Ohio History Journal

A Surgeon's Mate at Fort Defiance:

A Surgeon's Mate at Fort Defiance:

The Journal of Joseph Gardner Andrews

For the Year 1795--II




In this second installment of the Andrews journal, which covers

the months of May, June, July, and August, 1795, the author again

records the flow of events through this crossroads outpost of the

American army. He notes the movement of Indian delegations to-

wards Greene Ville, the arrival and departure of chiefs, the coming

and going of traders, the capture of deserters, and the passing of

white captives returning home. He dines with the chiefs and the

traders, comments on their manners or character, carries on a large

correspondence, plants a garden, visits Fort Wayne, attends an

Indian dance or two, treats the sick, and himself comes down with

the ague.

When Little Turtle comes to Fort Defiance, he and two fellow

officers take the benevolent chief to see their garden, where he

showed "marks of pleasure at our improvements; but soon after as-

sumed a melancholy air & observed that that land was once his own

property." When a trader named Wilson stops, he sets down the

fact that "Mr. Wilson was taken prisoner in 1782 & has been with

the Indians ever since," and adds that "he appears to be a decent

well behaved man." When another trader, John McPherson, appears

on his way to Greene Ville with a party of Indians, he reports that

"McPherson informs that all the Savages are in motion for H. Q."

And when the Indians begin to come back from the treaty, he notes

that some return "with much apparent satisfaction" and others

"surcharged with presents & pleasure."

All in all, he is a faithful and appealing reporter.


*The first installment of the Andrews journal appeared in the January issue of the

Quarterly, pages 57-86.




THE ANDREWS JOURNAL            161



1. Several Delawares arrived. Paid Mr. Laselle52 42 Dollars (for

goods purchased of him) in presence of Mr. Sheane, Interpreter.

2. Blue Jacket, Mr. Laselle, &c. departed for Fort Wayne. Wrote

to Capt. Preston. A large number of Delawares have come up

& encamped near Bean Creek.

3. George White Eyes (uncle to the one educated at Princeton

College) arrived.53

4. Mr. Robert Wilson came in this day; he mentions that the

British at Fort Miamis attempted to stop his Goods, but being

well protected by Buckingehalas54 & a large party of Delawares,

who circumvented his canoe with their own, he passed with

little difficulty. Mr. Wilson was taken prisoner in 1782 & has

been with the Indians ever since; he appears to be a decent well

behaved man.

5. Mr. Wilson having mentioned to Major Hunt that he had some

Garden seeds for him in boat wch contained his baggage, we

broke ground for our Mess Garden. Mr. Wilson tarries with us

by Major Hunt's invitation.

6. In daily expectation of the arrival of the main body of the


7. Lieut Blue55 with several Beeves & 12000 lbs flour arrived very

seasonably as the Delawares will on & after their arrival cause

no inconsiderable consumption of provisions. Recd Letters from

Capts Lyman & Webb,56 & a bottle snuff from Mr. Blue.

8. The main body of the Delawares, men, women, & children

ascended the river in Canoes; on getting opposite the Garrison

they saluted it with an irregular discharge of their rifles &

with shouts more remarkable for the noise than the melody;


52 Jacques Lasselle, who married a daughter of Blue Jacket. Three Lasselles signed

the treaty of Greene Ville: Antoine and Hyacinthe, who signed with other traders,

and Jacques, who signed as an interpreter. The ones whom Andrews refers to later

as Tappon and Koko may have been Antoine and Hyacinthe.

53 George White Eyes was a Delaware chief.

54 Buckongahelas was chief of the Delawares.

55 William K. Blue, of Virginia, Light Dragoons.

56 John Webb, Jr., of Virginia, Light Dragoons.




after they had finished, they were honored with 16 rounds from

the Arty. [artillery]. The number of Delawares now at this

place amount to about 400. The Chiefs dined with our Mess.

9. The Delaware females of note dined with us. Lieut. Blue &

party departed for Greeneville. A Mr. Wilson to relieve Mr.

Lewis, Asst. QM. arrived with Mr. Mayo, (late Commissary at

this post) from Head Quarters. Recd Letters from Majors

Burbeck & Mills, Lieut Campbell Smith57 & Doct. Strong. wrote

to Capt Cornelius Lyman.

10. Bought twenty Dollars worth of Goods from Mr Robt. Wilson,

for wch I immediately paid him the cash. Nekskorwetor arrived

from Fort Wayne with a Speech from Col. Hamtramck58 &

Blue Jacket to the Delawares at this place, requesting them to

move for Fort Wayne as soon as possible.

11. The Chiefs dined with our Mess, & departed to their Encamp-

ment in very good season on being promised an half Keg of

whiskey by Major Hunt.

12. Nekskorwetor departed for Swan Creek with Speeches from

Blue Jacket & Buckingehelas to the Indians at that place. The

greatest part of the Delawares move for Ft. Wayne. Settled &

paid Mr. Mayo in full of all accts [accounts] for Messrs Elliot

& Williams, late Contractors for supplying the Army. A small

party of Shawanoese came up from Swan Creek.

13. The remainder of the Delawares moved from this place as far

as the French Stores.

