muskingum and Miami,
carrying valuable presents to the chieftains. This visit
materially strengthened the cause of the Colonists and
of the Ohio Company with the Western Indians. Gist
and his party were the first Englishmen to travel ex-
tensively through Ohio.
The contest for possession was on, between the
French and the English. Following actions and strate-
gies that have become familiar in the history of the
country in the early contest between the two nations, the
French, after months of active preparation to meet the
attack of the English at Fort Duquesne, finding them-
selves deserted by the Indians, and knowing themselves
unable to meet the English advance, suddenly abandoned
the Fort, set it on fire and departed, leaving the Ohio
Valley in the hands of the English and bringing an end
to the French sovereignty in the Ohio country.
A proclamation issued in 1763 by the King of Eng-
land, setting apart the Northwest Territory as an Indian
reservation, specified that no white settlement was to be
632 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
made therein; that all settlers already located therein
should at once take their departure, and that no land
should be purchased from the Indians. While this proc-
lamation was apparently most generous to the Indian in
preserving his "happy hunting ground," the King, read-
ing the handwriting on the wall, had a deeper design,
namely, to restrict "the growing power and territory of
the Colonists" and "to placate the Red men and retain
their friendly alliance with him in case warfare should
make their cooperation desirable." This act of the King
was pleasing to Pennsylvania, which was anxious to keep
the extensive and lucrative fur trade undisturbed; not so
to Virginia, which claimed the southern half of Ohio,
insisted on the rights of settlement, and showed signs of
the spirit of the Revolution which was so soon to follow.
So, notwithstanding the Quebec Act, as the King's
proclamation was called, plans for settlement of the Ohio
country went forward. The Ohio Company pushed its
program. All this aroused the Indians and brought on
hostilities between the whites and the savages.
The battle of Point Pleasant, 1774, on the Ohio
River, between Chief Cornstalk leading the Indians who
crossed the Ohio in canoes, and the Virginians, was the
most extensive, the most bitterly contested in Indian
warfare and fraught with greatest potential results. At
the time it occurred, it aroused world-wide interest. Not
only English papers in the mother country, but French
and German newspapers on the continent published ex-
tended articles descriptive of the battle. It was purely a
frontier encounter. The whites were Virginia volun-
teers; the savages, the picked fighters of their tribes, led
by their greatest chieftains. The significance of the
Along the Pathway of a Great State 633
battle, however, was manifold and far-reaching. It was
the last battle fought by the Colonists while under Brit-
ish rule. It is also authoritatively maintained that it
was the first battle of the American Revolution. The
Virginians were fighting against the Indians, not merely
from retaliatory motives, but in defiance of the Quebec
Act, as they were planning to invade the British royal
domain--the Ohio country--then part of the province of
Quebec, and attack the Ohio Indians who were the pro-
tected wards of England, and consequently allies of par-
liamentary power. Their plan was to settle Ohio, a ter-
ritory they claimed as part of their colony. Virginia
was contending for colonial rights in Ohio against the
Both the Continental Congress and the Virginia Leg-
islature realized that great danger threatened the
western settlements. The Indians in the Ohio country,
being armed by orders from London and encouraged by
the British, who hoped through their aid to hold their
territory and southern boundary line down to the Ohio
River, were bringing terror to all the western country.
Thus trans-Alleghany supplies and men were pre-
vented from aiding the Revolutionists in the East. With
life on the western border in constant jeopardy, it was
difficult to induce the pioneer to enlist in the regular
army to fight a distant king when the enemy at his
door was threatening his own fireside and family.
Events fully as potent if not so spectacular as those
in the East were being and to be enacted in this western
territory. To check this strategy, destroy the British
power in the Northwest Territory and preserve it for the
Colonial Confederacy became the aim of an heroic young
634 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Virginian, who now began to loom large in the Revolu-
The stage was the Ohio country with its outraged
frontier homes; the actors, the enraged frontiersmen
fighting against savages armed with tomahawks and
scalping knives, aroused and encouraged by the British
--General Hamilton at Detroit, the Canadian Governor-
General, and the cabinet in London marshalling com-
bined English and Indian forces, in the Ohio forests.
The situation demanded a supreme effort, vision and
strong far-sighted leadership.
