LETTERS TO THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE
TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 14, 1856.
Do you know for what Mr. J. Speer, Editor of The Kansas
Tribune, and a dozen or more others -- some of the best men in
Kansas--have been compelled to flee from their families and
homes and become exiles in a strange land? If you do not, the
sub-joined letter will initiate you into the secret. How the
original letter was obtained I know not, but I have seen it, and
the following is a verbatim et literatim copy:
LECOMPTON, April 20, 1856.
"Maj. J. B. Donaldson:
"My dear Sir: Sam'l N. Wood is now in Lawrence, and I
wish you to send me the writ against him. I arrested him yes-
terday, and he was rescued from my hands by a mob. The Gov.
has called upon Col. Sumner for a company to assist me in the
execution of the laws. I have writs gotten out against Robinson
and some twenty others.
"In haste, y'r ob's, SAM'L J. JONES."
Well, the writ against S. N. Wood was sent to "Y'r ob's", but
when he went to arrest that gentleman legally, he found him --
not at home. He before arrested, or attempted to arrest S. N.
Wood, without a warrant or any show of authority whatever, but
"some twenty others" not being clear-sighted enough to perceive
any difference between a private citizen and a bogus second-
handed Sheriff acting without the "papers", took occasion to give
him their views upon the subject and he concluded to leave. But
the same spirit (bad whiskey) that makes a packed Grand Jury
find an indictment against a hotel and two printing presses, and
try ex parte and order the destruction of the same for being
nuisances, all at one heat, made a preliminary Grand Jury and
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 293
Court of S. J. Jones, and he decided that they are guilty of felony.
It was for the arrest of these men that J. B. Donaldson assembled
around Lawrence several hundred ruffians, and afterwards turned
them loose to plunder and sack that unhappy town.
J. H. K.
New York Tribune, July 26, 1856.
LAWRENCE, K. T., Aug. 14, 1856.
The quiet which has reigned in the Territory for a few weeks
has been brought to a close this week by some more outrages on
the Free-State settlers, and the appearance of another proclamation
of a doubtful character, issued this time, not by Postscript Don-
aldson himself, as Marshal, but by his son as Adjutant. Here
ATTENTION -- REGIMENT!
Order No. 1.
A general parade of the Second Regiment of the first Brigade
of the Southern Division of the Kansas Militia will take place at
Wheatland, or Spicer's P. O. on the first Monday of September
next, at 10 o'clock. All persons subject to the militia law are
ordered to attend, or be dealt with according to law.
All persons subject to this order are requested to organize
themselves into companies, of not less than thirty men, elect their
officers, and report the same to the Colonel of the Regiment be-
fore the day of muster. By order of
H. T. TITUS, Commanding.
WM. F. DONALDSON, Adjutant.
This proclamation is without date. Col. Titus, the bosom
friend of Shannon, has distinguished himself lately by a variety
of adventures, two of which will serve to show the character of
About two weeks ago, Titus took possession of a claim near
Lecompton, which belonged to a Free-State man named Smith,
one of the first settlers in Kansas. In Smith's temporary absence,
he tore down his house and erected a shanty of his own. When
Smith returned, he rallied a few of his neighbors and re-erected
it; whereupon Titus with a superior number came and ordered
him off. Smith refused to go; a fight ensued; Titus and his party
294 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
triumphed and the building was burned to the ground. Shannon
was then applied to by Smith's friends for protection. He prom-
ised to do something about it; and the next day sent a company
of dragoons to protect Titus in his assumed right to the claim and
improvements, furnishing another beautiful illustration of squat-
Last Sunday night this same Titus went to the house of a Mr.
Hancock, a Free-State man, one of his neighbors, and was ac-
companied by two of the faithful from Lecompton. He de-
manded pay for some cattle which he charged Mr. Hancock with
having killed. Mr. H. protested that he had killed no cattle.
Titus then told him that he must pay for them or he would have
his life on the spot. The front door of the house was then closed,
and Hancock fled to the prison camp about a mile distant to call
the dragoons. In the mean time, they broke open the door, a
scuffle ensued between Titus and Mrs. Hancock during which she
disarmed him of his revolver. He promised to leave if she would
return his revolver. She did so, and he left in time to save him-
self from the dragoons. Such is the "Titus commanding," of the
The outrages to which I alluded above are as follows: Two
companies of Georgians and South Carolinians have been en-
camped on Washington Creek, a small branch which empties into
the Wakarusa, and at Franklin, a Pro-Slavery village about four
miles from Lawrence. Those on Washington Creek have been
living on plunder for some time and foraging almost every night
the corn fields and poultry yards of Free-State settlers. They
asked assistance from the people of Lawrence. Mr. Hutchinson
went to Major Sedgwick and asked him to send enough dragoons
to disperse them. The Major replied that the Lawrence people
were hoaxed; that the Southerners there were gathered for peace-
ful purposes and that it would be perfectly safe for any Free-
State men to go among them and satisfy himself that such was
the case. Mr. Hutchinson returned to Lawrence, and in the
afternoon, Mr. Hoyt was sent entirely unarmed to ascertain the
truth of the rumors. He was taken by these "peaceful settlers" on
Washington Creek and shot.
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 295
As soon as the intelligence of this event reached Lawrence, a
company of men volunteered to go and drive them out. Accord-
ingly, on the evening of the 12th inst., about a hundred young
men marched down to Franklin, where quite a number of arms
were secreted, which had been taken at the sack of Lawrence,
and were kept in charge of about eighty ruffians from the South.
The Free-State men intended to get these arms and then march
to the Pro-Slavery camp on Washington Creek. When they
reached Franklin they found that the Southerners were prepared
to receive them, by having barricaded a large block house, which
served them as a fort, through the chinking of which they pointed
their arms. They were called upon to surrender their arms, which
they refused to do. The Free-State men then determined to
storm the fort. It was a beautiful moonlight night. The battle
lasted about three hours, when the chivalry called for quarter and
surrendered. They then threw down their arms and ammunition
and fled. The number of guns taken by the Free-State men were
One brass cannon (a six pounder), supposed to belong to a
United States arsenal somewhere;
Fifty United States muskets supposed to be stolen from a
United States arsenal somewhere; and
Several guns, varying in caliber, known to have been stolen
from Lawrence on the 21st of May last.
The loss of the Free-State men was one killed and six
wounded. The Chivalry lost none, but report four wounded. In
consequence of their loss the Lawrence boys returned home, but
intend to pay the Washington Creek camp an early visit, if the
Dragoons do not. They took no prisoners.
Yesterday morning two companies of Dragoons were ordered
to Franklin, but I have not heard what they have done.
People are anxiously expecting the arrival of Geary, the new
governor, as they feel that anything whatever will be a change for
New York Tribune, August 23, 1856.
296 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Walker's Camp on Rock Creek, Kansas, Aug. 15, 1856.
The brutal murder of Major Hoyt has caused an intensity of
hatred to ruffianism and a desire to rid the Territory of ruffians,
never, perhaps, equalled in the history of our difficulties. The ag-
gravated and savage-like circumstances of the murder, seemed to
arouse even the peaceful and conservative portion of our citizens,
who heretofore have taken a grin-and-bear-it position, so that on
Thursday last it was evident to all that nothing less than hanging
the murderers would satisfy the people. Accordingly, about fifty
men, armed to the teeth, marched from Lawrence to this place
as a reinforcement to the citizens already assembled there for the
same purpose. It will be remembered that Fort Saunders is the
title given to the den of the desperadoes who have been robbing
and insulting Free-State settlers on Washington Creek, a branch
of the Wakarusa.
When the reinforcement arrived here from Lawrence, a coun-
cil was held, which resulted in the appointment of a committee to
visit Major Sedgwick, the commandant of three companies of
dragoons, near Lecompton. The committee was directed to in-
form the Major of the brutal murder of Mr. Hoyt, who had been
riding along peaceably and unarmed, in the vicinity of Fort Saun-
ders on Washington Creek; that when his body was found by
some Free-State men, it was pierced through with ten balls, his
throat cut, and a paper plastered on his face to prevent his being
recognized by his friends. The committee was also directed to
tell him of the murder, on the Santa Fe road, of Mr. George
Williams, another Free-State man, and to ask him to drive the
gang from the Territory. The committee returned here today,
about noon, and stated that Major Sedgwick was acting under
orders, and that he had no orders to disband any company unless
required to do so by his superior officer, or by the Governor, or
something to that effect.
In the meantime rumors reached us that about thirty of the
Kickapoo Rangers under command of Stringfellow, had passed
over Blanton's Bridge in the direction of Fort Saunders on
Washington Creek, and the number of Ruffians there was vari-
ously estimated at from 150 to 300 men. In the morning a scout-
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 297
ing party of forty horsemen had been sent from our camp to
reconnoiter, and to ascertain if possible the best method of attack.
They soon returned and reported, and at 1 o'clock this afternoon
about 300 men under command of Gen. Cook took up the line
of march from this camp to Fort Saunders.
The distance between the two camps is about six miles, and
as the long defile of men marched over the high ground which
forms one side of the valley of Washington Creek, they presented
a rather imposing appearance. From this point, at a distance of
four miles, we could see the fort as it stood on a high bluff on the
south side of the creek.
Crossing the creek about two miles below the fort, the Free-
State men marched up a high hill or rather a continuation of
bluff, common to most of the streams of Kansas. At last we
came in sight of the fort, which looked a great deal more formid-
able at a distance than it did when near to it. Still the ground was
well selected, and no better place exists in Kansas than that to
make a successful defense. On each side of the fort were two or
three large tents, and everything looked, externally, as if the
Ruffians took comfort.
A company of infantry was drawn up in front of and within
rifle-shot of the fort while two companies of cavalry were drawn
up at right angles to the line of infantry, thus closing three sides.
About this time, a single horseman was seen riding from the fort
toward the ravine in the rear; but no effort was made to intercept
him. It was now generally believed that the fort was either de-
serted, or else they were laying in ambush to encourage the closer
approach of our forces. The order was given, and a company
from Lawrence known as the "Stubbs," charged through the fort
and down into a steep ravine where it was supposed the Ruffians
had hid in the low brush and timber. Not a soul could be seen,
and the Chivalry, who figured so bravely at the destruction of
Lawrence were, on this occasion, not so chivalrous. On scanning
the prairie with a telescope, a few straggling horsemen were seen
riding at full gallop. A negro slave-boy. about eighteen years of
age, crawled out of the brush somewhere, and reported that some
sixty men had been there about an hour ago, but when they saw
298 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
us coming they mounted and rode away. As the case was re-
versed and as his master had run away from him instead of he
from his master, I told him he was free. I did not see him after-
ward, but I suppose he went to some of the cabins of the Pro-
Slavery settlers, close by, with whom he was probably acquainted.
A great many interesting relics were taken from the fort be-
fore it was destroyed; some of them indicative enough of the
character of its inmates. For instance, there was any quantity of
"yaller-kivered" literature; a copy of "The Laws of Kansas,"
bound in calf; several silk parasols and other articles of dress
belonging to the Lawrence ladies, taken during the sack on the
21st of May; and some United States muskets. But the best
trophy of all--one which exhibited the appreciation and taste
of its designers to the best advantage--was a flag with a white
ground, in one corner of which were thirteen black stars. Across
it were three black stripes, each about six inches wide, and in
another corner were the words, "Enforce the Laws, '76," with
the names of two ladies, supposed to be donors. The fort, built
of logs, squared and hewed, with its port-holes, barricades and
entrenchments, was soon demolished, and we returned to this
camp tired enough. The camp-fires are now burning, the Chicago
Company and Gen. Cook feel fine, and "all goes merry as a
LAWRENCE, August 17, 1856.
This past week (this is Sunday) has been not the least event-
ful one in our history as a Territory; and today, strange as it
may appear, although there was no battle fought, was the most
exciting one of the week.
A little before noon, Gov. Shannon, Major Sedgwick, of the
United States Cavalry, and Dr. Roderigue, a citizen of Lecomp-
ton, and a few others, came into town and "put up" at the Cin-
cinnati. A Council was immediately held between them and a few
of the Free-State leaders, with closed doors, which Council lasted
five or six hours. In the meantime a large crowd of men had
collected in and around the hotel, to hear the result of the Council,
and to ascertain, if possible, what was going on. At length, about
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 299
6 o'clock, Col. Walker, one of the Free-State leaders, came out
in front of the hotel and stated that a peace agreement had been
made, the terms of which will more properly appear in Gov.
After Col. Walker got through with his remarks, Gov. Shan-
non came out in front of the piazza and addressed the crowd.
He looks very thin, and apparently careworn -- far more so than
the last time I saw him, about a week after the sack of Law-
rence; but he has been so often described it would be out of
place to say a word here, only that he was sober.
SPEECH OF GOVERNOR SHANNON
Fellow Citizens: I appear before you today under very ex-
traordinary circumstances, and I ask your attention for a few
moments to a few remarks in relation to them. I came down
here today for the purpose of adjusting these difficulties, if pos-
sible. and I regret as much as any man can -- as much as any
man within the sound of my voice--the existence of these dif-
I wish, too, to set myself right before the people of Lawrence.
I have been traduced and misrepresented through the press, my
motives -- those which have heretofore actuated me -- have either
been misunderstood or purposely aspersed, and things have been
said of me which never happened. I desire now to say, while I
remain in office, that I have never done a single act but what I
believed would best subserve the interests of the whole people.
God knows I have no ill feelings against any man in this territory.
But on the contrary I desire the health, happiness and prosperity
of every man in the Territory.
I am sorry that blood has been shed here. In the war of the
Revolution our fathers from both the North and the South fought
and bled together for the same common cause--the cause of
Liberty -- and the result was a glorious triumph of arms. and
the security to themselves and to posterity of their inalienable
rights. So it was in the war of 1812 -- so it was in the war with
Mexico; the North fought side by side with the South and the
stars and stripes floated each time over a conquering nation. And
shall we steep our hands in our brother's blood here? (A voice --
"Give us back Barber, and others that were murdered." Cries of
"Order," "Order," "Law and Order." Another voice -- "Don't
insult the Governor." "Go on.")
I came down here for purposes of peace, to try and adjust a
300 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
serious difficulty between the people now in this Territory. In a
few days my successor will be among the people of this Terri-
tory; and I desire now to say that the few days which remain of
my continuance in office will be devoted to further peace and
harmony and to the carrying out, as far as in me lies, the terms of
agreement which are mine to perfom. I trust the result of this
agreement will be the final settlement of all strife and difficulty,
that these will be succeeded by peace and prosperity and happiness
to all. Only let the people have these invaluable blessings, and
the bones and muscles and brains of contented citizens will de-
velop the rich natural resources of the Territory -- a Territory
far surpassing in richness and beauty any other on God's broad
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 301
earth. (A voice -- "Let us hear the terms of the agreement, I
did not understand them thoroughly." Several voices -- "What
are the terms?" Let us hear them.")
Captain Walker has stated the terms, and the few days that I
remain in office will be devoted, so help me heaven, in carrying
out faithfully my part of them and in preserving order. (Cries
of "Let's hear the terms," "Order," "Law and order.") The
terms are simply these. I agree to release the prisoners held at
Lecompton -- five in number -- and to use the military force un-
der command of Major Sedgwick to repel any armed body of
men who shall be found in the Territory for any other than
peaceful purposes. I also agree to deliver over to Major Sedg-
wick the cannon taken from Lawrence on the 21st of May last,
said cannon to be subject to the order of Captain Walker. On
the other hand you agree to deliver up the nineteen or twenty
prisoners which you hold, and set them at liberty. (Here he was
interrupted by a great many questions, explanations, etc. When
order was restored he proceeded:) Fellow citizens of Lawrence,
before leaving you I desire to express my earnest desire for your
health, happiness and prosperity. Farewell!