14. Finished putting small seeds into our Mess Garden.

15. Blue Jacket & Mr. Laselle arrived from     Fort Wayne.

16. Corpl. White & a private arrived from Greeneville: And from

Fort Miamis59 came in John Riley & Joseph Moores, Deserters

from the 24th British Regiment. Blue Jacket & Laselle de-

scended the river for Detroit.

57 Of Virginia, 4th Sub Legion.

58 Lieutenant Colonel John Francis Hamtramck was the commandant at Fort Wayne.

A native of Canada, he served on the American side throughout the Revolution. He

was one of the leading figures in the campaign of 1794, being in command of Wayne's

left wing. In 1796 he was appointed commandant at Detroit, where he died in 1803.

59 Fort Miamis was the British fort on the north side of the Maumee (Miamis) River

about ten miles above its mouth. It was built in 1794 to head off Wayne's expected

advance on Detroit. The British surrendered it in 1796 under the terms of Jay's Treaty.


THE ANDREWS JOURNAL            163


17. Mr. Mayo, late Commissary & Mr. Lewis, late Asst. QM at

this Garrison departed for Greeneville via Fort Wayne. wrote

to Major Mills, Capt John Webb, Lieut Cambell Smith &

Doctor Strong--also paid Mr. Mayo twenty eight Dollars to

be did [delivered] to Major Burbeck for books purchased of

Doct. Hayward: and three Dollars to be did to Major Mills

to pay for the repairs of my watch. A Shawanoese called Capt.

Reed, being intoxicated came up to the Garrison about 11

oClock at night with a fire brand, wch he placed between the

logs wch support the parapet: He would have paid his life

for his temerity had it not been for the prudence of Major Hunt.

18. Major Hunt had an expostulation with 2 Shawanoese Chiefs on

the impropriety & hazard of Capt. Reed's conduct last night;

all matters, however were amicably adjusted.

19. Mearnemsecor & the other Shawanoese who arrived on the 12th

inst. departed for Swan Creek, with an assurance of returning

to the treaty.

20. Wrote to Ens. Swaine. A Shawanoese man arrived at this place

who is said to be 130 years of age, but I judge from his ap-

pearance that a deduction of 40 would not be unjust.

21. Was disappointed in sending my Letter to Mr. Swain on acct.

of the early departure of the express.

22. Dined at home.

23. Our Mess dined with Mr. Pope on Turkey, ham & Catfish soup.

24. We expected to dine happily in the family way, but were in-

terrupted by Stephen Young, one of the Stockbridge tribe.

25. In the Garden the greatest part of the day.

26. Capt. Britt & Ens. Strother dined with us on Catfish soup, &c.

An ordered [order ?] issued for parading & commencing fatigue

at 7 oClock.

27. Arrived four boats from Post Vincennes, via Ft. Wayne, laden

with Peltry & Tobacco for Detroit: Messrs. La Fontaine, Gamlar

& DuBois came in one of the boats.60 Am informed by Letters

60 Francois La Fontaine was a Detroit trader and signer of the treaty of Greene

Ville. He once had lived at Miamitown, the French and English fur-trading settlement

among the Miami Indians at the confluence of the St. Marys and St. Joseph rivers,

where Fort Wayne was later built. Miamitown was destroyed by General Harmar in

the fall of 1790.

Gamlar may have been Antoine Gamelin, who in 1790 was a trader and notary




that Lieut Hastings Marks6l has resigned. that Doct & Mrs.

Elliot as also Mrs. Hamtramck have arrived at Fort Wayne

from Post Vincennes.

28. The French Gentlemen breakfasted & dined with our Mess &

supped with Mr. Pope. Dld Mr. La Fontaine a memo. for

rappee snuff. Mr Lee & myself destroyed all the Due bills we

had agt. [against] Capt. D. Britt.

29. The French Gent. departed as soon as the Garrison wicket was

opened. Mr. La Fontaine appears quite the Gentleman--

Du Bois is fond of a jovial Glass; & Damlar [sic] is a decent


30. Delaware Tom arrived with Letters for Majors Hunt & Cushing,

Lieut. Lee. &c. One letter from the Adjt. Genl. [adjutant

general] to the Commandt. says he is directed to order Capt.

Britt & Lieut Lee to Head Quarters. Indian Tom informs that

on his way out he was fired on by four Soldiers--that he took

and made them march in front of him to Ft. Adams, where they

proved to be Deserters from Greeneville. 4 Delaware Chiefs

dined with our Mess. Eat the first ripe Strawberries I have seen

for this season.

31. Settled & paid our Mess Accounts with the Commissary. Bo't

[bought] small stores of Capt. Britt to the amount of seven

pounds odd shillings, for wch I drew an order on Mr Lee.


public at Vincennes.

DuBois was possibly Toussaint Dubois, a resident of Vincennes, or Louis Dubois,

who seems to have been at Miamitown in 1790 and years later a resident of the western

part of Indiana Territory, which became the state of Illinois.

61 Of Virginia, 1st Sub Legion.


THE ANDREWS JOURNAL            165



Date  Variations of the weather                         Winds.