As another has well said, "It was given to George
Rogers Clark, the 'Washington of the West' then a
young man of twenty-six, to rescue this domain, so cov-
eted by England, from the latter's possession."
Clark's campaigns were well planned and from the
start showed conspicuous foresight. His first strategy
was to descend the Ohio and attack the British fort and
forces at Kaskaskia and then proceed to Detroit.
The threatened Ohio territory was part of Virginia.
Governor Patrick Henry and his counselors approved
Clark's plan, but Virginia was unable to furnish him
either men or money because all resources were engaged
in the eastern campaigns. They did give Clark a com-
mission as colonel, with authority to raise companies
of fifty men each, to be enrolled from the frontier coun-
try west of the Blue Ridge "so as not to weaken the
people of the seacoast region in their struggle against the
These Virginia backwoodsmen, being joined by
Simon Kenton, under Clark, carried on successful cam-
Along the Pathway of a Great State 635
paigns against Kaskaskia and Vincennes, the strong
posts of the British.
The year after these victories, Clark undertook the
historic campaign against the Shawnee Indians and
their confederates at the village of Piqua near Spring-
field. Clark had learned that the British forces from
Detroit planned joining the Indians at this point to at-
tack the Americans, and that British agents in prepara-
tion for the attack were at Piqua sharpening the In-
dians' tomahawks and getting into shape other war
equipment. He also learned that to supply food the In-
dians along Mad River were growing hundreds of acres
On August 8, 1780, with an army of 100 Regulars
and 1,000 Kentucky frontiersmen, Clark made an attack
on Piqua, completely routing the Indians and burning
their village after a hard fought battle lasting many
hours. This battle freed the Ohio River territory and
Kentucky frontier, from the Indian menace.
This victory was as important in the outcome of the
American Revolution as was Yorktown in the East. It
was the final determining factor with the American com-
missioners in Paris, in insisting that the boundary line
between the British and Americans should be along the
Lakes instead of the Ohio River.
On the George Rogers Clark monument overlooking
the site of the Battle of Piqua, appears the following ap-
"Here General George Rogers Clark with his Ken-
tucky soldiers defeated and drove from this region the
Shawnee Indians August 8, 1780, and aided to make the
Northwest Territory a part of the United States."
636 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Stirring indeed were the events and encounters all
over the State in the bitterly contested war between the
British-Indian allies and the Colonists, and so intimately
interwoven were they with Revolutionary history, as to
leave no doubt of the great part Ohio was playing in
making America a free and independent nation.
Finally the famous Peace Treaty of 1783 was signed
in Paris, making the Lakes the boundary line between
Canada and the United States instead of the Ohio River,
as England insisted it should be. In New England and
the East, the war ended in fact, but in the trans-Alle-
ghany country it was to continue in a desultory and san-
guinary way for some thirteen years to come.
The Government of the United States went into ef-
fect under the constitution in 1789. While the new re-
public was busily engaged in adjusting its domestic af-
fairs, an Indian confederation was formed in the region
of the Maumee River, that seriously challenged the
sovereign power of the new nation in the Northwest
The issue assumed an international aspect when it
became known that the British were aiding the Indians,
supplying them with munitions of war, and the contest
became one between England on the one hand and the
United States on the other. The Government at
Washington knew that an Indian victory would expose
the settlements west of the Alleghanies to the firebrand
and the tomahawk, and afford Great Britain the oppor-
tunity to recover the territory without conquest and to
annex it to her Canadian dominion.
Consequently a number of campaigns against the
Indians were undertaken, several of which were disas-
Along the Pathway of a Great State 637
trous. Finally one under General Anthony Wayne was
organized by the Government, under orders from Presi-
dent Washington. General Wayne marched north from
Fort Washington, Cincinnati, in 1793, and completely
defeated the Indians in their last grand stand at the
Battle of Fallen Timbers on the banks of the Maumee.
This march convinced the Indians that the United
States was determined to exercise the powers of sover-
eignty over her own territory. It demonstrated to the
British that a growing national consciousness would no
longer countenance the occupation of American terri-
tory by a foreign power. The treaty of Greenville, 1795,
followed, and the sovereign power of the United States
over this territory was never again seriously challenged.