As soon as the speech was finished, Capt. Bell, formerly of
Illinois, and Capt. Cutter, formerly of Boston, made some re-
marks explanatory of the terms of the verbal treaty. The five
prisoners alluded to are those arrested by Deputy-Sheriff Fane, so
that it will be seen that Gov. Shannon virtually ignores the bogus
laws at last. We thought it would finally come to this, but not
so soon. The Free-State men gave Gov. Shannon the greatest
attention throughout. There was a good deal of cheering, and
most of our men were satisfied with the terms of the agreement;
but it remains to be seen how faithfully they will be carried out
by his Excellency.
LAWRENCE, K. T., Aug. 16, 1856.
News reached the camp at Rock Creek last night that ten
citizens of Topeka, who were on their way to join the Free-State
forces, had been arrested by one Titus and a company of South-
erners. I gave The Tribune a few items about this Titus a few
days ago, so that you will have a pretty fair idea of the man. As
Titus had threatened to hang every Free State man whom he took
302 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
prisoner, and as he had said that he would neither give nor ask
quarter in any fight, it was supposed that an arrest by such a
fiend was equivalent to a murder. Acting upon this idea, the men
at Walker's camp under command of Col. Walker, Capt. Brown
and others -- en. Cook having gone to Topeka -- immediately
marched to Titus' camp, near Lecompton, the distance from Rock
Creek being about ten miles. They reached the place a little after
daybreak, and immediately surrounded it with a company of cav-
alry. Like Fort Saunders it was built of square-hewed logs, but
had not the natural strength of position of Fort Saunders. The
cavalry company were immediately fired upon from within, and
Captain Shombra, formerly of Indiana, was mortally wounded.
The cavalry then retreated about rifle-shot distance from the
fort; a single six pound piece of artillery was planted, and after a
few shots the Ruffians stuck a white flag out of the window and
waved it some. Hostilities ceased and the Free-State men took
nineteen prisoners including "Titus, commanding," and "Don-
aldson, adjutant," of the "Order No. I," which was sent to The
Tribune a few (lays ago. Some twenty or thirty muskets were
taken, and a Sharp's rifle taken from here on the 21st of May was
recovered. The loss was as follows: Two Pro-Slavery men killed
and three wounded; one Free-State man killed and one wounded.
Titus was among the wounded, but his wounds are not of a
serious nature, having only lost a finger and thumb.
A programme of the future was found at this place in the
shape of a letter addressed to a friend at the South. It stated
that the southern companies were to incite the "Abolitionists" to
retaliate, whereupon Gen. Smith was to "pitch into" them and
with the assistance of the force to be raised by "Titus, command-
ing", along about the first Monday of September, he would drive
them out of the territory. It will be seen that the plan of oper-
ation was perfected on a grand scale, but like many other good
projects, its execution will probably be defeated by the inten-
sity of its grandeur.
The prisoners were taken to Lawrence and confined in the
office of the late Herald of Freedom where but a few months
ago some of them had assisted in raising a blood-red flag in
honor of "South Carolina" and "Southern rights". So we go.
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 303
The place from which on the 21st of May last they howled forth
their shouts of victory is now their prison.
We learn that all the United States troops stationed around
Lecompton have gathered into that town to protect it but this
movement was altogether unnecessary, for the Free-State men
will attack no place, unless it is known to be the den of mur-
derers and robbers. The actual and bona fide settlers of all par-
ties will be protected, and no peaceably-disposed settler of what-
ever political sentiments need fear danger from them. The
Free-State settlers begin to feel that the time for appeals for re-
dress of grievances is past; hereafter they will protect themselves.
Yesterday Deputy Sheriff Fane arrested five of the citizens of
Franklin for being engaged in the battle at that place on Tues-
day night. The writ was issued under the bogus code on the in-
formation of Wm. Crane, the postmaster at Franklin. The pris-
oners were taken to Lecompton.
There was some rain today, but it has cleared up, and the
weather is fine.
Stringfellow and his Rangers are reported to be in camp on
the Big Stranger. Unless Congress has done something for us,
I fear our troubles have but begun. Potter.
Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 18, 1856.
Things look very dubious today. A thousand and one re-
ports are in circulation about threatened attacks of the Missour-
ians aided by a company of about 500 Southerners who have
just come up the river. A prisoner was taken this afternoon
who was supposed to be a spy from West Point. Nothing de-
finite is known; but one thing is very certain, that an effort is
being made in Jackson and Clay Counties to get up another in-
vasion, the success of the effort being the only thing that re-
mains in doubt.
Today a detachment of about twenty-five dragoons came
from Lecompton with the five prisoners held there under a bogus
law writ. It was understood that they were to be released un-
conditionally, but they were duly tried by being brought before
a justice, and as no evidence appeared against them, they were
304 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
released. However, the Governor gave our cannon to Major
Sedgwick, to be delivered to us. The troops then came down,
and claimed our prisoners, eight or ten of whom were discovered
to be German workmen on the capitol at Lecompton, who had
been pressed into a service they did not know the nature of. The
whole nineteen -- Titus, Donaldson and all-- were delivered
over to the troops and escorted out of town by the Stubbs, who,
together with a company of horsemen, have gone to get the can-
non taken from Lawrence in May. When they return with the
cannon, the celebrated verbal treaty of yesterday -- Shannon
treaty No. 2 -- will then have been faithfully carried out on our
part. But there is a part of the treaty which time only can show
whether it will be faithfully carried out on their part, and that is
in relation to armed mobs entering the Territory. Gov. Shan-
non is now bound by the pledge of his honor to protect us -- to
do nothing more than he ought to have done from the beginning.
Let us watch him.
New York Tribune, August 29, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 20, 1856.
The clouds are thickening, but the exact day and hour when
the storm shall come, or with what fury it will rage when it
does come, we know not. We only know of its coming by the
North of the Kansas River, that is, in Doniphan, Delaware
and Leavenworth cities, great preparations are being made, as
the following handbill will show. These handbills are posted all
over the northern division, that is, north of the Kansas River.
Headquarters, 1st Div. K. Militia,
Aug. 18, 1856.
GENERAL ORDER, No. I
Whereas, I have received reliable information that a state of
actual war exists in this Territory, and that robberies and other
flagrant violations of the law are daily occurring in this Division,
I hereby order that the entire strength of this Division rendezvous
at the points hereinafter named to receive further orders, to-wit:
The First Brigade, Brigadier-General Marshall commanding,
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 305
to rendezvous at Doniphan, Doniphan County, on Wednesday,
Aug. 20, 1856.
The Second Brigade, Brigadier-General L. I. Easten com-
manding, to rendezvous at Leavenworth City, on Wednesday,
August 20, 1856. Wm. P. Richardson,
Major General, Ist. Div., K. M.
Brig. Gen. Easten, Leavenworth City, K. T.
In accordance with the above order, I command all persons
composing the Second Brigade, North Division Kansas Militia
to rendezvous at Leavenworth City, on Wednesday. Aug. 20,
1856, to await further orders.
By A. Payne, Commanding.
August 19, 1856.
This "Northern Division" includes Weston, Mo., and Platte
County generally. In the "Southern Division" a good deal is
being done to "make a raise", but with poor success. This di-
vision includes Westport, Independence, and other Border-Ruf-
fian localities in Jackson and Clay Counties, Mo., but their
"headquarters" is at Lecompton. The celebrated Haney, or
Haynau, was down at Westport yesterday, but reports the people
there being willing to let the Chivalry take care of themselves.
He says that nothing will be done till both Divisions together
number 4,000 men. The Cherokees and Creeks-- both slave
holding nations--have been called on to assist, but it is very
doubtful whether they will come. Up to this time nothing has
been done in the way of collecting and organizing the Free-State
forces. After the treaty of Monday last the few who were or-
ganized went quietly and peaceably to their homes and employ-
ment on Monday morning; but the city is filled with emigrants
who have arrived from Chicago at other places by the northern
Another brutal murder took place near Leavenworth yester-
day. A gentleman named Hopps or Hupps, from Ohio. came
here last week and left his wife and returned to Lawrence for
his goods, etc. When he had got a mile or two this side of that
city, on his return, he was overtaken (it is supposed), shot and
scalped, and in this condition was found by some troops who
happened along shortly afterwards. No clue to the murderers
306 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
has yet been found, but it is supposed that he expressed his senti-
ments too freely in Leavenworth. The Rev. Mr. Bird came from
Leavenworth today for his wife, who is a sister of the Rev. E.
Nute, pastor of the Unitarian Church in this city.
Another murder took place in Westport, yesterday, of a man
named Jennison, a Lawrence teamster, who was on his way home
from Kansas City with a load. He was also scalped, and his
load and team taken to Milton McGee's house.
On these murders I will make no comment. I only chronicle
them as being a part of our history.
Henry J. Sombre, esq., who was killed on Saturday last in
the battle of Titus's Camp, was a highly respected and popularly
known member of the bar in Richmond, Indiana. He was un-
married, and was about thirty years of age. He was buried yes-
terday with military honors, and his remains lie side by side with
those of the murdered Barber. There let him rest!
His last words were these: "Tell my friends that I offer
up my life a willing sacrifice to Freedom in Kansas." How
many young men of the North are willing to do so? And yet
the dearest interests of Constitutional Liberty are at stake, and
thousands of young men look idly on!
New York Tribune, August 29, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 25, 1856.
The rumors that large bodies of men were gathering to-
gether at Leavenworth, Westport and Little Santa Fe, for the
purpose of another invasion, have proved to be more than ru-
mors. On Friday last, the Ruffians threw the engine, boiler and
other machinery for the large saw mill, into the Missouri, at
Kansas City. It was the property of the New England Emi-
grant Aid Society, and was consigned to the firm of Walker &
Chick, forwarding merchants, and had not been delivered to
the agents of that Society. This firm, of course, will be the
losers, if the laws of Missouri are good for anything.
Yesterday, a committee of five of the citizens of Lawrence
waited upon the Governor at Lecompton, to see what course he
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 307
was going to take in regard to these mobs which were about to
march upon us, and to see whether he was still willing to carly
,out faithfully his side of the treaty of last Sunday. When they
reached Lecompton they found Woodson acting as Governor.
He was in the tent or quarters of the officers in command of
the troops, eight hundred in number, now at Lecompton. The
committee stated to Woodson that the people of Lawrence were
out of provisions; that their roads were blocked by armed mobs:
that two of their teamsters had been murdered, and that they
desired to know whether he would grant them a guard to their
teams to Westport and Leavenworth, or leave them to guard
their own teams and open the roads. They desired to know fur-
ther, whether he intended to interpose with the troops to pre-
vent this overwhelming mob from murdering, burning and pillag-
ing, or whether he intended that they, the people of Lawrence,
were to take care of themselves.
These questions were asked Woodson directly by the com-
mittee, and that gentleman vouchsafed this reply: that if the peo-
ple of Lawrence would obey the laws (the Bogus laws), and
if he (Woodson) could have assurance to that effect, this thing,
that is, the proposed invasion, could be settled in five hours--
that he would bring the troops of which he is commander-in-
chief, to bear upon these mobs and disperse them.
Now, it would not be easy to conceive a more impudent re-
mark from any official, and especially from a Governor, than
this. Reducing it down, it simply means this: "Gentlemen, if
you obey these laws, passed by a mob from Missouri, for your
government, I will protect you; but if you don't, I will let a mob
from Missouri cut your throats, scalp, shoot, or hang you, as
they may see fit." This is the gist of the reply -- its entire es-
sence; and I submit that its impudence is unequalled in the his-
tory of civilized diplomacy. C. 13. Babcock, esq., chairman of the
committee, then said:
"Governor, are we to understand that your position is this:
That if we obey the bogus laws you will protect us with the
whole force under your command; and if not that you will allow
us to be murdered? Is that your position?"
308 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Here Gov. Woodson protested that he had no desire to see
them murdered, but that the laws must be obeyed, and writs
must be executed. Some further conference was had with the
commanders of the United States troops; but the Committee
came to the conclusion that if Lawrence is to be defended her
own citizens will have to do it. It may be that Woodson, Smith
and Cook will look on and see this struggle without any inter-
ference of the troops. Col. Cook is commandant of the whole
force at Lecompton, was late Commandant at Fort Riley. and
must not be confounded with Gen. Cook, the Commander-in-
Chief of the Free-State Volunteers, about whom The Squatter
Sovereign howls so much. They are two different men.
This morning, a regiment of volunteers, mostly residents of
Topeka and its vicinity, arrived here, and things look decidedly
warlike. The forts, built last winter, are being repaired, and
new forts are to be built. A strong guard is now placed around
the city. It is believed that from fifteen hundred to two thou-
sand armed men can be raised in twelve hours to defend Law-
rence. The mob gathered to attack us have about three thousand
in all, at Kansas, Westport and Santa Fe. The mob at the Big
Stranger may not number over five hundred. Of course, not
much dependence is to be placed in the numbers which rumor
gives. To avoid exaggeration, I have given the aggregate of the
minimum of the estimates which I have heard. The battle will
come off on Wednesday, the 27th inst. -- so they, the Ruffians,
say. They will attack us simultaneously, on both sides of the
Kaw River. So much for the war.
The following is a correct list of the wounded on the Free-
State side of the battles of Franklin and Titus' Camp:
G. W. Smith, Jr., formerly of Butler, Pa., wounded slightly
in the head and legs.
Arthur Gunter, formerly of Boston, Mass.; wounded very
dangerously in the breast and chin; case very doubtful.
A. W. White, formerly of Missouri; very dangerously in the
arm and breast. (His arm has been amputated since.)
George Henry, formerly of Hartford, Conn.; slightly, in the
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 309
James N. Velsor, formerly of New York City; a severe shot
through the arm.
John Brook, formerly of Mansfield, 0.; a dangerous wound
in the head.
---------- Wells; slight wound in the hand.
D. A. Clayton, formerly of Union, N. Y., a severe wound in
George Leonard, formerly of Massachusetts; a slight wound
in the back.
Charles Jordan, formerly of Maine; a slight wound in the
Samuel Shepherd, formerly of Ohio; a flesh wound in the
John Crocker, formerly of Massachusetts; a slight wound in
These patients are well cared for, are in a temporary hos-
pital and are under the care of a board of surgeons, with Dr.
Prentiss at their head. There is but one doubtful case in the
hospital, and that is the case of Mr. Gunter.
NOTES ON THE DEATH OF MR. HUPPS OR HOPS.
The newspapers carried contradictory accounts of the kill-
ing and scalping of Mr. Hupps or Hops -- the name is variously
spelled. The Pro-Slavery papers denied all responsibility for the
act and for the escape of the murderer. Their view of it and
other exciting incidents is published in part in the New York
Tribune of September 8, 1856. In the same paper, however, oc-
curs the letter of Rev. Mr. Nute, copied from the Springfield
Republican. The letter is as follows:
Lawrence, Kansas, Aug. 22.