1. Fair, warm & pleasant                                                                     NNE

2. Fair, warm & pleasant - thunder & rain night                                  WSW

3. Rain & Thunder - Cloudy                                                                Do.

4. Rain - Cloudy - rain - fair                                                                  SW

5. Fair & warm - fine rain                                                                     South

6. Overcast - Cloudy - fair                                                                     SW

7. Fair - thunder - rain      Do

8. Cloudy - frequent Showers                                                              Do

9. F & pleasant - Cloudy - thunder - rain                                               NE

10. Thunder & rain - variably Cloudy & fair                                         NE-SW

11. Cloudy - fair - Cloudy - rain                                                              SW

12. Cloudy - F & warm - Cloudy - thunder - rain                                     Do

13. Cloudy - Fair - Overcast                                                                    WSW

14. Fair, warm & pleasant                                                                     SE

15. Rain - Cloudy                                                                                  Do

16. Cloudy                                                                                             Do

17. Fair - Cloudy - thunder - rain                                                             West

18. Thunder - F - rain at night                                                                SW

19. Thunder - rain - fair - thunder                                                           Do

20. Thunder - rain - fair - cloudy - rain                                                   Do

21. Cloudy - rain - thunder - overcast                                                      Do

22. Cloudy - Fair - Cloudy - Showery                                                       Do

23. Cloudy - fair - Cloudy - showers - fair                                                Do

24. Fair & pleasant                                                                                South

25. Do                               Warm                                                            Do

26. Do                               Do - thunder - rain                                        Do-West

27. Rain - fair & warm - Cloudy                                                              West

28. Cloudy - F & pleasant - variably Cloudy & F.                                    ENE

29. Do      Do - rain at night                                                                   WNW

30. Fair, cool & pleasant  West

31. Fair & pleasant - showers                                                                SW

Rain 22 Thunder 12








OF JUNE 1795. JUNE, 1795 - 30 DAYS

1. Little Turtle (a Miami Chief)62 arrived at this place; he supped,

lodged, &c. at our Quarters--He observed that he had been to

Fort Wayne & that he had no object in view by this visit but

the gratification of his wish to see his Brothers. His deportment

is modest & manly--his visage is marked with penetration--he

never gets intoxicated.

2. Little Turtle breakfasted with Major Cushing, after wch, Majr.

Hunt, Lieut. Pope & myself accompanied him to the opposite

side of each river to view our Gardens; he discovered marks

of pleasure at our improvements; but soon after assumed a

melancholy air & observed that that land was once his own

property. Lieut Lee & the Indn. Interpreter departed for the

Delaware Camp, about 9 miles distant up the Miamis, to pro-

cure horses for the transportation of the baggage belonging to

Capt. Britt & himself to Head Quarters--Mr. Lee took Serjt.

Willard & a private to tarry with the Delaware women for the

purpose of issuing provisions during the absence of the warriors

at the treaty.

3. Little Turtle departed for his Town near the head of Bean

Creek after assuring us of his intention to attend the proposed


4. Capt. Britt & Lieut Lee having procured a sufficient number of

horses departed for Greeneville. Sent letters by Mr. Lee to

Doct. Allison, Capt Lyman & Ens. Swaine, dated the 2d inst.

Gave an order to Mr Lee on the P.M. [paymaster] for my

subsistence for 1793; with directions how to expend it for my

use. Mr. Lee on settlement of our accts. at this place is found

indebted to me 29 Dollars. Nekskorwetor arrived from Swan

Creek with one trunk & 2 bales of goods for Indn. Commerce.

Nekskorwetor informs that the Shawanoes, Wyandots, &c are


62 Little Turtle had been at the head of the Indian confederacy when it defeated

Harmar (1790) and St. Clair (1791), eventually relinquishing his command after

the battle at Fort Recovery in June 1794. He lived out the remainder of his life

at Fort Wayne.




to be at the big-rock in 6 days & will immediately after move

from thence to Greeneville to attend the treaty--he likewise

mentions a report in circulation among the Inds. that a number

of persons from Cincinnati & Columbia having surrounded a

party of Shawanoese, were fired on by the latter; the number

of killed is not ascertained.

5. Two men from Fort Wayne arrived in a boat with flour &

pork--am informed that Capt. Preston is arrested by Col.


6. Mr. Strother & myself strolled on the east side of the Glaize

as far as the stone quarry, where we attempted to cross; but

the water proving deeper & the current stronger than we ex-

pected, we tho't it prudent to return by the route we went.

Strawberries plenty.

7. The two men who arrived from Fort Wayne on the 5th inst

departed early this morning. 4 Ottawas arrived from below--

they mention that 2 of their Chiefs & a considerable number

of young men will be at this place tomorrow.

8. The Great Ladies of the Delawares dined with Mr. P.P., [Piercy

Pope] who has divorced Miss Nancy.

9. The Chiefs & several others of the putawatome's with Mr

LeChambre63 their interpreter arrived on their way to HQ.

The Chfs [chiefs] & Interpreter dine & sup at our Quarters:

those Indians brought in Corpl. Jones of the 1st. SL, Davison

of the same S.L. & Miller of the 3d SL. The first a prisoner;

the others deserters from us.

10. Mr. LeChambre breakfasted with us, after wch he departs with

the Putawatomes for Greeneville. wrote to Mr Lee. Capt. B.

Gaines64 arrives with three boats laden with provisions, &c.

recd. a letter from Dr. Elliot.

11. Major Cushing with three boats departed for Ft. Wayne for a

further supply of provisions--I accompanied him as far as the

Delaware Camp to visit a sick Chief.