Commodore Perry's memorable victory over the
English on Lake Erie in 1813 closed this period of
Ohio's history. This defeat of the British was the first
that proud nation ever suffered on the sea. Perry's la-
conic report of this victory, "We have met the enemy
and they are ours," has become historic.
The various marches and campaigns of this period
through western Ohio are now to become Ohio's Revo-
lutionary Memorial Trails.
A growing consciousness of the importance of these
movements and a desire to preserve the historic spots de-
cided the last Ohio Legislature to pass the bill creating
The Ohio Revolutionary Memorial Commission, which
for the past two years has been busily engaged in locating
the trails of the twenty or more marches, and preparing
to set up historic markers at the many places of im-
portance. The plans of the Commission also contem-
plate, as part of the Ohio Legislative Act, an appropriate
638 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
celebration of the Sesqui-Centennial of the Piqua battle
next fall, to be participated in by Ohio and the National
Government. This celebration promises to be one of
the most outstanding of its kind ever held in the State,
as its importance suggests it should be.
In 1787 the Continental Congress perfected the sys-
tem of government for the Northwest Territory known
as the Ordinance of 1787. General Arthur St. Clair was
appointed by Congress as the first governor. With him
were associated three judges, viz.: Rufus Putnam, John
Cleves Symmes and George Turner. These four for ten
years exercised executive, legislative and judicial powers.
These ten years of the Territory's history were eco-
nomic and industrial rather than political. It was a
decade of Indian wars, of migration, of settlement and
development, of home-seeking and home-building.
Of the immigrants who came into Ohio at this time
there were two distinct classes politically,--those who
came from the East and those who came from the South.
The pioneers from the Federalist states, Massachusetts,
Connecticut and others, settled in eastern Ohio, making
the towns of Marietta and Cleveland the centers of the
Federalist party; while the Cavaliers or Republicans
from Virginia and Kentucky settled in central and
western Ohio, making Chillicothe the center of Repub-
The character of Governor St. Clair's government
was autocratic. Culprits were punished by fines, the pil-
lory or the stocks, and people were put into prison or sold
into slavery for debt. Everywhere and in every case the
will of the Governor was absolute. The immigrants
from the East were accustomed to the rigorous regula-
Along the Pathway of a Great State 639
tion of lives by law. On the other hand, the adventure-
some frontiersmen of western Virginia and Kentucky,
unaccustomed to administrative control, chafed under
its restrictions. These two types were to develop two
factions which dominated the political thought of the
Territory for many years.
The Territory grew rapidly in population. By 1798
it contained 5,000 free male inhabitants of full age,
which was the number, according to the Ordinance of
1787, required for the establishment of a Territorial
Legislature. Accordingly the first General Assembly of
the Northwest Territory was called and met in Cincin-
nati in September, 1799, to inaugurate representative
It is worth reviewing, and should be a matter of
pride to every Ohioan, that this first General Assembly,
that had the responsibility of shaping the organization
of Ohio, was composed of men of high character, who
wrought into the fabric of our Commonwealth advanced
principles of representative government.
All the organized counties sent their representatives.
From Washington County came Return Jonathan Meigs,
later chief justice of Ohio, United States senator, and
governor; and Paul Fearing, a man of high standing and
Hamilton County sent among its representatives
Judge Burnet and William McMillan, college graduates
and distinguished lawyers; John Smith, a Baptist pastor,
and James Findlay, both influential leaders of their day.
Ross County was represented by three distinguished
Virginians who became outstanding leaders, Edward
Tiffin, Thomas Worthington and Samuel Findlay.
640 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Adams County sent Joseph Darlinton and Nathaniel
Massie, both able men.
Jefferson County aided in shaping the course of leg-
islation through David Vance and James Pritchard. To
these and a comparatively few other men was committed
the future of the great State of Ohio.
The intellect and leadership of this group in this
creative period early made an impress on the State and
the young Nation. Of this remarkable group, special
mention should be made of Edward Tiffin and Thomas
Worthington. The work of Tiffin in the development
of Ohio has not been excelled in her history. As speaker
of the House of the first General Assembly, Tiffin aided
in administering the first rebuke to slavery in the Terri-
tory, and later assisted as United States Senator in giv-
ing it its death blow. Worthington, as United States
senator from Ohio, introduced into American politics the
policy of internal improvements being jointly federal
and state projects. He was the first to advocate East and
West highways, and transportation by canals where
practical. These progressive ideas of Worthington en-
tered into and became important elements of our national
and state policy.