The horrors of ruffianism gather thicker and closer around
us. My home has become a house of mourning. A brother-in-
law came out to us and reached our house a week since, with his
wife, an own sister of mine. On Monday last he started to re-
turn to Leavenworth, leaving his wife sick. That night he was
shot through the head, within a few miles of Leavenworth, and
310 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
his scalp exhibited in fiendish exaltation by his murderer in the
town, who declared: "I went out for the scalp of a d--d Aboli-
tionist, and I have got one." This is only one of a score of such
butcheries that have been perpetrated within a few miles of us
during the last week. These men have gone out of our door
straight to their death by the hands of murderers. In each in-
stance the bodies have been horribly mutilated. I have tried in
vain to raise a company of men to go for the recovery of our
brother's remains to give them a decent burial, and for the effects
about his person -- all his money, &c. I have taken a rifle and
offered to be one of fifty to go. A sufficient number responded,
and were pledged to go the morning after the sad tidings reached
us, but it was thought best to delay until we could get an answer
from the officer in command of the United States dragoons, en-
camped about ten miles from this, to whom we had applied for
a force to go with us. It came at night, referring us to the su-
perior then on the way with several companies to protect Pierce's
bloody officials at Lecompton. Twice we have sent making the
request of him for the protection of an escort to go with our
teams to Leavenworth for provisions, and twice we have been
There is not a single sack of flour or a bushel of meal for
sale in this vicinity, and we have at least 2000 men, women and
children to be fed. What shall we do -- what can we do, but
fight our way through, with the desperation of men who know
themselves surrounded by merciless savages? This we are de-
termined to do. You will have the report of bloody work before
this reaches you. It may be that nothing short of a massacre
of the sovereign people of Kansas will arouse this nation to a
sense of the inconceivable wickedness of the men who are at the
head of affairs. You may imagine the feelings with which I read
the cold-blooded sneers, the diabolical sport, which is made of
our sufferings in The Boston Post, which I have just received.
Are all the feelings of humanity, is all sense of decency dead in
the souls of the men who uphold this infamous Administration?
Many of our number have ceased to hope for anything but the
foulest injustice from the Government. All that seems to be in
store for us worth aspiring to is an heroic martyrdom. Plead
for our cause with all the might you have. I send this, with as
many more as I can write before the mail leaves, under cover to a
friend in St. Louis. The chance that it will reach you seems to
me very small. The Missourians are coming over the border and
gathering at several points to the number of thousands, we hear.
I dare not trust the particulars of our military condition and plans
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 311
to this, for fear it will fall into the hands of the enemy. Only
this: we are prepared and determined to strike terrible blows.
Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 27, 1856.
It is my duty to record one of the most hellish outrages which
ever disgraced any age or country; but which, alas! is not an
isolated one in our beautiful Territory. Let this case be handed
down as an evidence of the demoralizing effect upon humanity
of that cursed institution which our rulers are trying to force
A Mr. Henry Hyatt, with his wife and family, moved from
Milton, Wayne County, Indiana, to Kansas, and settled on a
claim on Washington Creek, about seven miles south from this
city. Accompanying his wife was a young widow lady, a friend
of the family, who desired to emigrate to Kansas. Mr. Hyatt
commenced building a mill on his claim last spring, and as extra
hands were needed, a Pro-Slavery man was employed who
boarded at his house.
It was soon noticed that when any news of the movements
of the Free-State or Pro-Slavery parties reached Hyatt's, this
man after supper time, would go off to the rendezvous above,
known as Fort Saunders, which has since been broken up, and
there stay until quite late in the night, and that on Sabbath eve-
ning he spent all his time either there or at the house of a Pro-
Slavery neighbor close by. At last Mr. Hyatt's family, whose
feelings and sympathies are with the cause of Freedom here,
charged him with being a spy, and the young lady cited instances
of his visits to Pro-Slavery places after the receipt of news by
them, with an earnestness very distasteful to the Ruffian. The
result was that he left Mr. Hyatt's employment.
On the night of Wednesday, Aug. 20, when all the family
had gone to rest, the young lady left her room and went to one
of the outbuildings in the rear of the house. On her return
she was seized by four masked ruffians, and so overcome was
she by terror that before she could scream her tongue was
choked out of her mouth and tied with a string behind her head
and around her neck. She was then told that if she made the
least noise she would immediately be shot; and a revolver was
312 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
held to her head while they tied heir hands behind her back.
They then carried her a few hundred yards from the house into
a patch of long prairie grass and commenced their hellish deed
-- three standing guard while they each in turn violated her per-
son. She had swooned from her fear and had not returned to a
state of entire consciousness when the inhuman assault was made
upon her. After completing their infamy, they kicked her in the
sides and abdomen and left her, it is supposed, to die. How
long she remained in a state of insensibility she does not know,
but she was enabled to stagger in the direction of the house.
On reaching it she was unable to open the door, her hands be-
ing tied behind her back, and she was also unable to speak, her
tongue being tied with a string and now swollen to an alarming
size. She was too weak to shout and in the effort to do so she
fainted. In falling she overturned an empty churn which stood
near the door, and the noise made by the churn against the sid-
ing of the house awoke Mr. Hyatt and his family, who found
her in the condition described.
On Sunday last, the 23d, she took, at the request of Dr.
Avery, some nourishing food; but her case is nearly hopeless.
She has had several fits of convulsions, and, though her friends
believed last night that she would die before this morning, she
still lives. It is supposed that the Pro-Slavery hired man and
three of his associates were the perpetrators of this villainy.
The facts of the above case were given to me by Dr. Avery,
who attended the lady professionally, and who accompanied the
Richmond company into this Territory. On his statement I
have the most implicit reliance. He is spoken of by the Buf-
falo Convention Committee in their report as being "a wise, dis-
creet and accomplished physician," and as he made a profes-
sional visit to the lady he knows all about the case. And yet,
with all these most inhuman outrages before their eyes, there
are a class of men, even in the North, who profess to believe
that negro Slavery elevates the character of the whites.
It is needless to say that these villains are at large, and, like
the murderers of Hoyt and others, always will be, the bogus
laws having been made for the punishment of Free-State men
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 313
Reliable information reaches us that the Northern wing of
Atchison's army has been divided up into three or four com-
panies of over one hundred each, and that they are scouring the
Territory from Easton to Delaware on the river; that they are
driving Free-State settlers from their claims and putting men
on them to hold them "till after the war". This rumor was cor-
roborated by the arrival yesterday in this city of seventy Free-
State men from the waters of Big Stranger Creek, some of
whom had been driven from their claims; others had had their
horses and cattle stolen. This morning a hundred men volun-
teered to go back with them and see them righted.
The fact that the leading Ruffians have been trying (and
rumor says they have succeeded to some extent) to induce the
different tribes of slave-holding Indians to join them, while it is
an evidence of the deep determination to make this a terrible
and final struggle for Slavery supremacy, also shows that the
border counties are not so alive to their appeals as they were
last winter, during the Wakarusa war. Another evidence of this
determination is the tone of the border newspapers. Take, for
example, the following paragraph from The Kansas City (Mo.)
Enterprise, Aug. 23:
"There has been no time since the commencement of the
Kansas troubles wherein we have noticed so deep and settled a
purpose in the public mind as has been manifested for the past
ten days. There seems to be a settled determination to stop the
occurrence of outrages for the future. The fact that a small
army of hired soldiers have been sent from distant states and
signalized their entry into the Territory by robbery, murder, and
house-burning, has aroused a feeling in the border country that
will brook no compromise short of their complete and permanent
expulsion -- and it will be done."
The murder of Mr. Hupps causes great excitement here. The
volunteers who went to Leavenworth today, will investigate the
circumstances of the murder, and if it is found that he was
scalped alive, as reported, then the murderers will be brought to
justice at any risk.
Gen. Lane has entire command of the Free-State forces.
314 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 29, 1856.
This city presents a more lively appearance today than I
have ever seen it do before. Several causes have operated to
make it so, as the object of this letter will be to show.
Yesterday the particulars of the murder of Mr. Hupps reached
us, and the circumstances are of such an atrocious character, that
the people, I am afraid, became possessed of a feeling of re-
venge rather than of a desire to bring the murderer to justice.
But to the particulars. Mr. Hupps and his wife, emigrants to
this Territory, landed at Leavenworth about two weeks ago.
His brother-in-law, the Rev. Ephraim Nute, lives here, and as
his wife was in feeble health from the fatigue of the journey,
he brought her to the house of Mr. Nute, till such time as she
should recover. After staying a day or two at Lawrence, Mr.
Hupps started in a buggy to Leavenworth, intending to bring
away his effects. He started from this city on the morning of
Aug. 20. On the morning of the same day a drunken Missourian
at Leavenworth offered to wager $6 against a pair of boots that
he would kill an abolitionist before night. The bet was taken,
and the ruffian went forth to win his bet. As he could find no-
body in Leavenworth who had avowed himself an Abolitionist,
although there were a good many Free-State men there, he took
the road to Lawrence, hoping to get a shot. When about two
miles from Leavenworth he met Mr. Hupps and stopped him,
and the following conversation took place between them, and was
told afterwards with all the gusto a villain could feel at such an
exhibition of his brevity in business.
"Hello! whar d'you come from?"
"From Lawrence," was Mr. Hupps' reply.
The villain then raised his rifle and shot Mr. H.; the horse
ran, he fell from the buggy and the villain approached and scalped
him and left him there in the road, supposing he was dead. A
thought occurred to him that he might as well rob him, too, and
so he returned, took out his watch, and was preparing to rifle
his pockets, when the cries of some children who were picking
wild plums a few hundred yards distant frightened him from his
horrible work. He ran, and, through fear or by accident
dropped the watch on the road. The children did not approach
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 315
the road but went to their home, which was in an opposite di-
rection. Shortly afterwards a few United States troops with a
government wagon, on their way from Fort Leavenworth to
Lecompton, discovered the unhappy man still alive but insensi-
ble, and conveyed him to the nearest house, where he shortly
afterwards died. In the meantime, the ruffian returned to Leav-
enworth, exhibited the scalp, told the circumstances of the mur-
der, took his boots, which had been so nobly won, remained in
Leavenworth all night, and the next morning took a steamboat
and went down the river. Such is the statement as it reaches
us by several persons at different times, and although this state-
ment was made here several days since, such is its enormity that
few if any believe it. It is now corroborated, and there is no
room for doubt.
It will be remembered that I mentioned in my letter of the
27th that a company of men was sent on that day with teams
for provisions at Leavenworth. Mr. John H. Wilder, of the
firm of Hutchinson & Co. of this city, also went to superintend
the shipment of a large quantity of goods belonging to that firm.
The escort which was sent was only designed to protect this
train of teams from the guerrilla ruffians on the road, so that it
was thought best not to enter the city, but to wait a short dis-
tance from it for the return of the teams with the goods and
provisions. It was a comparatively small escort. A scout left
Leavenworth yesterday afternoon and told the escort that the
teamsters and those who were with them were taken prisoners;
that one of the teamsters was shot in the streets for not halting
when told to do so; that Mr. Nute, who went to settle the af-
fairs of his brother-in-law, was going to be sent down the river
a la Pardee Butler; that Dr. Avery (of Indiana, now on his way
home and mentioned in my last letter) and the other prisoners
were well guarded and could not be taken with such a small
force. The escort accordingly returned last night to this city.
This morning General Lane gave orders that five hundred
men make ready to march to Leavenworth to escort our wagons
and their drivers to Lawrence. In the meantime a Committee
was sent to Gov. Woodson and the troops to inform them of
the state of affairs at Leavenworth and to know what they in-
316 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
tended to do about it. While this Committee was gone, and
while the several volunteer companies detailed for duty at Lea-
venworth were making ready, a report reached town that a great
battle had been fought at the south somewhere, between Atchi-
son's ruffians and Capt. Brown's scouting party, and that the peo-
ple of Lawrence must go to assist them. Several persons had
arrived from the Wakarusa Valley and said that they had heard
long and heavy reports of artillery for about two hours;
that the reports came from the south-east. While the people
were conjecturing what this could mean, a report more alarm-
ing in its nature reached them. This was that the United States
troops were now on the march from Lecompton to Lawrence to
arrest Gen. Lane on a writ for high treason.
About noon the committee of citizens sent in the morning to
Lecompton returned, and reported that their interview with the
authorities was of no consequence, they having referred our citi-
zens to the Kansas laws for redress; that the troops were now
on their way to enforce a process of that law.
About 1 1/2 p. m., two companies of troops arrived here un-
der command of a man named Ben. Newsem, who used to be a
kind of body-servant of Judge Elmore, one of the Supreme
Judges of this Teritory. He drew from his pocket a writ di-
rected to "James H. Lane, the Safety Committee, and the people
of Lawrence generally," asking them to deliver up the bodies of
two men held as prisoners by them, or to show cause why they
were held. The writ was signed by one John P. Wood, Judge
of the Probate Court of Douglas County. This man Newsem
(they call him Nuisance at Tecumseh, where he lives) is the same
who broke open and searched the trunks of some five Free-State
men, whom he saw fit to stop on the road a few days ago by
authority. After reading the writ he desired the people to know
that he was a U. S. marshal, intending by this statement to hint
that it would not do to infringe on his dignity. The men named
in the writ were taken yesterday as spies and held prisoners dur-
ing the night, but set at liberty this morning, so that this parade
of troops to enforce the law was simply ridiculous. The boys,
therefore, joked and laughed with the soldiers, hurrahed among
themselves, poked fun at the ninny who held the writ. When
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 317
they were leaving town the boys gave three cheers for the troops
and groaned at the process server with as much hearty good-
will as ever a Galway Irishman did at the same functionary.
New York Tribune, Sept. 9, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 1, 1856.
On Friday night, Aug. 29, G. W. Hutchinson and another
gentleman went to Governor Woodson at Lecompton, to expostu-
late with him about the arrest by the Ruffians of Mr. John H.
Wilder, who went to superintend the shipment of goods belong-
ing to the firm of G. W. & W. Hutchinson & Co. of which he
is a member. Also to ask Woodson to send a protective escort
to Leavenworth, to see the goods safe through to Lawrence. On
the return of these two gentlemen, they were arrested a few rods
from the door of the Governor's office by an armed mob and held
in prison ever since. It will be remembered that that very same
day a hundred of the United States troops were employed to set
two of their own Border-Ruffian spies at liberty, in case they
found them arrested as they supposed they would be; but let
it be borne in mind that peaceable citizens who go to do busi-
ness with the Governor are arrested by a mob close to his of-
fice, and he offers not even a single deprecatory syllable! Wise
Governor! Pierce and Douglas will rise up, and call thee blessed!
Saturday morning about one hundred of the Free-State
forces at Lawrence were detailed to go as an escort to meet
about one hundred emigrants who were on their way to assist
in defending this and the surrounding towns. They were over-
hauled near Lecompton by the United States troops and ques-
tioned as to their intentions, etc. They stated their object and
were allowed to pass on. They took the California road and
met the train at Topeka. While between Big Springs and Wash-
ington the escort intercepted and turned back sixteen mounted
men under command of Judge Elmore. They were doubtless on
their way to Lecompton to join Stringfellow's Platte County
army, numbering about six hundred men inclusive of Buford's
last installment. Yesterday the escort came back here with the
emigrants, but as they had some valuable stores they struck off
318 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
the California road, for the reason that if Woodson was going
to use the troops to disarm them, which was the report, he would
have to send them to Lawrence to do it. It seems, from reliable
information, that Stringfellow's entire army of 600 men was
drawn across the California road in battle line to intercept them,
and take away their stores -- if they whipped them. The whole
train reached Lawrence in safety.