63 Another trader of Miamitown in 1790, he signed the treaty of Greene Ville as

R. Lachambre.

64 Bernard Gaines, of Virginia, 1st Sub Legion.




12. Return from the Delaware Camp about 10 o'Clock AM--found

several Shawanoes & Ottawas at the Fort.

13. A man in the QM's employ, who was engaged with two others

in driving 40 head of Cattle from HQ. to this place, arrived

in the afternoon & informs that about day-break this morng

they were fired on by a party of Indians & that he made his

escape by leaping thro' the bullock-pen; he imagines there were

8 or 10 Indians--He likewise mentions that a report prevailed

at Greeneville that a Mr Wilson in the QM's employ was killed

a few days since by the savages between Forts St. Clair &

Hamilton65--A pretty prospect of peace!

14. Nekskorwetor & a young Ottawa departed for HQ. with letters

informing of the above transaction--two soldiers also took

letters to Col. Hamtramck on the same business. wrote to

Mr Lee.

15. Three men arrived from Fort Adams with the herd of Cattle

that were interrupted the 13th inst. It seems that one of the

old party was killed; & the other having made his escape to Ft.

Adams induced Mr Brick66 to forward some of his men to

collect & drive the Cattle to this place: It is remarkable that

not one of the drove was lost.

16. Major Hunt & myself eat roasted Chickens for the first time

at this place--they were some of our own raising from poultry

the Indians left at this place in their precipitate flight last


17. The three men, who drove the Cattle to this place, departed for

Fort Adams, one of wch, in a short time after returned, not

being able to cross one of the Creeks. Major Cushing returned

from Fort Wayne with two laden boats--Recd. Letters from

Capt. Webb & Doct. Elliot.

18. Mr. DeLisle, two other Frenchmen, two Chipewas, two Legion-

ary Soldiers, who after having deserted from us enlisted in the

British service; then quitted the latter & returned to us arrived


65 Fort St. Clair was about forty-five miles north of Cincinnati and Fort Hamilton

about twenty-five miles to the south of Fort St. Clair. Both were built as supply bases,

Fort Hamilton in 1791 and Fort St. Clair in 1792.

66 John Brick, a provisional ensign.




this day, as also Col. McKee's67 negro servant. Our Interpreter

set off to meet a party of putawatome's (who were ascending

the Miamis on their way to the treaty) with a supply of


19. Three other Frenchmen with the party of Putawatome's to

wch we forwarded provisions yesterday arrived. we learn by

the Frenchmen that Col. McKee's negro was sent by Capt

Elliot (of the British Indn. Dept) for the purpose of watching

the motions of the Indians at the treaty; since wch discovery,

the negro has been closely confined. Polly Locker, (wife or

Dulcinea to a soldier) was confined for disobedience of Majr.

Hunt's orders. Two Delawares arrived--they inform that they

met the two men who effected the recent mischief between

Forts St Clair & Hamilton--that one was a white man; the

other an Indian lately liberated from captivity at Greeneville

by Genl. Wayne. Gratitude is a pretty thing.

20. Mr. Pope, with a party took charge of the two Deserters &

Col. McKee's negro & ascended the river for Fort Wayne.

wrote to Dr Elliot--so cold I ordered a fire to be made in my

room. Dr. Scott's68 old waiter, who deserted from the army

last autumn, returned.

21. The Frenchmen & Indians departed for Greeneville. wrote to

Capts Britt, Webb & Lieut. Lee. A party of Shawanoes arrived

from Hunting, among wch is the man who some time since

obliged a soldier belonging to this Garrison to exchange rifles--

The Indian with much reluctance restored the public gun &

retook his own.

22. Messrs. Abbot junr & Kinsey69 & shortly after Blue Jacket &

Laselle arrived from Detroit--Abbot very much of Gentleman;


67 Alexander McKee was the British deputy superintendent general of Indian affairs.

A native Pennsylvanian and an official in the British Indian service before the Revo-

lution, he remained loyal to the British and eventually became one of their leading

Indian agents.

68 John M. Scott, of New Jersey, surgeon, 2d Sub Legion.

69 James Abbott, Jr., was a partner of his father in the Detroit trading company of

James Abbott and Sons. He later was postmaster of Detroit and associate judge of the

district court of Huron and Detroit.

Kinsey was John Kinzie, a Detroit trader. He eventually settled at Fort Dearborn,

at the mouth of the Chicago River, where his trading business prospered.




Majr. Hunt & myself invite them to tarry with our mess during

their stay at this post. Mr. Abbot, having a wish to visit Maj.

Gushing at his room, requested me to accompany him, wch I

reluctantly complied with being unwilling that a stranger

should know that two American Officers were at variance

about a w--e [Anthony Wayne?].

23. Blue Jacket & Laselle departed for Fort Wayne. Nekskorwetor

arrived from H.Q. recd a letter from Lieut. Lee.

24. Barney McCarney, my waiter, having expressed a wish to

enjoy this day, I gave him 3 quarts of whiskey for himself &

friends & promised not to call on him on my business for the


25. Two putawatome's, (one of them a chief) who arrived this

day dined with us. Agushewa (a chief) with 24 Ottawas ar-

rived; as also a man by the name of McPherson70 with a Del-

aware Indian from a party, who were on their way up, re-

questing Majr. Hunt to forward them some provisions as the

British had absolutely refused to grant any further supplies

to those who were determined to attend the treaty--McPherson

informs that all the Savages are in motion for H.Q.