During the summer of 1801, agitation over the ques-
tion of statehood began. After days of dissension in
Congress, the Ohio Enabling Act was passed on April 9,
1802, and on November 1 of the same year the Con-
stitutional Convention met at Chillicothe, and selected
Edward Tiffin as president. Under the Constitution
adopted by this Assembly, slavery was prohibited; no
hereditary privileges were allowed; electors were to be
white; state boundaries were fixed; schools for equal
Along the Pathway of a Great State 641
participation of poor children, and incorporation of lit-
erary societies, were provided.
An act providing for the extension of the authority
of the United States to the State of Ohio was passed by
Congress and approved by the President February 19,
1803, but federal officers for the judicial district of Ohio
were not appointed until March 1, 1803, and state offi-
cers were not inaugurated until two days later. Edward
Tiffin, Anti-Federalist, was elected Ohio's first governor.
Ohio was now an organized state, the first carved
out of the Northwest Territory. Into the new state
strong vigorous men, many of them leading citizens in
their native sections, were coming from the East and
South to seek homes--often to restore fortunes lost dur-
ing the Revolution--the New Englanders settling at
Marietta and on the lands of the Ohio Company; Vir-
ginians between the Little Miami and Scioto Rivers;
New Jersey groups locating on the Symmes tract be-
tween the Big and Little Miami rivers; Pennsylvanians
selecting the Seven Ranges tract; Connecticut and New
York colonists, the Western Reserve.
Among these settlers many educated men came from
New England's noted colleges with the Bible in one hand
and a school-book in the other. They built their log
cabins and erected schoolhouses and churches. Fre-
quently the schoolhouse became an academy and later a
college. Thus the first generation of Ohio state pioneers,
possessing a wonderful capacity for development and
self government, planted their ideals; and in this new
Ohio, the early proclaimed land of free schools, free wor-
ship, and free discussion, the ideas and blood of the
Puritan intermingled with the ideas and blood of the
642 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Cavalier. No better blood was ever given to found a
Ryan calls this the heroic age of Ohio; the period of
felling the forests; tilling the soil; subduing the Indians;
repelling a foreign invader; establishing popular gov-
ernment; creating many centers of common interest and
building a fine, resolute, independent citizenship, capable
of thinking, acting and originating, who rapidly laid
deep and strong the foundation of the State.
It was the far-seeing General Assembly of 1820 that
inaugurated by law the Ohio plan of internal improve-
ments, also the state educational system.
Building of canals was inaugurated and in less than
fifty years after Ohio became a State, she had approxi-
mately 1023 miles of state and private canals. For
thirty years these water-ways were the great controlling
factors in increasing commerce, manufacturing and pop-
ulation. Through their influence villages became cities,
farming was made profitable and the trade and resources
of the world were opened to Ohio, converting her into a
state of great wealth and prosperity.
Alfred Kelley, the first canal commissioner of Ohio,
now scarcely remembered, accomplished as much for the
material prosperity of the State as any other man in her
The Ohio Common School law, as finally perfected
and passed in February 1826, was the greatest educa-
tional work in the history of the State. The policy and
system commenced by Ephraim Cutler in 1819, revised
and agitated in 1821 by Caleb Atwater, was made a fact
by Nathaniel Guilford in 1825. To these three men and
to Samuel Lewis, Ohio's first state school superinten-
Along the Pathway of a Great State 643
dent, who supplemented their work, Ohio owes the be-
ginning of her wonderful school system, which chal-
lenges the admiration of the nation. Besides her public
schools she has more universities and colleges than any
other state in America, making her an educational
I have suggested along Ohio's pathway some points
of interest both in the historic and pre-historic periods.
She had a wonderful beginning as a State.
It would require volumes to record even in brief
form all that Ohio now possesses in material resources
Today Ohio is the third state of the Union in man-
ufactures, iron and steel manufacturing standing first
among the industries.
In appraising Ohio's development, it is only neces-
sary to remember that the State has a greater number
of prosperous industrial communities than any similar
area in America.
Ohio is and will continue to be one of the most im-
portant mineral states in the Union. She has for a cen-
tury held the position as one of the great coal-producing
regions of the world. Her clays and shales make her
the center of the ceramic industry of the United States.