On Saturday morning, Aug. 30, Gen. Lane, instead of open-
ing the road from Lawrence to Leavenworth, as my letter of
the 29th anticipated he would do, went to render assistance to the
Free-State men of Prairie City, who had another battle with the
Ruffians on that same morning at daybreak. It seems that when
they got enough of them together at Little Santa Fe, they started
on the Santa Fe road, and probably came up into the Territory
as far as Bull Creek, where they probably camped. There are
different rumors about the number of them, and as I have heard
this Border-Ruffian army variously estimated at from 600 to
2000, we will call it 1000 armed men, not including the Northern
Division, which may be as many more. On arriving at Bull
Creek this army must have been divided up into three divisions,
for the reason that 500 were at Osawatomie, 76 at Prairie City
and the balance at Bull Creek, on Saturday morning. When they
separated and for what reason they did so, we know not.
On Tuesday, Aug. 26, a company of Free-State men under
command of Capt. Shore, surprised a camp of Missourians on
South Middle Creek. There were about 50 Missourians, but
the attack was made by six Free-State men. The former were
under command of an editor from Fort Scott, Mo. They did
not fight long, for the rest of Shore's company coming up at the
time, rather frightened them so that they threw down their arms
and ran; fifteen of them being first made prisoners, and two of
them killed. The spoils amounted to three wagon-loads of stores
and some guns.
The next day they, in company with Capt. Brown, followed
up the Missourians as far down as Sugar Creek. They saw
that they were being chased, and made toward Missouri, where
it is to be hoped they will stay. The Free-State men here re-
ceived about seventy head of cattle gathered, it is supposed, to
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 319
sustain the Border-Ruffian army when they could not steal any
more, and in case they got driven back. This party of Free-
State men got back to Osawatomie on Friday night, the 29th
August. On the same evening, the man who carries the mail
from Osawatomie to Westport, returned to Osawatomie, after
having been a prisoner at Santa Fe (new) for ten days, charged
with the infamous crime of Free-Stateism. He reported that
the Ruffians intended to attack Osawatomie very soon; that is
was liable to be attacked at any time; and advised the people
either to leave or defend it. This was in the night, after most
people had gone to bed.
Osawatomie is situated in the fork formed by and near the
confluence of the Marais des Cygnes with Pottawatomie Creek.
On the banks of the creek the timber grows to about half a mile in
width. The town was beautifully located, and its residents have
proved themselves a brave people.
On Saturday morning, about eight o'clock, a number of peo-
ple came into town with the news that the Missourians had
come and were within two miles of the town. No defense had
been anticipated, and the Free-State men were but poorly pre-
pared to defend it. However, they determined to do their best.
It must be recollected that their women and children had been
removed for a long time, at least ever since the town had been
threatened with destruction. The men numbered about 35 to 40.
The Ruffians must have numbered 500 to 6oo, for when drawn
up in line of battle their line reached from the timber of the
Marais des Cygnes to the timber of the Pottawatomie, a distance
of at least three-quarters of a mile, at the points where their align-
ment was made. They had two pieces of cannon, and were
mostly armed with United States muskets, though many of them
had Kentucky rifles and Sharp's rifles. The Free-State men ral-
lied at two or three points and fired into them as best they could.
Capt. Brown was at one point with a handful of men, Capt.
Shore at another point, and so they fought manfully and gal-
lantly, against this fearful odds. At last they were driven further
back into the timber, and their ammunition gave out. A com-
pany of about fifty Ruffians advanced into the timber and a few
Free-State men fought them till the others escaped by means of a
320 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
private ford which the Ruffians forgot to guard. At last they
closed upon them, and three men swam the river while a com-
pany of fifty fired upon them. Two of the three came out on the
other side; the other -- a Mr. Partridge -- is supposed to be
killed. Capt. Brown is supposed to have reached the private ford
and crossed over. If so, he is safe; if not, he is killed. Five
Free-State men are known to be killed, and the loss on the
other side is supposed to be twelve killed and twenty wounded.
One of the Free-State men killed was a son of Capt. Brown, but
he was killed before the battle began.
As soon as the Free-State men retreated, the Ruffians ad-
vanced and sacked and burned the town, except two houses,
which were those of Pro-Slavery men. They then went away,
feeling quite patriotic, no doubt, after such a noble achievement.
Was the satisfaction of burning a few houses worth their thirty-
two killed and wounded? It must be borne in mind that these
five or six hundred men were a wing of the new Santa Fe army
which Atchison his been raising so long and who make their
general headquarters, while in the Territory, at Bull Creek.
I have not got the particulars of the battle of Prairie City,
but will send them as soon as I can. It is to this place that Gen.
Lane, with a part of his army, is gone, and it is the great new
Santa Fe army he is going to meet.
News has just reached us that Lane drove the Missourians
into Missouri yesterday. There was no battle, but a general re-
treat. They (the Ruffians) number 2000 in all. In the mean-
time, the Stringfellow wing at Lecompton, numbering about 500,
are burning houses and "carrying on" tremendously. If there are
any at Leavenworth they are very quiet. We have had no com-
munication from there in over a week, and it is supposed our
prisoners taken there are at Lecompton, with Stringfellow's com-
This afternoon a company of dragoons encamped in sight of
Lawrence. There are none at Lecompton now. There are 800
guarding the Treason Prisoners.
New York Tribune, September 12, 1856.
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 321
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 6, 1856.
Events come upon us so thick and fast that it is quite dif-
ficult to keep track of them in the order in which they occur.
The destruction by arson and pillage of the houses and other
property of Free-State settlers in the vicinity of Lecompton, on
the nights of Monday and Tuesday last, which I noticed inci-
dentally in my letter of the 3d inst., has had an effect upon some
of the Pro-Slavery Volunteers from Missouri, as unexpected
to the great Gen. Stringfellow as it was fortunate for the Free-
State Army. It seems that Col. Robinson of St. Joseph's. Mo.,
so far forgot his allegiance to Border Ruffianism and Bully
Stringfellow as to "file exceptions" to this barbarous mode of
warfare, and said so to the leaders of the Pro-Slavery camp at
Lecompton, in a manner which indicated not only his sincerity,
but his extreme disgust of such proceedings. He told them that
he came there with his men to fight for a principle, and to stop
the burning and the outrages upon actual settlers, and now he
had discovered that these very acts were perpetrated by the men
of the "Law-and-Order" army. He said, too, that if the game
was to shoot into houses where there were nothing but a few
women and children; if this was the game to be played, he, Col.
Robinson, was to be counted out. It is further reported that
Gen. Stringfellow sent to the Colonel a challenge, and that the
Colonel replied that he fought duels only with gentlemen, and
that he pulled up the stakes of his tents, and with his 130 men
marched the same day in the direction of St. Joseph. This was
on Wednesday last. In the meantime, news had reached the
Pro-Slavery camp at Lecompton that Gen. Lane had routed the
Southern Division of the "Kansas Militia", and they had re-
treated to Westport, Mo., and were fortifying the town expect-
ing that Lane would follow them there. But as we understand
this war to be one of defense, instead of aggression, there were
no fears of Lane and his army entering Missouri. The Ruffians
reasoned in their own way, probably, and thought that Lane had
as good right to invade Missouri as they had to invade Kansas.
Hence they fortified their stronghold. News had also reached
the Ruffian army at Lecompton, by dispatches from New Santa
Fe, of the battle of Osawatomie and its results, which prove to
322 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
have been far worse to the Ruffians than I anticipated in my let-
ter of the 1st inst. They report thirty of their men killed, and
as many wounded, while it is known that but five Free-State
men were killed, with none wounded. The difference between
the strength of the respective forces is not so great as was at
first reported. There were but thirty Free-State men against
three hundred Ruffians, ten to one, instead of twelve to one, as
at first reported. It is believed that if the Free-State men had
had a sufficiency of ammunition and some extra side-arms, the
victory would have been theirs, even with such fearful odds
against them. The battle of Osawatomie was the decisive bat-
tle of this war, not only from its material results, but from its
moral effect upon both parties. It demonstrates to the country
that the Free-State men now in Kansas are superior to the Ruf-
fians now or then in Kansas, both in courage and in the use of
arms. In speaking thus, I have made no invidious comparison,
for I believe if there is any circumstance calculated to call out a
man's bravery, it is the defense of his home against a heartless
and blood-thirsty invader.
Nothing was known in Lawrence of the disaffection in the
Pro-Slavery camp, on Wednesday. On Thursday morning a
man came over the ferry from the direction of Leavenworth, and
stated, as well as he was able, that he and two other Free-State
men had started from Leavenworth on Monday, to join the
Free-State army in defense of Lawrence; that they had been
taken prisoners on the road by the banditti and taken into the
woods, and all three were shot. He fell, insensible, and when
he recovered he found that the ball (from an eight-inch revolver)
had lodged in the muscles of the neck. The pistol must have
been held quite close up to his face, because numerous particles
of powder had penetrated the skin, making black spots. One
side of his face was awfully mangled. He says he knows one
of the party. An Indian came with him from the Delaware
Reserve, and corroborates the statement. The unfortunate man
is in the hospital and will probably recover. When he can talk
without pain, he will give more particulars. The bodies of his
companions were found yesterday.
Speaking of the Delaware Indian Reserve, reminds me of a
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 323
very important item. It seems that the Ruffians in and around
Leavenworth have been engaged in stealing horses from the
Delawares, until they could not bear it any longer; in short, the
indian element, in their manhood, called for redress or revenge,
and that too, immediately. Accordingly, on Wednesday last, a
delegation headed by Sarcoxie, their chief, visited Gov. Wood-
son, and, after stating their grievances, told him that unless im-
mediate measures were taken for their protection, they would
raise five hundred braves and offer themselves to Gen. Lane at
Lawrence, to assist in clearing the Territory of their enemy,
the white Missouri horse-thieves. Gov. Woodson told him that
they would be protected, and immediately sent a company of
United States dragoons to the rescue. The Delawares do not be-
lieve in the peculiar institution.
On Thursday, Sept. 4, in the afternoon, the citizens of
Lawrence were again delighted with a visit from Marshal Don-
oldson, some deputies, and four companies of United States
dragoons. He had United States high treason writs against
Gen. Lane, Col. Walker, Mr. Grover and others, but as nobody
knew where these gentlemen were, the doughty Marshal, after
perambulating the streets, and observing to his satisfaction, or
dissatisfaction, the forts and-so-forths of the city, quietly re-
turned with Uncle Sam to Lecompton, probably to write an-
On the same day a regiment of Free-State Volunteers were
ordered to cross the Kansas River, and march up on its north
side as far as Lecompton. The object of this force was to cut
off any retreat in the direction of Leavenworth of the Pro-Slav-
ery forces at Lecompton. This Free-State force numbering 150
men, armed mostly with rifles, arrived at a point about a mile
north of Lecompton about dark. Col. Harvey, who is in com-
mand of the 1st Regiment of Volunteers, disposed his men in
such a manner as to cover the road for a considerable distance,
thereby making it impossible for a body of men numbering even
five times that of his party to retreat. Here they lay on their
arms till daybreak, under one of the most violent thunder and
rain storms of the season. In the meantime, Gen. Lane with
the balance of the Free-State army, was to have marched upon
324 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Lecompton that night, and attack the place at daybreak, if the
Ruffians refused to surrender. As was already remarked, noth-
ing was known by either wing of the Free-State army about the
disaffection in the Pro-Slavery army, because the messengers
sent to find out had been taken prisoners.
Owing to the drenching rain and the severe thunder storm,
Gen. Lane failed to march at the appointed time, and about 10
o'clock on Friday, the first regiment, after making prisoners of
a few scouts of the Ruffian army, took up their line of march
back to Lawrence. When within a mile of the city, they were
met by a messenger telling them that Gen. Lane had marched
upon Lecompton that morning and expected them to cut off the
retreat of the Ruffians who might attempt to cross the river on
their way to Leavenworth. But the message was too late--the
men were fatigued and hungry -- and it was thought best to march
forward to Lawrence to get some refreshments and rest.
About two o'clock p. m. a messenger came from Gen. Lane
directing that the First Regiment had returned, to let them rest;
and, if repulsed, to be ready to march to his assistance at a mo-
ment's notice. But no assistance was necessary, for Lane had
taken possession of a hill overlooking the entire city, and had
planted two pieces of artillery without any attempted resistance
on the part of the Ruffians whatever. This was about 4 p. m.
on Friday. Gen. Lane then deputed two of his men to go into
the Ruffian camp, and make a demand for the Free-State prison-
ers taken at Leavenworth and other places. He also gave them
the necessary instructions how to proceed. One of these men
was Chas. H. Branscomb, esq., of Lawrence; the other was Cap-
tain James B. Cline of Osawatomie, the same who was held a
prisoner in a Missouri jail and who a week ago commanded con-
jointly with Capt. John Brown, sr., at the battle of Osawa-
tomie. These gentlemen, bearing a flag of truce, rode into
Lecompton, and halted before the unfinished State Capitol, which
was for the time being used as a Border-Ruffian fort. The Ruf-
fians were drawn up in line of battle, and were mostly armed
with United States muskets. The following is a verbatim re-
port of the interview:
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 325
Mr. Branscomb -- "Who has command of the forces here
Several Voices -- "General Richardson."
Mr. Branscomb -- "Can I see General Richardson?"
Here General Richardson stepped forward and bowed.
Mr. Branscomb -- "General Richardson, are you in command
of the forces here assembled?"
General Richardson -- "Well, I don't know as I am."
An individual here stepped forward and inquired as follows:
"General Richardson, do you still retain the command?"
"No, I suppose not, I resigned this morning," was the reply.
This individual then turned to Messrs. Branscomb and Cline,
and said: "I am in command of the forces here assembled and
am ready to receive any proposition."
Mr. Branscomb -- "Who are you, Sir?"
Individual -- "I am General Marshall."
Mr. Branscomb -- "I am directed by Gen. Lane, Commander
of the Free-State forces of Kansas, to demand of you the un-
conditional and immediate release of all Free-State prisoners
now in Lecompton."
Gen. Marshall -- "We wish to make no compromise with
Gen. Lane, only that he shall treat our prisoners as kindly and
courteously as we treat his."
Mr. Branscomb -- "Do I understand you to refuse to sur-
render the prisoners demanded?"
Gen. Marshall -- "Such is the understanding."
Messrs. Branscomb and Cline were about to return to Gen.
Lane's lines, when Gen. Marshall requested them to wait a few
minutes. They did so. After a private consultation with some
others, the General returned and gave Mr. Branscomb the strange
intelligence that all the prisoners demanded had been released
that morning, and that provision had been made to obtain an
escort of United States dragoons to attend them to Lawrence the
next day. He then told him that he made a demand on Gen.