26. Agushewa, &c. dined with us--Agushewa is the head Chief of

the Ottawas & has much influence over the other tribes.

27. Agushewa having requested Majr. Hunt to assemble the officers

of the Garrison at his room, made a long speech on the rectitude

of the intentions of his nation & concluded by presenting his

pipe of peace to each individual to take a whiff from that

desirable Calumet--he with his party departed for Greeneville.

After dinner Mr. Abbot having presented us with 3 or 4 bottles

London Porter, we invited the officers to attend & participate

in this piece of luxury. Majr. Cushing & myself started an

argument on this Question--Whether a man possessing some

advantage from the locality of his situation could be deprived

of that advantage by the public (the right of the public not

disputed) without his deeming it a hardship? I held the

Negative, on wch Majr. Gushing observed with some asperity

70 John McPherson, a Detroit trader.




that no man who would support the negative could be pos-

sess'd of common honesty, so much for old scrapes.

28. Mr. Abbot let my laundress have to the amt. [amount] of

3 Dolls.

29. Messrs. Abbot & Kinsey for the H.Q. & myself for Ft. Wayne


30. On the river--Musketoes plenty--some rain.


THE ANDREWS JOURNAL             173



Date   Variations of the weather                          Winds.

1. fair - overcast - cloudy - fair & pleasant                                          South.

2. fair & pleasant - small rain                                                               Ditto

3. Thunder - cloudy - fair - thunder - rain                                              WSW

4. Thunder - cloudy - fair & warm                                                         Ditto

5. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 East.

6. Fair & pleasant - warm                                                                      WSW

7. Fair - thunder - rain                                                                            East.

8. Fair - pleasant & warm - cloudy - thunder                                          Ditto

9. Fair, pleasant & warm - cloudy - thunder                                           WSW

10. Cloudy - fair & pleasant                                                                   East

11. Cloudy                                                                                             Ditto

12. Cloudy - rain - fair - overcast - thunder                                             ESE

13. Rain & cloudy without rain alternately.                                          Ditto

14. Cloudy - rain - thunder - fair - cloudy                                                Ditto

15. Rain - cloudy - thunder - fair - rain - thunder                                     SSW. - West.

16. Cloudy - fine rain - thunder - fair - rain.                                            SSW

17. Cloudy - fair                                                                                     West

18. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

19. Fair - cloudy - small rain                                                                    Ditto

20. Cloudy - fair - cold - cloudy - small rain                                             SE

21. Fair & pleasant - doudy - thunder - showery                                      WSW

22. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

23. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 ESE

24. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

25. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 SSE

26. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 North

27. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

28. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 ESE

29. Fair - cloudy - thunder - rain                                                              SW.

30. Showery & fair alternately                                                               Ditto

Rain 12 Thunder 10




THE ANDREWS JOURNAL              175



OF JULY, 1795. JULY, 1795 - 31 DAYS

1. On the Miamis river ascending towards Fort Wayne, much har-

rassed by the musketoes & greatly incommoded by the quantity

2. of goods in the boat.

3. Arrived at Fort Wayne about 12 OClock--dined with Col.

Hamtramck; Majr. Vigo72 & Capt Prior dined there. Recd. in-

vitations from  Col. Hamtramck, Capts Porter & Greaton73 &

Doct Elliot to make their houses my home during my stay at

their post.

4. This anniversary of American Independence was ushered in by

the discharge of 15 rounds--Dined with Col Hamtramck, the

Commdt., who entertained all the Gentlemen of the Garrison

& several strangers--after dinner 15 sentimental toasts were

drank, during wch 150 rounds from the Artillery were played

off in full view of the Col's dining room. A Ball & 15 shells

closed the amusement of the day.


6. Passed my time very agreeably at Fort Wayne visiting the

7. Gardens, ice house, Prairie & other objects of curiosity in the

8. vicinity of that post. Very politely treated by every officer of


10  the place.

11. Borrowed a Canoe of Messrs. McNiff & Askwith,74 two Gent.

from Detroit & descended the river for Defiance, attended by

my waiter [,] Messrs. Kean & Reynolds, wch last agreed to

work the boat for their passage as they had business to transact

at the post to wch I was bound.


72 Francis Vigo, a fur trader at Vincennes. Living in St. Louis at the time of George

Rogers Clark's expedition against the British posts north of the Ohio River during

the Revolution, Vigo rendered great service to Clark, chiefly by way of supplies and

financial aid. He became a large landholder at Vincennes and a close friend of

William Henry Harrison after Harrison moved there as governor of Indiana Territory

in 1801.

73 Richard H. Greaton, of Massachusetts, 2d Sub Legion.

74 Patrick McNiff and John Askwith were engaged in a speculative venture in Indian

lands. They were bound for Greene Ville to see Wayne.




12. On the water between Forts Wayne & Defiance, musketoes

plenty--conversation  insipid--but game     very  plenty, we

13. having Venison or turkey each day.

14. Arrived at Fort Defiance, where I felt all the pleasure that can

be derived from residing where business demands one's


15. The Officers of the Garrison & Doct. Davis75 dined with our


16. Doct. Davis, who arrived from Fort Wayne the 28th ulto. to

accommodate me in my visit to that post departed for Ft.