In natural resources the State has, besides coals and
clays, water, wood, iron, oil, natural gas, and thousands
of acres of fertile land, making it possible to feed her
people from her own soil.
Ohio's industrial importance goes hand in hand with
her commanding commerce and agriculture. She was
one of the first states to begin railway construction.
Practically every great transcontinental line of America
644 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
passes through the State. A network of trolley, auto-
bus and truck lines covers Ohio. These together with
the rivers and lakes are sources of immense wealth to
the State. Her surface and location are such that the
commercial air-lines of the future must traverse her
But remarkable as is Ohio's position in her natural
resources, her industries and physical aspects, her great-
est asset is her manhood and womanhood.
On the State Capitol grounds in Columbus, stands a
beautiful monument inscribed "Our Jewels." Around
the central shaft appear in striking poses, seven of Ohio's
great men--Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Stanton, Chase,
Garfield, Hayes--all actors in the greatest crisis of our
nation. This monument in a striking way suggests
Ohio's pride in her distinguished sons. Three of this
group were Presidents of the United States: Grant, our
greatest soldier, who in the Civil War as commander-in-
chief of the Northern Army saved the Union; Garfield,
the teacher, scholar and brilliant orator; Hayes, whose
courageous stand when President, on a policy of pacifi-
cation, sound money and resumption of specie payment,
entitled him to a place in the highest statesmanship of
the Nation; William T. Sherman, leading the great con-
solidated armies of the west from victory to victory,
ending the war; and Philip H. Sheridan, acknowledged
as the first cavalry general of the Continent, foremost in
enforcing the surrender of Lee.
The other two of the "Jewel group" meant as much
to Ohio as did the presidents or the warriors.
Edwin M. Stanton, as President Lincoln's secretary
of war, is classed as the greatest executive of that period.
Along the Pathway of a Great State 645
The great Salmon P. Chase, as secretary of the treasury,
successfully administered the finances of the Govern-
ment during the trying Civil War period,--carrying the
Nation and its armies through financial expenditures
without a parallel, with a security and public confidence
without precedent in the world's military history.
These seven great Ohioans are only representative of
scores and hundreds of Ohio's sons who have won un-
dying fame and made great contributions to their State
and the Nation by their achievements.
Besides the three presidents in the group, Ohio has
given to the Nation five other distinguished presidents
entitling her to share with Virginia the honor of the
"Mother of Presidents."
In the roll of the commanders in the Civil War, Ohio
leads all the States of the Union. All the great military
divisions were at one time or another led by Ohio gen-
Jay Cooke, an eminent Ohio banker, as adviser to
Secretary Chase, was familiarly called the "Robert Mor-
ris of the Rebellion." The war finances were so ably
managed that a Southern leader of the Rebellion asserted
the Treasury Department of the Union and not the War
Department, had defeated the South.
In the later conflicts Ohio also made great contribu-
tions. It is Springfield's pride to recall the great part
played by our distinguished citizen, General J. Warren
Keifer along with others in the Spanish-American War.
As Whitelaw Reid well said, "It seems right that the
history of such services and such devotion of Ohio's
sons, in the whole magnificent offering to the nation's
causes, should be specially preserved." As George
646 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Rogers Clark, on Ohio soil, saved the Northwest Terri-
tory to the nation, so Ohio in a very large sense pre-
served the Union. Whatever the cause, there is no ques-
tion of the inherent capacity and natural and acquired
ability which have enabled Ohio to give to the Nation
many great and useful men during the present century.
It is not only true in the furnishing of presidents of the
nation and great military leaders but in every sphere of
advancing civilization the Ohio man is found the world
over. She has produced a great galaxy of men and
women--national and international leaders--in prac-
tically every field of endeavor.
In invention Ohio holds an unrivaled position. She
points with great pride to Charles F. Brush, who back
in the early 'seventies invented the are electric light, the
first electric light system in the world; to Thomas Alva
Edison's greatest invention, the incandescent electric
lamp, which has brought light into dark places and
turned night into day the world over; to Charles M. Hall,
who discovered and patented the process of obtaining
pure aluminum from clays.
The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, our
neighbors, were the first to solve the problem of aviation
and open the highways of the air to navigation.