Lane for all the Pro-Slavery prisoners which had been taken,
and asked Mr. Branscomb to state the demand. This ended the
In the meantime, three different messengers, at three differ-
326 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
ent times--the intervals must have been very short--had been
dispatched to the camp of the United States troops about two
miles from Lecompton, asking them to come over and save their
city from the clutches of Gen. Lane and his army. Col. Cook,
the officer in command, finally came with a few of his company
and he and his staff reached Lane's lines about the time the mes
sengers to Lecompton got back. Col. Cook said to Gen. Lane
and his staff, "Gentlemen, you have made a great mistake in com-
ing here today. The Territorial militia was dismissed this morn-
ing; some of them have left, some are leaving now, and the rest
will leave and go to their homes as soon as they can." Mr. Par-
rott of Leavenworth City, who was twice sent down the river
by the Ruffians, replied to him as follows: "Col. Cook, when
we send a man or two men, or a dozen men to speak with the
Territorial authorities, they are arrested and held. like felons!
How, then, are we to know what is going on in Lecompton?
Why, we have to come here with an army to find out what is
going on. How else could we know?" To this Col. Cook made
An incident occurred here worthy of record. Deputy Mar-
shal Cramer rode up to Lane's lines, encouraged to perform this
act of bravery, doubtless, by seeing the United States troops;
but his object was not apparent. He was immediately taken
prisoner by our scouts, and as he was passing Col. Cook he ap-
pealed to that gentleman for protection. Col. Cook did not in-
terfere in his behalf, and the bogus process-server was led to the
rear. He was shortly afterward released and was the recipient
of some good advice from one of the boys.
Some more conversation. of an unimportant character took
place between Col. Cook and Gen. Lane and his staff, and the
Free-State forces took up their line of march to Lawrence, where
they arrived about 9 o'clock last night. There are a number of
interesting incidents connected with this Lecompton affair, but
want of time prevents me from writing them. The mail runs
regularly to Westport three times a week, but whether you get
these letters or not I cannot tell. THE TRIBUNE comes "once
in a while".
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 327
The people here feel sorry that the House receded and did
nothing for them. They now intend to rely upon themselves.
P. S.--A report has just reached us that the Topeka Volun-
teers have taken Tecumseh. No lives lost. No particulars.
New York Tribune, September 19, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 8, 1856.
We have a lull once more, but it feels like the lull which pre-
cedes a second storm. This time the clouds are not so thick.
and the few that remain on the Missouri-ward horizon are not
so black. The feeling of the people here is this: let the storm
come, we have got our umbrellas up!
My last letter brought us down to the surrender, or may we
call it the capitulation of Lecompton, and the return to Missouri
of the "Kansas militia''. Whether they all returned to Missouri
is a question of some doubt. It is quite certain, however, that
130 from St. Joseph, under Col. Robinson, did return, as the
quarrel mentioned in my last was one that will not be easily healed.
The company or regiment which he commands is known among
the Ruffians by the awe-inspiring name of the "Tigers", their
uniform being supposed to resemble the natural uniform of that
humane animal. Their name may be intended to convey to in-
nocent and unsuspecting Free-State men the human blood-loving,
raw-head-and-bloody-bones character of the company. Be this
as it may, those who know Col. Robinson, their commander, de-
scribe him as a gentleman in every particular, but one who was
weak enough to be led by the misrepresentation of Atchison,
Stringfellow and Company to take part in the raid into the Ter-
ritory. He did so, with the understanding that his mission was
to stop outrage and violence on the part of the Abolitionists.
He was, therefore, but ill prepared to see the shoe on the other
foot--to see law-and-order men commit the outrages which he
was told belonged only to the depraved and desperate Abolition-
ists; and still worse was he prepared to see it counseled or
winked at by the great Stringfellow! Hence their quarrel, fol-
328 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
lowed by a challenge, which was followed by his refusal to fight
except with gentlemen; this last event was followed by the
Colonel's return to Missouri with his "tigers" -- tamed, doubt-
less, by the news of the battle of Osawatomie. This brings me
to speak of Capt. John Brown, sr. It will be remembered that
after the retreat of the Free-State men, when their ammunition
was expended, Captain Brown was last seen crossing a private
ford with a Sharp's rifle in one hand and a revolver in the other.
As he was not seen afterward he was supposed to have fallen,
and the people here mourned him as dead. It was therefore with
much pleasure that they welcomed back on Sunday last, the
venerable hero of Black Jack and Osawatomie. Captain Brown
is a tall, gray-haired, blue-eyed man, about sixty years of age,
and the expression of his countenance indicates anything else
than the ferocious character in which the Border newspapers
paint him. He reports that but one Free-State man was killed
in the battle, but that two men were murdered (one of them
his own son) before the battle, and one after the battle, making
four in all. The Border newspapers contain a list of the killed
and wounded on the Pro-Slavery side, and their statement is
corroborated in part by Captain Brown. They had thirty-three
killed, and thirty-seven wounded. Captain Brown remained
around Osawatomie taking care of his property and watching
with a few of his Company the movements of the Borderers.
All is quiet in that part of the Territory.
On Saturday last, according to the terms of the Lecompton
settlement of the day before, fourteen Free-State prisoners were
escorted by the dragoons to Lawrence. There are two yet held
in Leavenworth, not included in the terms, one of whom is Mr.
John Wilder, the other is the Rev. Mr. Nute, who was re-
ported to have been sent down the river. The same day, Gen.
Richardson, Commander-in-Chief of the "Kansas Militia", had
the hardihood to ride into Lawrence alone. He had an inter-
view with the Free-State leader, and stated that he was on his
way to Westport to disperse the parties who were coming into
the Territory. Gen. Lane took his statements for what they
were worth, treated him kindly and escorted him out of town.
Lane is reported to have told him that if he (Richardson) found
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 329
it difficult to disperse them, to bring them up into the Territory
and he (Lane) would do it for him. He is said to have ex-
hibited to Gen. Lane a Uriah Heep humility. However, nobody
will be deceived by these protestations of peace from such a
source. They have been made before with the intention of get-
ting the Free-State men off their guard; and until the great ques-
tion of Freedom or Slavery for Kansas is settled, the Free-State
men will be as vigilant as now in defending their homes against
Today was that fixed upon for the trial of the Treason pris-
oners, and a number of our citizens went, unarmed, to attend
court at Lecompton; but when I left there, at 4 o'clock this aft-
ernoon, no Court had appeared. The only United States Ter-
ritorial officer there was Deputy-Marshal Cramer, of whom men-
tion was made in my last. He commenced using abusive lan-
guage to M. J. Parrott, esq., one of Gov. Robinson's counsel, un-
til the "Stubbs" (unarmed) entered town, and he then "hushed
up" of his own accord. He evidently intended to get up a row,
till he saw it would not pay. Mr. Parrott promised him an in
It is worthy of remark that although Lane and his men
marched close by the now deserted house of Gen. Clark, the
Pierce Indian Agent, the murderer of Barber, not a particle of
property was destroyed belonging to him except a few melons,
thus affording another instance of the prudence of Lane and
the desire to keep an unblemished record. Had Clark been there,
it might have been difficult to restrain them.
Nine o'clock at night -- A gentleman has just come from
Lecompton, who says that Jeffreys Lecompte has arrived, and
the Court will be opened at 9 o'clock in the morning. Post-
scriptum Donaldson came with him. I will be there, and keep
you posted. Potter.
New York Tribune, September 19, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 15, 1856.
The dispatch sent to The Tribune yesterday morning as the
mail was closing anticipated Gov. Geary's interference with the
330 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
United States troops to protect Free-State men. It must be re-
membered that on the 11th inst., as soon as Gen. Lane heard of
the arrival of Gov. Geary and that Free-State men were to be
protected, he left Lawrence and went to Topeka, on his way to
Nebraska. On the following day we received the Governor's
message and proclamation, and the people here discussed the
merits of both for some hours in public meeting. The same eve-
ning, and while the meeting was yet in session, news came of
the enemy from two different directions. It seems that while
the Free-State men were rest-
ing, under the belief that Gen.
Richardson would disperse the
mob at Westport, which he
promised to do, that treach-
erous man was bringing them
into the Territory, till their
number amounted to about
two thousand five hundred.
They got within fifteen miles
of this city before any person
knew it to a certainty. They
came up through the Shawnee
Reserve to the Blue-Jacket
Crossing, just as they did in
December last, and encamped,
JOHN W. GEARY.
as they did then, on the Wakarusa Bottom. Their scouts were dis-
covered by the people of Franklin, who soon communicated the
fact to those of Lawrence.
The facts were embodied in a dispatch, and sent the same
night (Friday) to the Governor at Lecompton. On receiving
it, he immediately started with 400 dragoons for Lawrence,
where he arrived the next morning about daybreak. After
breakfast he spoke a few words to the citizens, assuring them of
his desire to promote peace and to protect the lives and property
of all peaceably-disposed citizens. He said he would visit our
city at an early day, and give his views of matters at more
length. He was sorry that we were threatened with invasions,
but he would see that there would be no more. As the ad-
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 331
vance guard of the Ruffians (80 horsemen) had retreated to
the Wakarusa, it was supposed that they had gone home, and
so the Governor went back to Lecompton and took the troops
with him. Yesterday morning about church time, news again
reached us that the enemy were approaching Franklin, which
place, ever since the battle there, has been considered a Free-
State town. An officer of the Ruffian army with two others rode
ahead of the rest to reconnoiter, but happened to be taken pris-
oner by two young men of Franklin. When they took them
they did not take the precaution to make them deliver up their
arms, and as they rode along one of the prisoners fired at his
captor and missed him. The act of the Ruffian was such a
cowardly one that the Free-State man immediately drew his re-
volver and shot him dead. Had all the Ruffians been treated
thus who had been found violating the rules of civilized war-
fare, there would have been less scalping and other barbarities
About half an hour afterward the rest of the scouting party
of eighty advanced and took possession of the town, and burned
a house and a sawmill which belonged to Free-State men. The
flames were distinctly visible at the new fort lately built at
Mount Oread, which at this time (4 1/2 P. M.) was held by the
Cabot Guards, a company of young men of Lawrence. This
company is composed mostly of business men and is named after
Dr. Cabot of Boston. At 5 o'clock a long defile of horsemen
were seen riding along the road from Franklin to Lawrence, and
as there were but one hundred and fifty to two hundred men
able to bear arms in Lawrence, it took all the military tact of
our leaders to dispose of them in such a manner as to make the
most effectual and bloody defense. In the meantime several
messengers had been sent to Gov. Geary at Lecompton inform-
ing him of the state of affairs.
About 5 1/2 P. M. a company of the mounted Ruffians num-
bering about 50, and another company numbering about 40,
marched and halted outside of rifle-shot distance of Lawrence.
For about an hour the firing between them and our horsemen,
20 in number, was brisk. They had left their first position and
took refuge in the ravine, when they were followed by a part of
332 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
the "Wabonsie boys" with Sharp's rifles. At dark the invad-
ers retreated to Franklin -- the whole force of which this patty
was the advance guard--intending to be ready to make the
grand "wipe-out" at the dawn of the next morning.
In the meantime an affair of a very serious character took
place in Lawrence. A fellow named Vandervourt was arrested,
charged with being a Pro-Slavery spy. It was asserted that he
had that day written three dispatches to the Ruffians, informing
them of the deserted condition of the town; that Lane had gone
away; that the citizens, on the strength of the governor's mes-
sage, had gone home to their families and their claims; that
there was hardly a soul left here, and that if ever they wanted
to get possession of Lawrence, now was the time. The letters
were said to have been addressed to a Mr. Wallace at Franklin.
but as there were two Wallaces there, one of the letters went to
the wrong man. By the rules of war, this man Vandervourt
should have been hanged, but he will probably be set at liberty.
He is now under guard, and we are waiting for further proof
of his guilt or innocence. He is one of Buford's men, but pro-
fessed to be a Free-State man. He is a dentist by profession.
He protests innocence, and thinks it very unkind of them be-
cause they will not allow him to help defend Lawrence. He has
been long suspected as a spy, and till lately has been pretty
closely watched. We leave the question of his guilt to time.
which solves all such problems.
About 9 P. M. Secretary Woodson, Deputy Marshal Cramer
and one of our mesengers came from Lecompton with news that
the troops were coming down to Lawrence to protect us. I have
been informed that this Woodson purposely delayed sending, or
did not send at all, the proclamation of the Governor to this
About 11 P. M. the United States troops -- about three hun-
dred and seventy-five in all -- arrived at Lawrence. They placed
four pieces of artillery on the point held by the Cabot Guards;
the cavalry took their position on the plat between the latter
point and the Kaw River, a little southeast of the city. Here
they still remain.
No further attack was made during the night; but at 8 o'clock
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 333
this morning a part of them were seen advancing from Frank-
lin. The Governor and suite, having arrived here early in the
morning, now rode down to meet them, and they returned with
him to their encampment. He has been with them all day; but
his professed attempts to disband them have not been successful.
I have heard that their officers, except Titus, Jones and some
others, agreed to disband and go home. These last-named per-
sons swore they would not do so unless he (Gov. Geary) would
first let them "wipe out" Lawrence. Such is the talk; but when
they find that they will have to fight the troops, that fact may
change their minds. About two hundred of them, who say they
are citizens of Kansas, have marched up to Lecompton ostensi-
bly to give up their arms; the rest--twenty-six hundred--are
"Missourians" -- this is, Southern invaders generally.
I will now explain why Lawrence was found so defense-
less at the very time when her defenders were most needed:
When Gen. Lane reached Topeka on Thursday last he heard
that about 450 Ruffians were committing depredations on the
Grasshopper and driving out Free-State settlers. Accordingly,
with a force of 125 men of Topeka, he marched in the direction
of their camp, and discovered them on Friday in a log strong-
hold. He saw that nothing but artillery could drive them out
without great loss to the attacking party. He accordingly dis-
patched a messenger to Lawrence for help. About 100 citi-
zens of Lawrence marched immediately and took with them a
six pounder. They were commanded by Gen. Harvey and in-
stead of going by way of Topeka, they went across the country
to save about fifteen miles' travel.
In the meantime Gen. Lane retreated from Hickory Point to
Pleasant Hill, a distance of ten miles, to wait for the reinforce-
ments from Lawrence. While they were eating supper a man
rode into camp with the Governor's message. Gen. Lane read
it to his men and told them that in all probability the forces at
Lawrence were disbanded and had gone to their home; that they
would probably have no men to send to his assistance, and that
probably Geary would clean out the nest of Ruffians with the
troops, and so save the Free-State men the trouble. He said
that he would take fifty and go on toward Nebraska, and meet
334 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
the train of emigrants which was on its way to Topeka--the
rest could go home and go to work.
While this was being enacted at Pleasant Hill, Col. Harvey
and his men were marching to Hickory Point -- as he supposed
-- to find Gen. Lane. He found the enemy, however, and a bat-
tle ensued. After fighting for some time, a cessation took place.
An agreement or treaty was signed by the officers, by which it
was agreed that they would return prisoners, horses, etc. on both
sides, and the Kickapoos would go home. While our men were
marching home, they were all arrested and disarmed by the
United States troops, and taken to Lecompton. Dr. Cutter was
allowed to go home to Lawrence to take care of a man-- Mr.
Baldwin -- who was wounded in the battle. He brings the only
intelligence we have of the fight.
A large train of emigrants is expected from Nebraska this
week. Gen. Pomeroy is expected with it.
New York Tribune, Sept. 27, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 16, 1856.
I sent The Tribune, a few days since, the statement of I. W.
H. Golden, who, with two others was shot between here and
Leavenworth by the Ruffians. Sunday morning another of these
men came into Lawrence, after having wandered through the
timbers for twelve days without seeing a human being, almost
without food and clothing, and suffering from two severe wounds.