Wayne, I sent Major Hunt's waiter with him to procure 25

lbs brown sugar I had engaged of Capt. Godfrey, a Detroit

Mercht. @ 1/Y.C. per lb.76 Wrote to Doct. Elliot. Anty

Sheane, our Indn. Interpreter, departed for Greeneville--wrote

Lieut Lee.

17. Two men arrived from    Fort Wayne--they informed us they

were sent with 12 beeves; but having slept rather sound the

night before, the beeves had decamped--vigilance is a fine

thing. Nekskorwetor departed for Swan Creek & Detroit, I

requested Capt Godfrey to give him a memo. on his Clk for

150 lbs brown sugar @ 1/pr lb & one pound hyson tea.

18. No new occurrence--dined at home.

19. Dined with Messrs. Pope & Strother--Several Shawanoes ar-

rived with the avowed intention of settlg. in the vicinity of

this post.

20. Three British Deserters arrived from the post at the foot of

the rapids--they say they were hard pushed by several Indians

in the British interest--An Indn., late from Snakestown, says

there are at that place about 150 Shawanoes & that we may

expect them tomorrow.

21. Red-Pole (a Chief) with 140 Shawanoes arrived here on their


75 David Davis, probably a contract surgeon at the time of the writing of this

journal, later surgeon's mate, 1st Sub Legion.

76 Capt. Godfrey was Gabriel Godfroy, a prominent Detroit trader. The price of

the sugar was one shilling, or twelve and one half cents, per pound in New York state

money. The "Y.C." presumably stands for "York Currency."




way to the treaty. Red-pole is quite a manly well-behaved fellow

& is the head Chief of the Shawanoes.

22. Several Monsees, Mingoes, Wyandots & Mohawks arrived; the

last brought in several white prisoners. Agreeably to an in-

vitation from Red-pole & by permission of Major Hunt at-

tended an Indn. Dance about 200 yards from the Fort--It is

very pleasing to observe their regularity & exactness in their


23. The Officers of the Garrison, Red pole & several other Shawanoe

Chiefs dined at our Quarters--Recd. Letters from Capts Britt,

Porter, Webb--Lieut Lee, Ens. Swaine & Doct. Elliot.

24. The Shawanoese departed for Greeneville--wrote to Messrs.

Lee, Swaine & Capt Britt. Barney Martin [?] who was taken

from this post last autumn arrived here with one Tate,77 a

messenger from Mr Elliot to procure Col. McKee's negro--

wrote to Doct Elliot & Capt. Porter, & forwarded them a

quantity of Turnip seed.

25. Tate having come into Major Hunt's quarters to explain the

business of his mission, in the course of conversation took it

into his head to descant largely on the riches of Elliot &

McKee, whom we imagine to have been the cause of all the

horrors & cruelty attending the war with the Savages; Lieut

Pope observed that they were both d--d rascals: Tate said he

could not bear that, & begging to be excused, turned on his

heels & immediately left the Fort; but Major being informed

that he was outside of the Fort busily engaged in conversation

with some Indians & endeavouring to persuade the British

Deserters to return, sent the Serjt. of the guard to him with

orders to quit the place immediately, with wch he complied

uttering imprecations agt. every thing & body about this place.

26. Eat the first Green Corn for the season.

27. Went to visit several sick Indians.

28. Wrote to Doct. Elliot--Eat Lamb for the first time this season.


77 David Tait.




29. Arrived from Detroit Messrs. Allan & Ruland78 on their way to

Greeneville, they tarried by invitation at our Quarters--Allan,

it appears was born in Vermont, has been several years at &

about the Genesee & Detroit & speculated largely in Lands

for Robt. Morris & others--he appears to be a staunch friend

to America.

30. Allan & Ruland departed for Greeneville.

31. Dined at home perfectly free from Company; a Luxury we

seldom enjoy.


78 Ebenezer Allen and Israel Ruland were involved in the same speculation in

Indian lands as Patrick McNiff and John Askwith.


THE ANDREWS JOURNAL             179



Dates  Variations of the weather.                    Winds.

1. Rain - fair                                                                                         West.

2. Cloudy - fair                                                                                     Ditto

3. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 SE

4. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

5. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

6. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 East

7. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 ESE

8. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 NE

9. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 WSW

10. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 West

11. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 South

12. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 ESE

13. Fair & pleasant - cloudy - thunder - rain                                         SW

14. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

15. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 East

16. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 SE

17. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

18. Fair & pleasant - Cloudy - thunder - fair                                         SW

19. Fair & pleasant - Cloudy - thunder                                                  Ditto

20. Cloudy - fair - cold - cloudy - small rain

21. Fair & pleasant - cloudy - thunder - small shower                          WSW

22. Fair & pleasant - cloudy - thunder - small shower                          Ditto

23. Cloudy - steady rain                                                                        SW

24. Rain - fair                                                                                          WSW

25. Fair - pleasant - warm                                                                        East

26. Cloudy - thunder - fair                                                                       Ditto

27. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 WSW

28. Fair - cool - cloudy - fair                                                                   Ditto

29. Fair & cool                                                                                       Ditto

30. Fair & cool                                                                                       ESE

31. Fair & cool                                                                                       SE

Rain 7 Thunder 7







OF AUGUST, 1795. AUGUST, 1795 - 31 DAYS.