These great Ohioans have added untold wealth to
the Nation and have made contributions to mankind, out
of their nourishings in Ohio, that have indebted the
world and all future generations to them.
No less of a leader has Ohio been in cultural devel-
opment. As early as 1796 a public library was estab-
lished at Belpre, near Marietta, from its first settlement
the center of an educated, cultured class of people from
Along the Pathway of a Great State 647
New England. Cincinnati's first library opened in 1802
and the famous "Coonskin Library" in Athens County
began circulating its precious volumes in the backwoods
in 1804. The first chartered public library in the State
was the one at Dayton.
It may be said truly that Ohio is a vital member of
the National Republic of letters. In every field of in-
tellectual endeavor, the literary men and women from
every section of the State have furnished a most com-
mendable contribution of noteworthy literary effort.
Among journalists who wielded an influence not only
in Ohio but the nation, should be mentioned Murat
Halstead and Whitelaw Reid.
In the realms of science, Dr. Jared P. Kirtland,
naturalist, honored by Agassiz; William S. Sullivant,
botanist and bryologist of international fame, and
Ormsby M. Mitchel, the astronomer, may be mentioned
among the many who have brought distinction to their
Many outstanding treatises in law and medicine have
been contributed by the learned men of these professions
in Ohio--Judges Timothy Walker, Charles H. Scribner,
Joseph R. Swan and others, among the lawyers; Doctors
Daniel Drake, George Mendenhall, George W. Crile, and
others among the doctors, who have gained national and
Among a great host of preachers and divines who
attained leading positions in the religious thought of
America, are Lyman Beecher,* John Henry Barrows,*
Isaac M. Wise,* Washington Gladden,* Charles F.
Thwing,* David Swing and Frank W. Gunsaulus.
* These and others named on this page were not born in Ohio. [Ed.]
648 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
While great financiers, captains of industry like Mar-
cus A. Hanna, James Gamble and Eliam E. Barney are
not included in the Ohio "Jewel" monument group, who
is there that would not agree that these and thousands
of other great organizers, have been the real forces bind-
ing together the remarkable sheaf of great men during
the State's history? But why try to enumerate all the
great ones ?
Among many important movements for world bet-
terment that originated in Ohio may be named the
Woman's Temperance Crusade, which began in Hills-
boro in 1873. It promptly spread to other cities, includ-
ing Springfield, under the leadership of "Mother"
Stewart. This led late in the following year to the or-
ganization in Cleveland, Ohio, of the National Woman's
Christian Temperance Union, which has grown into the
largest society for women in the world.
The Anti-Saloon League was organized in Oberlin
in 1894. Whatever we may think of its policies we must
recognize that the League has been an active influence
in combating the saloon evil not only in Ohio but
throughout the Nation. The Community Chest idea for
organized charities started in Elyria, as well as the In-
ternational Crippled Children's Movement. Civil Serv-
ice Reform began in Ohio--George H. Pendleton, one of
our leading statesmen was its first eminent advocate.
The Good Roads Movement is also an Ohio idea, Martin
Dodge being the first exponent.
Ohio men and movements, during the entire state-
hood period, have been at the forefront in the Nation's
life. A study of her resources, location and pioneers
makes the reasons not far to seek.
Along the Pathway of a Great State 649
Murat Halstead once said: "In addition to the heroic
qualities of the immigrants who possessed Ohio, there
seemed to be influences of soil and climate, of air and
waters, of the fruitful woods and living streams; and
there was by the mighty magic of creation in the brains
and blood, the tissue and sinew of men, and the grace
and faith of women, that yielded growth in manhood
and womanhood in a race equal to the founding of a
Is it any wonder Ohio has occupied the center of
the stage in the great majority of dramas that have been
enacted in our national history, calling forth from
Chauncey M. Depew the facetious remark: "Some men
are born great, some have greatness thrust upon them,
and some are born in Ohio."
The pathway widens. Marching forward on it are
the future presidents, great generals, inventors, scien-
tists, financiers, educators, executives, literary and pro-
fessional men and women, scores upon scores of Ohio's
jewels. Conscious of her wonderful and varied re-
sources, both in nature and men; proud of her marvel-
ous past and confident of her future greatness, with the
pathway filled with this mighty moving concourse, who
would presume to foretell the progress of our great State
in another century?