The United States troops who were sent to look after their bod-
ies could find but one man, whom they buried. Mr. Bishop,
who came here Sunday morning, supposed the other two were
dead. I went to the hospital, and he made to me the following
"My name is Thomas Bishop. I live in Leavenworth. I was
formerly of Illinois, but was raised in North Carolina. When
the town of Lawrence was threatened two weeks ago, I started
in company with Mr. Golden and Mr. Roberts--both citizens
of Leavenworth, to join Lane's army. This was on Monday
night, Sept. 1. We stopped during the next day with a friend
this side of Leavenworth, and the same night we started for
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 335
Lawrence, supposing it would be safer to travel in the night than
during the day. We were all three unarmed. When we got
about half a mile this side of Tonganoxie's, in the Delaware Re-
serve, among the timber, we were overtaken by a band of
mounted men and made prisoners. We were led toward their
camp. This was about (or perhaps after) midnight. They
talked to Mr. Roberts, who was quite a young man (formerly
from Ohio), and asked him if he feared death--if he would
like to die, etc., with the design of scaring him. When they got
on the Leavenworth side of Tonganoxie's, they stopped and held
some conversation. Three men then rode close up to us. They
then shot Mr. Roberts. Mr. Golden was shot; and when they
fired at me I fell down, although uninjured. To make sure
work, they shot at us after we were down, and the second shot
took effect in my arm, making a slight flesh wound. I distinctly
heard them pronounce the others dead. One asked if I was
dead. A fellow advanced and felt my pulse and exclaimed:
'Dead? H--1 and d--n'. He then gave me a blow over the
back part of the head with the butt end of a musket. How long
I remained unconscious I don't know. When I returned to con-
sciousness, which must have been within an hour, I crawled to
the timber and lay there all that day. At night I felt feverish,
and moved a little to find water, but found none. The next day
and the next night were long ones to me, but I finally reached the
Stranger Creek, and on Thursday night, Sept. 4, I first found
How I spent the time from that time till now is more than
I can tell. In fact, it appears like a dream, the whole of it; but
my head and arm feel very like realities. The blow on my head
affected my sight so that I could see only a very short distance. I
moved about from place to place during the night. I lived
chiefly on hazelnuts, but found some watermelons at Tongan-
oxie's. Tonganoxie, who is a Delaware Indian, and who kept
a kind of halfway house between Leavenworth and Lawrence,
had moved away for safety, so his house was entirely deserted.
I hid in his corn and in the bushes for several nights, but I
knew I would die soon from starvation if I stayed there. I
heard human voices very often, but could not distinguish whether
336 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
they were friends or foe, as my eyes were so badly affected I
could not see. At last I determined to find Lawrence, and on
Saturday, at dusk, I started from my hiding place. I arrived at
the Lawrence ferry at midnight, but as I was not sure of the
place I did not arouse the ferryman till Sunday morning (the
14th). I then heard for the first time that one of my compan-
ions, Mr. Golden, was alive and the other killed."
Such is the statement of this man, which agrees entirely with
the statement made by Mr. Golden (formerly of Pennsylvania)
who was shot so badly in the mouth. They are both in the hos-
pital, and though their wounds are not dangerous, they require
medical attention and care. I have no doubt but that many
cases of suffering, nearly as bad as the horrible one just re-
corded, have never been made known to the public, nor have I
any doubt whatever that many have perished in Kansas under
circumstances of a character like those described. How seared
must be the heart who can read such outrages and say, "all is
quiet and peaceful in Kansas" and think no more of it.
Gov. Geary has been a week in the Territory, and his acts
thus far have been very far from those which would indicate
a partisan. He has been impartial. He has disbanded nearly
three thousand invaders who had this city almost in their
clutches, and he has arrested about a hundred Free-State men
(those of Col. Harvey), mentioned in my last letter. These
will probably be released and disbanded after the Missourians
are known to be out of the Territory. Once released, these Free-
State men will return to their homes and claims, which they
would never have been called upon to protect had it not been
for the inefficiency or wickedness of Shannon, Woodson and the
other appointees of Pierce. Reserving comments, which might
do injustice to either party, it is due to Gov. Geary to say that
he has shown a promptness of action in these matters which jus-
tifies us in assuming, that whatever he conceives to be right will
be "put through", a la Jackson. Whether he will declare mar-
tial law-- without which he has no more "power to hang any
man right up on the spot", than has one citizen to hang another
-- whether he will disarm all the citizens or not, the future alone
must tell. If he will only keep the invaders out, and stop the
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 337
burning of property and murder, the Free-State men do not care
how soon they are disarmed; but they will have to be well as-
sured of this before they will part with their arms. Those who
were disarmed will receive their arms back as soon as they are
released, of course. About 100 Free-State volunteers of our
militia are holding themselves in readiness to act under Col.
Cook of the United States army, by request of Gov. Geary. The
Pro-Slavery men at Lecompton said they did not want Geary or
any other man for Governor but Woodson. He declared the
Territory in a state of insurrection and rebellion at a time when
they wanted it done, as a pretext for this last grand raid from
Missouri. I am satisfied that had Gov. Geary been, here two weeks
sooner no proclamation declaring rebellion would have been is-
sued. What nonsense to call men rebels because they choose to
defend their homes from invasion! No, I think Gov. Geary will
not allow himself to be caught playing at "Tom-fool in the mid-
dle" with any faction or clique in Kansas or at Washington
I have just learned that this large body of men who came
up to attack this city are a part of the posse summoned in pur-
suance of the proclamation issed to Gen. Coffee and others, but
as they were not in the Territory when the "Northern Division"
was disbanded at Lecompton, no effort was made by Acting
Governor Woodson to send to Westport, Missouri, to tell them
this fact. Hence they came in, under Gen. Reid, a member, I
believe, of the Legislature of Missouri.
After the visit of Gov. Geary to this camp, and after they
had agreed to go home, about 200 of them marched to Lecomp-
ton in order to take the ferry across the river at that place. While
on their way, however, they still continued their old tricks of
horse-stealing and murder. They got as far up the California
road as Mr. Henry M. Simpson's house. They wanted his horse,
but his wife got her arms around its neck and would not part
"What state are you from?" asked one of them.
"Did the Emigrant Aid Society pay your expenses here?"
"No, Sir, they did not."
338 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
"Is that your wife that hangs on to the pony?"
They thought it best not to steal the horse, and the proces-
sion moved along.
At Wheatland, where Titus was to have had his general
training, they committed no outrage, although Postmaster Spicer
has several good horses. They probably spared him on account
of his being like James Buchanan, sole proprietor and only resi-
dent of Wheatland. When they had gone a mile or two further,
they pressed a couple of horses belonging to Capt. Thomes, into
whose house the "Northern Division" fired, when occupied by a
few ladies, two weeks ago. Going on still further they pressed
a horse belonging to David Buffum and his brother, who is said
to be a deaf and dumb man. David Buffum went out to remon-
strate against their taking his horse, and was immediately shot
down. The pony saved by the fair arms of a true-hearted woman
was then employed to procure a surgeon. But the errand was
useless. Mr. Buffum was shot in the abdomen, and although he
still lives, the wound is considered mortal. Gov. Geary was on
the spot a short time after the murder, as he happened to be on
his way from Lawrence to Lecompton when the murder oc-
curred. I understand he is investigating the circumstances, with
a view to bring the murderer to justice.
Speaking of murder reminds me of an incident which will
illustrate the manner in which the Buford brigade has been
"used up". As we were returning from Lecompton's Court to
the camp on Wednesday last, accompanied by some of the high-
treason prisoners and Marshal Donaldson, we met a man with a
gun in his hand, inquiring for the City Marshal. "What do you
want with him?" asked Mr. Donaldson. "I want to give my-
self (hic) up," was the reply of the drunken young man. "What
have you done?" we inquired. "Why, I expect I have commit-
ted a regular (hic) full-blooded homicide. I suppose I shot one
of my (hic) best friends." "Where do you belong?" asked Don-
aldson, very uneasily. "I belong to the militia, and we were on
our way to Atchison, and --" "What's your name, and where
are you from?" asked Donaldson. "My name is Wells, formerly
of Georgia. The man I killed was Mr. (hic) King; that's so:
John Henri Kagi --Newspaper Correspondence 339
formerly a Floridian." "It's too bad," said we abstractedly.
"Yes," said the murderer, "It's a G-d d-d shame!" The mar-
shal took him into custody. This was the result of a drunken
quarrel but it was the entire coolness with which the fellow spoke
of the act which surprised me. The record of this conversation,
verbatim, will illustrate many things which space prevents recall-
ing, but which your memory will easily supply.
The statement in my last that both companies which attempted
to enter Lawrence on Sunday afternoon were mounted is a mis-
take. Only one company was mounted, the other was infantry.
I have just heard that David Buffum is dead.
All except one company of the dragoons have gone back to
Lecompton. The weather is fine.
New York Tribune, September 27, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 19, 1856.
There is no doubt in the mind of any person here, that the
Pro-Slavery party of Kansas, or rather of Missouri, united with
the crimes of murder, arson and robbery, that of base treachery
to the Free-State men by dishonorably breaking their pledges,
and this explains some of the strange events of the last ten days.
After surrendering the Free-State prisoners at Lecompton, after
assuring Gen. Lane that the rabble called the "Kansas Militia"
was disbanded and would be sent home where they belong, after
assuring us that he was going to Westport to disband and dis-
organize the mob and discountenance their attempt to invade
our homes--after all this, Gen. Richardson under the escort of
Gen. Lane, to whom these assurances were made, rides through
Lawrence to Westport and unites with others in encouraging this
raid which came so near blotting us from existence on Saturday
last. The Ruffians at Lecompton acted their part well. They
were civil, and some of them even courteous to Free-State men.
Gov. Woodson, in conversation with me, went so far as to ex-
press his regret at the unhappy state of affairs in the Territory,
when he knew well that his infamous proclamation was the
cause of it all. Still, it was lucky for the "High Treason" pris-
oners that the week of our lethargy--the week we slept upon
340 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
the above assurances--was their week for trial. Had it been
a week earlier, there is no telling what treatment they might
have met with from the fury of Stringfellow's mob at Lecomp-
ton. While we slept-while the majority of our forces had
gone to their homes believing that Woodson and Richardson
would disband the Westport as they had done the Lecompton
regiment, they were plotting with Atchison the destruction of
our best town and its already exasperated inhabitants. The Ruf-
fians well knew by their system of espionage the exact position
of the Free-State men. They well knew that Gen. Lane after the
treaty of peace at Lecompton (which he believed was made in
good faith, and which was kept in good faith on his part), had
gone to look after those dear, good souls who had been sent
ostensibly to intercept him when he should attempt to escape
from the Territory, but really to drive back the trains of Free-
State emigrants who would come in on the Iowa road to To-
peka. At the latter place Gen. Lane heard of their whereabouts,
and so, with a small force, marched to their rendezvous. He sur-
rounded them in one of their log-built dens, and sent to Law-
rence for a piece of artillery and some force to drive them out.
While waiting for these he got the message of the new governor,
and concluded that he could do the job much easier with the
troops than he (Lane) could do it with his men. Lane accord-
ingly disbanded his men and went with fifty to meet the train
coming from Nebraska. Meanwhile, Col. Harvey marched from
Lawrence with 100 volunteers and a piece of artillery, came upon
these fellows, fought them, made them agree to leave, and then
returned himself with his company in the direction of Lawrence,
when almost every man of his company were made prisoners and
disarmed by the troops by order of Geary.
In the meantime the Ruffians went up the California Road
in order to cross the ferry at Lecompton -- the same crowd who
coolly shot down Mr. Buffum, a cripple, because he objected to
their stealing his horse -- instead of going to Leavenworth to dis-
band, as they pretended they would do, went up the north side
of the river to Topeka and attacked that town. Such is the re-
port. At any rate, Gov. Geary has gone there with the troops,
but what the result of his visit will be I cannot yet tell. Whether
John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 341
he will see fit to drive back the emigrants known, to be on their
way into the Territory, time will show. If he does, then he will
have shown his hand, a partisan instead of the impartial governor
of the whole people. But we will not anticipate; we hope for
What a beautiful sentiment was that of Jeff. Davis in his
letter to Gen. Smith, where he says that "patriotism and humanity
(why didn't he add Slavery?) alike require that rebellion (and
the rebels, too, of course) should be promptly crushed." Now,
you cannot appreciate this sentiment as we can here in Kansas,
especially as we in Lawrence are those whom "Patriotism and
Humanity", and Jeff. Davis and Slavery, are so anxious about.
Jefferson Davis, I notice, also recommends that in doctoring up
sick Kansas Gen. Smith must resort to phlebotomy some, but
not enough to bleed the patients to death. How kind!
At the battle of Oskaloosa -- the battle fought by Harvey's
men-some documents were found which threw some light
upon the army of the Ruffians, and the means employed to raise
it. How strange it is that Southern men kept up a continual
howl for half a year, in the halls of Congress, about the New
England Emigrant Aid Society -- a society which never paid the
passage of a man to Kansas -- but never yelped once about the
Society which issued the following circular:
"Charleston, S. C., Feb. 26, 1856.
"Dear Sir: We respectfully ask your attention to the purpose
of the Society, the objects and officers of which you will find
on the next page. It is unnecessary when addressing Southern
men, to dwell at length on the grave and pressing importance
of southern action in aid of the Pro-Slavery party in Kansas.
Our immediate object is to inform you that a Society has been
organized here, which hopes to initiate an, earnest, systematic
and efficient effort in support of those who are battling for
Southern rights. The endeavor, so far, has been rewarded with
encouraging success. We would, therefore, ask such aid as you
may be disposed to afford, and request the fullest information
from you in regard to the temper and action of your immediate
neighborhood. We would further suggest that should there be
near you any men whose character and enterprise make them fit
342 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
emigrants, but who stand in need of pecuniary assistance to carry
out their wishes, you would furnish us with a list of such names,
specifying a knowledge of their qualifications. Such a communi-
cation would, of course, be considered confidential, and is not
intended as a pledge on our part to send them until after a full
examination of our ability and their fitness.
"We would beg you to regard this letter not as entirely con-
fidential, but to be used only in private communication with your
"We have the honor to be, very respectfully,
"W. M. Whaley, Chairman."
"Attested March 5, 1856.
"Theodore G. Barker, Secretary
"S. Y. Tupper
"W. D. Foster
"J. M. Easton
"C. J. Colcock
"Theodore G. Baker
"W. H. Trescot
A. W. Burnet
W. E. Martin
F. B. Richardson
W. R. Tabor
A. F. Browning
Such is the circular. But let us turn the leaf and see the "ob-
jects and officers" of the Society of which it speaks. What if
it proves to be an "Emigrant Aid Society"? But, no, it can't be
that; the South was always opposed to such things. But there is
EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION
Article i. The name of this organization shall be, "A Society
for the Aid of the Slave Settlements of Kansas," and it shall
continue until the question of the admission of Kansas as a Slave
State shall have been decided.
Art. 4. The duty of the Executive Committee shall be to pro-
mote the emigration of such citizens as will go to the Territory
of Kansas with a bona fide purpose of becoming inhabitants
thereof, and aiding the constituted authorities in maintaining the
government and laws now in force in that Territory, or such
other laws as may be passed for the preservation of slave institu-
tions. And it shall be the further duty of said Committee to pro-
vide for raising funds and to adopt such measures as they may
deem judicious for carrying out the purposes of this Society.