1. Nothing new--We dine at home without any Company--feel


3. happy & enjoy ourselves perfectly.

4. Accompanied by Mr. Strother & agreeably to the request of

Major Hunt, I went to the Delaware Camp to visit a sick

soldier stationed there & several sick Indians. Mr. S. & myself

raised & joined in a dance with the Tawney Ladies &


5. Returned to the Fort--Recd Letters from Dr Elliot & Capt

Porter; & from the latter my watch & 38 Dolls wch were

forwarded by Mr Lee to Fort Wayne & wch closes all accounts

between Lieut. Robt. Lee & myself. Paid Capt Gaines 10 Dolls

in full for money borrowd of him to pay for 8 bottles London

Porter for the 4th July. Mr. Pope with a party & the white

prisoners who were bro't in the 22d ulto. departed for Fort

Wayne--lent Mr P. two bottles whiskey--forwarded a large

quantity of turnip seeds to Capt. Porter & Doct. Elliot.

6. Paid Nancy Leonard ( a soldier's damsel) three Dollars in full

for making shirts & other demands.

7. A man by the name of Mitchell arrived in pursuit of his sister

who had been prisoner for some time among the savages; but

she had left this place with Lt. Pope the 5th Inst. Mr. M.

informs that the treaty is settled to the mutual satisfaction of

both parties. thank God.

8. Mitchell departed for H.Q. via Fort Wayne--wrote to Capt

Porter, Doct. Elliot & Lieut. Lee.

9. Warm & Sultry--The atmosphere laden with insects.

10. The Cow belonging to our Mess has produced a fine calf--what

is somewhat unusual, we made use of her milk last Evening

for Milk punch. Mr. Comy Wilson departed for Greeneville,

purposing to tarry 3 weeks--wrote to Capt Britt & Ensign


11. Nekskorwetor & family arrived from below--recd. by him 150

lb of brown sugar @ 1/ & one pound bohea tea @ 8/ on a/c



of Capt Godfrey. Mr. Allan & John Haskins junr.79 (Detroit

Gent.) returned from Greeneville, both very much disgusted

with the event of their Journey--It seems the former was on

the land jobbg business & could not get his claims confirmed by

Genl. Wayne for the best reason in the world--The Genl. had

not authority--Mr. Haskins, on the same business, was so un-

fortunate as to have a letter intercepted (from his father), by

Genl. Wayne, in wch the young man, who had great influence

with the Indians,80 was directed by no means to let that nation

sign the treaty until Genl. Wayne had confirmed their sales

& gifts of lands to ye. sd. Haskins; Genl. Wayne took no further

notice of the Letter than to forbid him from attending the

treaty, wch so much disgusted the youth that he requested

permission to return home; the Genl. told him to have every

thing in readiness against the Morng. & to call on him for a

pass, with wch he complied--the Genl. then told him he had

permission to go to Fort Jefferson & stay 'till the treaty was con-

cluded; & that a party of light horse would accompany him to

that Fort.

12. The Rivers much lower than they have been since our residence

at this Post.

13. Informed of the death of the British Capt Monsee81 at the post

at the foot of the rapids.

14. A French Gentleman, by the name of Barron82 dined at our

Quarters--This Gent. is from Detroit & appears to be a decent,

lively, jovial fellow.

15. Mr. Pope arrived from Fort Wayne laden with provisions--

recd. Letter from Doct. Elliot & a seal with the initials of my

name from Capt Porter.

16. Several Indians returned from the treaty with much apparent


79 John Askin, Jr., was the son by an Indian woman of John Askin, a leading

Detroit merchant-trader.

80 The word "Shawanoes" is lined out here and "Indians" written over it. It was

the Ottawas and Chippewas in whom the Askins were interested.

81 Paul Mounsy, 24th British Regiment.

82 Michel Baron, of Detroit and later of River Raisin.


THE ANDREWS JOURNAL            183


17. A number of putawatome's returned from the treaty surcharged

with presents & pleasure (if possible).

18. Capt Godfrey, Messrs. Navarre, Boubion,83 LeChambre, &c.

with several Indians arrived from Greeneville; they dine at our

Quarters. Recd. a pr. of Moccasins of Mr. Barron & a pipe

from LeChambre as Compliments. Paid Capt Godfrey 22 Dolls

37 1/2 Cents in full for 175 lbs brown sugar & one pound

bohea tea. they depart.

19. Messrs. Tappon Laselle & Sans Creinte84 arrived from Greene-

ville--they dined at our Quarters. It seems their intention on

leaving Greeneville was to go to Fort Wayne, but having lost

their way they struck this place.

20. This being the Anniversary of Genl. Wayne's action with the

Savages near the British post; The Commdt. issued orders for

every man to receive a jill of whiskey extra & for the discharge

of 15 rounds from the Artillery at 12 oClock--The Officers,

Gent. of the Garrison & the french Gent. dined with our mess on

roasted pig & fry'd Chickens.

21. Messrs. Kinsey & Koko Laselle arrived from H.Q. lodged, &c at

our Quarters. had a fire in my room on account of the ex-

ceedingly damp, cool, disagreeable weather--The Ague85 com-

menced among the soldiery of the Garrison--Mr. Delisle ar-

rived from H.Q. tarries, by invitation, at our house.

22. Anthy Sheane, our Indn. Interpreter arrived12 from Greeneville--

received a Letter from Lieut Lee. I was this day about 12

oClock seized with the Ague.

23. Red-pole with a considerable number of Shawanoes arrived

from H.Q. with 20 odd horses laden with presents--Red Pole

& 4 other Chiefs dine at our Quarters--Great numbers of the

Shawanoes became intoxicated by means of bartering the pres-

ents they received at Greeneville with Mr. Felix, an Indian


83 Francois Navarre, a trader of River Raisin, and Jean Baptiste Beaubien, a Detroit

trader. Both signed the treaty of Greene Ville.

84 Jean Baptiste Sans Scrainte, a Detroit trader who signed the treaty of Greene

Ville as an interpreter.

85 The ague was malaria. It is the "Febris Intermittens" which Andrews so formally

lists in his "State of the Garrison" summaries.




trader, for rum. Took an emetic this day--had no chill, but had

a slight fever.

24. Major Hunt sent to Felix, requiring him to restore the presents

to the Indians & to depend on their generosity for payment in

peltry. Sent Mr. Pope 37 lbs brown sugar left in my hands for

him by Capt Godfrey. had the ague violently.

25. Mr. Felix reluctantly restored the Goods to the Shawanoes--A

great part of them departed--A party of men from Fort Wayne

arrived at this place with 40 head of beeves--Recd a Letter

from Dr. Elliot--had the ague badly.

26. Mr. Abbot arrived from Fort Wayne--he brought a newspaper

containing Mr Jay's treaty with the British--Mr. Abbot tarries

in our mess. I this day had the ague very hard.

27. Paid Mr. Abbot 7 Dollars in full of all demands. The Officers

dined with us on roasted pig--being determined not to lose

the dinner of my favorite fish, I drank 9 wine glassfulls of

bark86 & whiskey before dinner--Serjt. Willard arrived from

the French stores very ill & delirious with the typhus, notwith-

standing every exertion he died at 12 oClock at night. I am

perfectly free from the Ague. Three periauges arrived from

Fort Wayne laden with flour.

28. Gave Mr Abbot a memo. to procure me 300 lbs flour, 1 lb

hyson tea & one bbl cyder--Mr. A. departed for Detroit. Mr.

McDougall87 arrived     from   Greeneville--tarries with    our

Mess--He appears to be rattle headed, wild volatile tho genteel

man. The fever has settled in my left eye.

19. A party from Mr. Frothingham's88 detachment, (the whole of

wch is destined for this post) arrived from Fort Wayne with


30. Several Indians arrived from Fort Wayne.


86 Either cinchona or some other bark. Cinchona bark was commonly used in the

treatment of malaria. It is the source of quinine.

87 George McDougall, a trader of Detroit. He later in the year established a trading

post at Fort Defiance.

88 Ensign Peter Frothingham, 4th Sub Legion. Ensign Frothingham, who was ap-

pointed from the Northwest Territory, may have been a son of Ebenezer Frothingham,

a Revolutionary soldier from Connecticut, who, as a lieutenant, was killed in

General Harmar's campaign of 1790.




31. Ensign Peter Frothingham with a detachment from Greeneville

via Fort Wayne arrived with several boats laden with flour

from the last mentioned place. He joins the Mess of Pope &

Strother--As it has been observed that Mr. Frothingham is a

very religious man; I think no man will envy him the devotional

felicity he can derive in the Mess of the two wild Virginians--

But it was Hobson's choice with Mr. Frothingham.





Dates Variations of the weather                           Winds.

1. Fair - cloudy - shower - fair                                                             SSE

2. Fair & pleasant - cloudy - thunder                                                   SW

3. Fair & pleasant - cloudy - thunder                                                   Ditto

4. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 SE

5. Fair & pleasant - Cloudy                                                                  Ditto

6. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 NW

7. Fair & Cloudy alternately                                                                SW

8. Fair - Cloudy - rain                                                                           SSW

9. Cloudy & fair alternately - warm & sultry                                       Ditto

10. Cloudy & fair alternately - warm                                                     West

11. Overcast - cool - cloudy & fair by turns                                          ENE

12. Fair - cloudy - thunder - wind & rain                                               NE

13. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

14. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 ENE

15. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

16. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 Ditto

17. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 NW.

18. Fair - cloudy - thunder - rain                                                            WSW.

19. Fair - cloudy - rain                                                                            East.

20. Steady cold rain                                                                                Ditto

21. Cloudy - cold - fair - cloudy                                                             Ditto

22. Cloudy - damp - cool                                                                       Ditto

23. Cloudy - fair - thunder - cloudy - rain                                              SW

24. Cloudy- damp - fair                                                                          Ditto

25. Fair - overcast - fair                                                                          NE

26. Fair - Cloudy                                                                                    Ditto

27. Fair - overcast - fair                                                                          West

28. Fair & warm                                                                                     Ditto

29. Fair - cloudy - thunder - rain                                                            SW

30. Fair & pleasant                                                                                 West

31. Fair - doudy - rain                                                                            SW


[The Andrews journal will be concluded in the next issue.]