Art. 6. Any resident of the State may become a member of
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 343
the Society by subscribing his name and contributing such a sum
as he may think proper to the purposes of the Society.
President -- Hon. James Rose
Hon. J. Harleston Reid
Chas. D. Carr, Esq.,
Hon. W. Porcher Miles,
Theo. G. Barker, Esq.,
Hon. Edward Frost,
Wms. Middleton, Esq.,
Elias Vanderhorst, Esq.,
E. Harry Frost, Esq.
Then follow the names of the Executive Committee, which,
I find by comparison, are the same as those who signed the "not
entirely confidential" letter above.
Then follow the names of the Executive Committee, which
are gotten up in a very "taking way." It is very curious that Mr.
Frank Pierce did not mention it in his conversation with the
National Kansas Committee.
Charleston, S. C., March 5, 1856.
To all the True Friends of the Rights of the South.
We hereby certify, That Mr. G. H. T. Alexander, the bearer
of this, is a true Southern man in sentiment, and emigrates to
Kansas with a bona fide purpose of becoming an inhabitant
thereof, and aiding the constituted authorities in maintaining the
government and laws, now in force in said Territory, and such
other laws as may be passed for the preservation of slavery in-
stitutions, and we earnestly commend him to the kind offices and
friendly services of all who are maintaining the rights of the
(Here follow the names of the entire "Executive Committee
of the Society for the aid of the Slave Settlements of Kansas",
attested by Theo. G. Barker, Secretary.)
Speaking of these South Carolinians reminds me of an in-
teresting event. It will be recollected that when the Herald of
Freedom was destroyed, a red flag, with one star and "Southern
344 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
Rights" on it was hoisted on the building. It so happened that
when the same flag was being brought into town as a trophy by
the Free-State men, the press and type of the new Herald of
Freedom was coming in in an opposite direction. This was an
oiminous coincidence. The Herald will be issued immediately, at
the usual rates, I believe. Mr. Brown, no longer a prisoner, is
superintending his business himself.
But to return to the Southern army: After these men get
into the Territory by the Aid Societies of the South, it might be
interesting to your readers to know how these patriots are fed,
and so I send you another of these precious documents:
Headquarters 3d Regt. Kansas Militia,
ATCHISON, August 19, 1856.
Orders. No. I.
I. Each Captain of a Company composing this Regiment is
hereby required forthwith to provide his command with a baggage
wagon or wagons (as may be needed), and the necessary teams
for transporting the same, and to lay in sufficient supplies of pro-
visions for the use of his men for a campaign of two weeks.
2. Wagons, teams and provisions will be pressed into this
service wherever the same may be found not preoccupied by other
Companies of this Regiment, the Captains giving receipts for the
same to the owners thereof.
3. Reports relative to the execution of this order will be
male to the Colonel of the Regiment, on Wednesday, the 20th
inst., and the whole Regiment will hold itself in readiness to move
in military order from this place on Thursday morning, the 21st
inst., at 9 o'clock a. m. By order of
COL. J. H. STRINGFELLOW.
A. MORRALL, Adjutant.
The second of these orders is particularly Stringfellowish,
and considering that the receipts of the Captain's are not "as
good as gold" and hardly worth the paper upon which they are
written, it is quite a doubtful kind of pay.
The man Vandervourt, who was arrested on Sunday last
charged with being a spy was yesterday discharged, no proof be-
ing found against him. There is no doubt that there have been
regularly appointed spies in Lawrence all summer. They are
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 345
harmless, however, as all we do is immediately submitted to the
world for its approval or condemnation. Still there are times, as
for example last Sunday, when they might injure us by bring-
ing upon us by surprise a much superior force.
New York Tribune, October 3, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 22, 1856.
I have been waiting for some days to unriddle, if possible, the
mystery which hangs around the position of Gov. Geary in re-
lation to the Bogus Laws. To me that position is still a mys-
tery, and I therefore propose to tell you what the people here
think about it, judging him solely by his acts since he came into
the Territory. Some of these acts were duly mentioned in my
last letter, and. the state of the case will more fully appear by the
following statement of facts, made to me by Lieut. George Earle
of the Lawrence "Stubbs", who was made prisoner by order of
I need not restate the circumstances which led Col. Harvey
to start to Lane's assistance with a force of over 100 men. It
appears now that the people here sent a dispatch to Geary stat-
ing the case, and recounting some of the outrages which that
body of Ruffians were every day perpetrating upon Free-State
men, and asking him whether it would be right to go to their as-
sistance. To -this Gov. Geary replied by messenger, who never
reached Lawrence, that they must not go. No messenger reach-
ing Lawrence, Col. Harvey marched on Saturday night, and on
the next day (Aug. 14) at 9 a. m. arrived at a place where
was a sawmill and improved claim belonging to a Free-State man,
but now entirely deserted, where they rested. This was six
miles from the Ruffian fort held by the "Kansas militia". After
eating some roasted corn for breakfast they started, and at about
11 a. m. they got within. range of the fort. They placed the piece
of artillery in front, and were supported by Captain Cutter's
company of infantry. The cavalry then rode to the right of the
fort, and were immediately fired upon by the Ruffians. The bat-
tle then commenced. The Stubbs were placed in a ravine to the
right of the fort, the cavalry (who had now dismounted) in a
346 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
cornfield within Sharp's rifle shot. The battle raged, though not
incessantly, for about five hours, and just as the artillery were
taking their third position, a flag of truce appeared. The hostili-
ties now ceased, but Col. Harvey told the flag-bearer that until
the black flag which floated over the fort was taken down, he
would listen to no proposition. The flag was immediately hauled
down and destroyed by themselves, each protesting that he did
not help raise it. An agreement was then entered into that they
would retire and disband peaceably. There were three Free-
State surgeons along, and some of these volunteered to dress
their wounds. They had three killed and seven wounded. The
Free-State men had five wounded. They (the Ruffians) num-
bered eighty men, armed with United States muskets, knives and
At 6 p. m. the Free-State men marched back to the place
where they had rested in the morning, and in the mean time had
sent their surgeons to Lawrence with the wounded. They
reached the mill where they intended to camp over night. Col.
Harvey had been invited to eat supper at the cabin of a settler a
short distance from there, and after seeing that his men were
as comfortable as circumstances would permit, he went there.
About 10 p. m., the guard discovered a body of mounted men
on the hill overlooking the camp. On being challenged, they
stated that they were United States troops, Capt. Wood com-
manding. Capt. Wood rode down and inquired if this was Har-
vey's camp. He was answered affirmatively. He then inquired
for Harvey. Someone said he was not there. He then ordered
the Free-State men to fall into line. About fifteen did so. He
then informed them that they might consider themselves prison-
ers. He was then asked upon what authority he acted. He replied,
"By authority of the United States, and by order of Gov. Geary."
He told them that they must lay down their arms also. Capt.
Bickerton of the Free-State Artillery, said that, of course, they
would not resist the United States troops and would lay down
their arms, provided he (Wood) would be responsible for them.
This was promised, and the prisoners were marched, without
food, the same night in the direction of Lecompton, where they
arrived the next morning (15th) at 8 o'clock. Here they were
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 347
drawn up in line, and the Pro-Slavery men began to try to taunt
them by calling them "Abolitionists", and other names, and crow-
ing over their present position. They were told that Lawrence
had been "wiped out" last evening, and other things calculated
to excite them to a quarrel. But they bore these insults calmly.
They were then marched to the camp of the soldiers, and al-
though they called incessantly for food and though one man
sank down from exhaustion, no food was furnished them till 5
o'clock p. m. They were furnished with hard bread and bacon,
and though this kind of fare was rough and unusual, yet it must
have been sweet after a long march and (with the exception of
some roasted corn) a fast of forty-eight hours.
An incident happened at Harvey's Camp, which is, perhaps,
worthy of record. Immediately after the arrest of Harvey's
men, the Pro-Slavery guide who showed Capt. Wood where the
Free-State camp was, rode off in the direction of the Pro-Slav-
ery camp, intending, doubtless, to put the Ruffians on their guard.
He was immediately followed by three dragoons, they supposing
that he was a Free-State man who was trying to escape. They
told him to halt, three times. He refused to do so, and they
fired. He turned in his saddle and returned the fire of the dra-
goons. They then fired once more and shot him through the
heart. On bringing him to the light they found it was their
guide. His body was taken to Lecompton, tied to a feed-box
behind one of the wagons.
While crossing the ferry at Lecompton on Monday morning,
quite a number made their escape, so that when they were
counted, there were 101 instead of 125. For shelter, the pris-
oners had only two small tents, which would shelter, if crowded,
eight or ten persons. The balance had to take the prairie for a
bed, and the heavy night dew for covering. Lieut. Earle speaks
in high terms of the kindness of Lieut. Colburn of the United
States army to himself and other prisoners.
On Thursday, (Sept. 18), sixteen other Free-State prisoners
were brought down from Topeka. On Friday, fifty of them were
marched down to Lecompton to be examined before Judge Cato.
They were lined around the court room. and the citizens were
told to look at the prisoners and see if they could identify any
348 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
of them. Several of the Ruffians who had promised Col. Har-
vey to go home, stepped forward and identified fifteen. The
Judge remanded all of them back to prison till Monday, and said
that there would be no more witnesses against them then. No-
tice was accordingly sent around to that effect, so that Pro-Slav-
ery men can have a chance to trump up charges against them.
The fifteen identified are charged with murder, robbery, grand
larceny, and all other crimes in the calendar. Of course all the
others will be identified.
On Friday night Mr. Earle with three others, took advantage
of the intense darkness, and rolled about a hundred yards, crawled
about as many more, and, as that brought them outside of the
sentinels, they made tracks for home. 'Tis said others have
Pro-Slavery men, in the mean time, are swearing to the own-
ership of Free-State horses and rifles which they never owned.
Indeed, upon application to Donaldson, they can sometimes be
had without an oath, and thus Free-State men are being robbed,
while they have no chance to rebut the oath or prove that their
property never was owned by its claimants. On being remon-
strated with about this matter, Mr. Donaldson made this reply:
"If you are released, you can apply to the Courts for redress."
The murderer of David Buffum is still unarrested and un-
hung. It is very singular that he is not yet taken. Not a Pro-
Slavery man has yet been arrested in the Territory by order of
I have just heard from Lecompton. The Free-State men
are in charge of Col. Titus, whom Geary has enrolled as cap-
tain of a company, under command of Gen. Smith. Of course,
the Free-State men will be well taken care of by Titus. Geary
was down here today, I understand, trying to raise a company
of volunteers to serve, like Titus, under Gen. Smith. I think
the number (eighty-three) can be raised tomorrow. But they
will never consent to be used to enforce the bogus law, so that
he cannot ensnare them in that way at least. The Free-State
men were not examined today before Cato. They were re-
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 349
manded back again till tomorrow. They will be represented in
Court by M. J. Parrott and H. Mills Moore, esqs.
I have refrained, thus far, from commenting to the disad-
vantage of Gov. Geary upon these facts, although these facts
are made the premises from which, without a very intricate
mode of reasoning, it is assumed that his influence is against
the Free-State cause. True, he may be able to show the wis-
dom of his policy, and such wisdom may be self-evident to the
Buchanan organs of the nation; yet he will probably find that
there are other elements than Buchananism at work in the popu-
lar heart. I have no doubt at all that Gov. Geary means well,
but when we remember that he is surrounded by the same batch
of Territorial officers which surrounded Shannon -- when we
remember that these men will offer their counsel and wield more
or less influence upon him -- when we remember that these men,
from Woodson down to Cramer, hate with malignant hatred
anything which looks like Freedom -- when we remember that
he was appointed by a puerile and wicked administration, and
instructed by the head of a bloodthirsty Department -- when we
remember all these things, and many more as strongly to the
point as these, we are fearful that the design of the President is
to crush out Freedom, and that even the individuality of John
W. Geary may be submerged, and perhaps lost, as Shannon's
was, in this grand effort.
New York Tribune, October 3, 1856.
Lawrence, K. T., October 8, 1856.
The question is now being mooted here very considerably
whether Gov. Geary is or is not a living and walking Toombs
bill. The arguments pro and con are, to say the least of them,
The Toombs bill proposed to amend and to repeal certain
territorial laws--those which Gen. Cass pronounced a "dis-
grace to civilization" -- but still it acknowledged the validity of
the Legislature, which its framers knew was the work of an
armed invading mob. What does Gov. Geary say on this sub-
350 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
ject? Simply this, "that the people have the right to ask the
next Legislature to revise any and all laws." Well, we have a
Governor's assurance that at least one of our rights is still left
us, namely, the right of petition; but it is very evident that Mr.
Geary does not understand the position of the Free-State set-
tlers of Kansas, if he thinks that Free-State men will petition
a body elected under laws which they repudiate. The power to
legislate, in the first place, was a usurpation, and it follows that
all authority created by fraud is itself a fraud. Still, the assur-
ance that we have the right to petition is gratifying, especially
as we know that that right avails us nothing at Washington,
whatever weight it might have upon a nigger-driving Legislature
at Lecompton. The right of petition to a Legislature elected un-
der the bogus code will never be exercised. It is very plainly
seen that Gov. Geary acknowledges the validity of the bogus
Missouri Legislature, because he is very particular in saying to
people that the enactment must be religiously observed. But
here are his own words: "In the meantime, as you value the
peace of the Territory and the maintenance of future laws, I
would earnestly ask you to refrain from all violation of the
Gov. Geary in his inaugural address devotes two very nice
paragraphs to the doctrine of "popular sovereignty, "and gives
his idea of that doctrine (in which he is a true believer) alto-
gether at loggerheads with the Toombs bill. Whether he so
differs by instructions from headquarters, or whether it is a mis-
take, or a new stroke of policy on old Buck's account, we will
not stop to inquire. We know that the Toombs bill proposed
to enact an election law for the Territory, and on this point
Lieut. Gov. Roberts entered his protest as a Democrat, and
showed the country the inconsistency of the position of the Pro-
Slavery Senate. We know that Gov. Geary holds the same opin-
ion of "popular sovereignty" which every old line Democrat in
the country held -- which every Democrat who came to Kansas
held "for a few days", till, convinced of its absurdity, it was
given up in disgust, and afterwards thought of only as an in-
fernal political hoax. So far Geary and the Toombs bill do not
John Henri Kagi-Newspaper Correspondence 351
The Toombs bill fixed the enumeration of voters at a time
when the Missouri River was blocked to prevent citizens of the
Territory from returning who had been driven from their homes
by a heartless mob. So Governor Geary asked Free-State men
to take part in a popular election, after he had arrested over a
hundred Free-State voters, guilty of no crime but the love of
Liberty. Here the action of Gov. Geary and the proposed
Toombs bill are identical.
We are led to make these remarks in view of the result of
the election held here last Monday. The Free-State men of this
city, and, I believe, all over the Territory, refused to take any
part in the election. Monday morning, Sheriff Jones came here
with two men from Lecompton, and opened the polls at the of-
fice of James Christian, a Pro-Slavery lawyer who lives here.
I went in during the day and inquired who was "running". Sher-
iff Jones answered my question by handing me the following:
J. W. Whitfield.
Jos. C. Anderson
J. C. Thompson
G. H. Browne
Mr. Christian, who is a good-natured little Irishman, asked
me to vote. I asked him how much I would have to pay. He
said, "Half a dollar." It was a dollar by the act of the bogus
Legislature, but the Pro-Slavery cause and tax are both reduced
one half since then. At night, when the polls closed at Lawrence,
there were seven "Law-and-Order" tickets voted, and the "Law-
and-Order" candidates may well be proud of having received a
unanimous vote in the "infected districts", as they call it.
At Lecompton they had a very fine time. The Ruffians there
polled 457 votes. At Willow Springs they polled 61 votes--
making in the entire county (Douglas they call it) about 525
352 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
votes. Not a Free-State man voted in this county, so that they
had it all their own way.
I have just heard of a very interesting trick which they are
said to have practiced at Lecompton. When a doubtful man,
one who they suspected was a little shaky, went up to vote, his
name was written on the back of his ticket, so that had he voted
on the other side of the goose he woull have been spotted. In
this election, there was no need for such precaution, as "the
goose" had but one side; still it is illustrative of the vigilance of
New disturbances have broken out at Osawatomie, in the
southern part of the Territory. J. H. Holmes of that place,
formerly of New York City, had an interview with the Gov-
ernor in relation to these disturbances. Mr. Holmes, in behalf
of the people of Osawatomie, asked Gov. Geary if he would
allow the Free-State men to form a company for protection
against a band of guerrillas which still existed in that part of the
Territory. Mr. H. told the Governor that fifteen houses of
Free-State settlers had been burned, and their owners, with their
families, had been driven away. Gov. Geary replied to Mr.
Holmes, that if the Free-State men formed a company, and
killed any Pro-Slavery men down there, "they would swing for
it"--to use his own language. He said that when the troops
(sent north to capture and take prisoners the emigrants) return,
he would go with them to this scene of trouble and "find out
about it". Another gentleman from Osawatomie, whose name
I have forgotten, went to him last Sunday on the same errand,
but received about as much satisfaction. There are a great many
citizens leaving that part of the Territory on that account; and
the worst of it is, they don't settle in any other part, but gen-
erally go back to the state whence they emigrated. Indeed, as
near as I can find out, there is not much inducement for settle-
ment, unless a Free-State trading post can be opened SOME-
WHERE ON THE MISSOURI RIVER IN KANSAS. I
have every reason to believe that the western border of Missouri
from Arkansas north to Iowa, is organized to keep out Free-
State settlement. Several men are known to have gone to Mis-
souri after loads of provisions who never returned. This re-
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 353
mark applies only to men in southern Kansas. Their teams have
been taken from them, and they have been given their choice,
either to be shot or to go home to the state from which they
I mentioned in a former letter the removal of Thomas Shoe-
maker from the office of Receiver of Public Funds for the Ter-
ritory, and the appointment of William Brindle to that office.
I have just heard of an incident which may serve to illustrate
how this Territory is governed and by whom it is governed.
Early in the summer it seems that an order came from the Sec-
retary of the Interior to the Surveyor-General of the Territory
to open the Land Office for the sale of the public lands. To this
order a certain functionary replied, that he would be d--d if the
office would be opened by his consent till that d--d Abolition
Shoemaker was removed. We know that the office was not
opened, and we know that Mr. Shoemaker is now removed, al-
though he was appointed at the instance of Douglas. But his
crime was in not understanding "Squatter Sovereignty" as Doug-
las does, and so they have now got a man who does understand
it in just that light and no other. Brindle is a well known small
politician of Northern Pennsylvania, but becoming disgusted
with the Free-Soil majorities there for a few years past, he left
the state and sets up for an "A No. I" Border Ruffian at Leaven-
worth. It is said that he took part in the scenes which re-
sulted in the death of Phillips. I do not know that this is true
of Mr. Brindle -- I hope it is not -- I would be sorry to have
the district from which we both emigrated, disgraced in that
way. Well, his term of office will not be a long one. Mr. Shoe-
maker is going to stump in "Egypt" against Buchanan, and in
favor of Fremont. As he is a lawyer and a good speaker, and
as he once had great influence in Illinois as a Democrat, it is not
likely Old Buck will gain much by the change. Gaius Jenkins,
esq., has also gone to Illinois to stump for Fremont and Free
The Free-State men have called a convention at Topeka on
the 13th inst., of the whole people, to take into consideration the
propriety of forming an electoral ticket under the Topeka con-
stitution. Whether this is good policy time must determine.
Vol. XXXIV - 23.
354 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
For my own part I cannot see the utility of it, except that a
vote on Fremont will determine the exact strength of the Free-
State party in the Territory. Should we be admitted as a state
in December, it is questionable whether the electors of Kansas
would be allowed seats in the Electoral College, especially if the
race were a close one.
Speaking of the race being close, reminds me that Sheriff
Jones offered on Monday last to bet me $1000 of his own, and
$10,000 of a friend of his that Buchanan would be elected.
These were arguments which I could not controvert on account
of not having the change, and so I was silenced. On my hint-
ing that if I had the money I would bet on 30,000 majority in
Pennsylvania for Fremont, he looked at me as much as to say,
"Poor Abolitionist, he's crazy; what a pity !" but made no reply.
At last Gov. Geary has offered a reward of $500 for the ap-
prehension and conviction of the murderer of Buffum, nearly
three weeks after the murder is committed. Gov. Robinson of-
fered last April a reward for the assassin of Jones of $500 the
next day after the affair. It is strange that Gov. Geary should
wait till the murderer of Buffum could get to his victim's antip-
odes before a reward is offered. "Better late than never."
I have just seen a gentleman from Wyandot who informs
me that at the election on Monday last the Pro-Slavery men
polled over 200 votes, while there are but forty odd legal voters
in the precinct. Not a Free-State vote was cast there, nor any-
where in the Territory as far as heard from. It is very evident
to me from the vote cast at Lecompton, Wyandot and Leaven-
worth, that more than half the votes cast are illegal votes. I
am, therefore, glad that the Free-State men took no part in the
matter whatever, as it is not likely they will ever receive fair play
from Pro-Slavery ballot-box stuffers, and it is nearly certain
that they would not have received fair play at this time.
New York Tribune, October 18, 1856.
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 355
LETTERS TO THE NATIONAL ERA
The following letter from one of the Free State prisoners
gives a most graphic account of the oppressions inflicted in the
name of law upon the people of Kansas. It explains some trans-
actions left obscure in telegraphic dispatches.
IN PRISON AT LECOMPTON,
September 29, 1856.
To the Editor of the National Era:
Just at this time, perhaps, the Freedom-loving people of the
States are congratulating themselves upon the prospect of jus-
tice being at last dealt out to Kansas. Such a boon would cer-
tainly be worth any rejoicing which the devotees of liberty
could bestow; and surely no people on earth could receive it
with more of gratitude than we. We too have seen these pros-
pects, but only to see them vanish, leaving in their stead noth-
ing but misery, pain, and sorrow. It was known, previous to
the arrival of Governor Geary, that he had been on intimate
terms with General Lane, and that he was his friend in the af-
fair last winter between Lane and Douglas. From this, we
thought we had reason to hope, and on the evening of the 11th
inst., a few lays after the arrival of the new Governor, and
while the people seemed filled with joy over the liberation of
Charles Robinson, their own Governor and idol, General Lane
came to Topeka, and, being called upon by the troops and citi-
zens, made them a speech overflowing with congratulations. He
said of the transactions of the few weeks since his return to the
Territory, that "one long-to-be-remembered campaign in the his-
tory of Kansas has closed -- favorably to the cause of liberty,
but covering all over with shame the great mob army which
came over with the avowed purpose of subduing us forever.
Such a contrast between two opposing armies has never before
existed. The enemy have outnumbered us in every engagement;
they have been better armed, clothed, and fed; and, being mostly
well-mounted, they have been able to come into action with
freshness and vigor, while we have had to meet them after long
356 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
forced marches on foot, with but little food, and that of the
poorest quality. They published to the world that they would
show no quarter; that every Free-State man who fell into their
power should suffer death; and, cruel as was the threat, it has
resulted in a terrible truth. But we have murdered no prisoners,
burned no private dwellings; we have sought but one thing,
Liberty, and endeavored to obtain it by the use of prudence and
Speaking of Governor Geary, he said:
"I know him well, and believe that he is true to us and to
our cause. He has promised all the protection in his power, and
says he can call 50,000 militia to his aid. He promises to dis-
band the present Territorial militia, and to canvass the Terri-
tory, and enlist under a new organization all the bona fide citi-
zens of whom military duty may be justly required. I advise
you to enroll yourselves on certain conditions, or, rather, in the
absence of certain conditions; that is, if nothing is said concern-
ing obedience to the Territorial laws, enlist; but if he requires
of you a pledge to support those so-called lazes, tell him you
have no pledge to make. Geary has no more doubts than we con-
cerning the invalidity of these laws, yet he cannot positively re-
fuse to execute them. There is but one course left for us to
pursue. Just let the wagon go on, while we are getting in mo-
tion one of our own. Our Governor, the one elected by our own
suffrages, will, in a few weeks, call together the only legislative
body ever chosen by the people of Kansas and in this and the
election of Fremont there is great hope. The Missourians have
promised to go home and cease their depredations. If they do
so, we have little more to do. I am, however, reliably informed
that some of our men are held as prisoners of war at Iowa Point,
and to-morrow I shall go to their rescue. There are also some
emigrants waiting at Nebraska City, for an escort to this place.
For that purpose, I shall go there when I shall have accom-
plished my object at Iowa Point. When I return we will lay
clown the implements of war, and trust for protection the newly-
appointed Governor, until such a time when experience shall
have proven that our reliance has been misplaced."
At noon the next day, agreeably to this intentions, General
John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 357
Lane, with forty horsemen, left for Iowa Point. On the road,
fifteen miles from Topeka, he was met by a messenger from
Grasshopper Falls, with the information that the Missourians
were then in that town, sacking and burning everything in their
reach. The messenger had been dispatched to Topeka for aid.
The enemy were estimated at from two to four hundred in num-
ber. Lane, thinking it rashness to attack them with the num-
bers he then had, yet desirous of punishing them for their in-
solence, sent back to Topeka for re-inforcements, while he went
on and encamped at Pleasant Hill, eight miles further, and
within about ten miles from Grasshopper Falls. The re-inforce-
ments, forty in number, left Topeka the same evening about ten
o'clock and arrived at Lane's camp at sunrise the next morning,
and all immediately started for Hickory Point, to which place,
it had been ascertained during the night, the enemy had with-
drawn. This place contained not more than a dozen houses, and
is located some ten miles northeast from Pleasant Hill. On his
way there, Lane was joined by twenty men from Grasshopper
Falls. About noon, he arrived before the place and at three-
quarters of a mile's distance from it, drew up his men in line of
battle. Capt. Lenhart, with fifteen mounted sharp-shooters, was
sent around to the other side of the town, to harass the enemy
and cut off their retreat, in case they should attempt to make
one. But the enemy had all withdrawn into a blacksmith's shop
and to other log buildings, which they had converted into forts.
Over the blacksmith's shop there waved the black flag, the em-
blem of law and order. After several shots from the enemy, an
irregular fire begun and was kept up for an hour or more, with
no other effect than wounding six of the enemy, killing one of
their horses, and wounding two others on each side. Finding
it useless to attempt a storming of the forts without cannon,
Lane dispatched a messenger to Lawrence, instructing Colonel
Harvey to proceed with one hundred men and the six pounder
Sacramento to Topeka, across the Kaw at that place, and take
the Leavenworth military road -- the same by which Lane had
gone -- for Hickory Point. In the meantime he fell back to
Pleasant Hill, in hopes of drawing the enemy out in pursuit of
him, and giving them battle before the arrival of Col. Harvey.
358 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications
It was about sunset when he halted at Pleasant Hill and pre-
pared to camp. But here he was handed a copy of the Inaugural
Address and Proclamation of Governor Geary, issued two days
previous, upon reading which, he called his men together, and
told them that, in consequence of this proclamation, he had
changed his plans; that he, with the cavalry, would go immedi-
ately to Nebraska, to escort down the emigration from there,
and that the infantry should return to Topeka immediately, and
disband. He said the probability was that the people of Law-
rence had had a conference with the new Governor, during which
an arrangement had most likely been made, which would pre-
vent Col. Harvey's coming to his aid with the cannon. But,
thinking it possible that he might yet come, he sent back to To-
peka an order for him to return. But Harvey, after consulta-
tion with the State Central Committee, saw fit to disobey the
orders of Lane, so far as to go directly to Hickory Point, through
the enemy's country, instead of the route he had been directed
to go. On arriving at the town at 11 o'clock, the following day,
he was fired upon, and at once commenced a cannonade upon it.
After keeping up a slow fire for three or four hours, during
which one of the enemy was killed and eight wounded on their
side, and four wounded on the other side, and the fortifications
pretty much destroyed, the black flag was struck, and a white
one sent up in its place. Harvey himself went in to treat with
them, and they signed a written treaty, the terms of which were,
that they should disband and go home, never again to take up
arms against our cause. This they did very willingly, and
would have done much more, had it been asked of them. Har-
vey then got his command under way for Lawrence, and en-
camped five miles from the scene of action. Late at night they
awoke and found themselves surrounded by two companies of
U. S. troops, who had been sent for by some of the more treach-
erous of the defeated enemy. Harvey took to his horse, which
was a fleet one, and fled; the rest were all taken prisoners, dis-
armed, and marched to the camp near Lecompton.
On Thursday, the 18th, U. S. Marshal Donaldson, backed up
by two hundred United States troops, came to Topeka, and ar-
rested twelve of her citizens -- among others, your correspond-
John Henri Kagi-Newspaper Correspondence 359
ent. Some of the arrests -- if they may be called such, for they
were, in reality, nothing but seizures -- were made in the pres-
ence of the Governor, who had come into town a short time be-
fore the entrance of the troops, and.while the persons so seized
were in private conversation with him. In all cases, the Mar-
shal refused to show any writ or authority whatever. We de-
manded to know the cause of our arrest, but no one could tell
us. A guard was detailed for each prisoner, and fifteen minutes
were allowed us, in which to arrange our business, and prepare
to leave, for what length of time none knew. We arrived at
camp about sunset, and were placed under the same guard with
our comrades from Lawrence. Since then, Company "Q", as
some wags of our number jocularly style us, has daily been re-
ceiving additions--in all, twenty-one new prisoners have been
brought in, making the whole number arrested, up to this time,
one hundred and thirty-three. On Monday, the 21st, we were
escorted to within a short distance of the town by the United
States troops, and then turned over to the bogus militia under
Colonel Titus, who marched us into town, and quartered us in
a building one story and a half in height, the siding of which is
cottonwood, placed upright, and so shrunken as to leave cracks
between each board three-fourths of an inch wide, and placed
around it a guard of ten men, several of whom have stolen
Sharpe's rifles. One common cooking-stove accommodates --
I was going to say -- the whole number; such, at least, is all we
have. Our cooking utensils and articles of table furniture are
very few. While in the camp of the United States troops, the
officers all treated us with the greatest kindness, and many of
them, with all the privates, were profuse in their expressions of
sympathy for us. In some instances, this was manifested by
"material" aid. One evening, a sentinel passed out three pris-