Ohio History Journal






TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 14, 1856.

Do you know for what Mr. J. Speer, Editor of The Kansas

Tribune, and a dozen or more others -- some of the best men in

Kansas--have been compelled to flee from their families and

homes and become exiles in a strange land? If you do not, the

sub-joined letter will initiate you into the secret. How the

original letter was obtained I know not, but I have seen it, and

the following is a verbatim et literatim copy:


LECOMPTON, April 20, 1856.

"Maj. J. B. Donaldson:

"My dear Sir: Sam'l N. Wood is now in Lawrence, and I

wish you to send me the writ against him. I arrested him yes-

terday, and he was rescued from my hands by a mob. The Gov.

has called upon Col. Sumner for a company to assist me in the

execution of the laws. I have writs gotten out against Robinson

and some twenty others.

"In haste, y'r ob's,                  SAM'L J. JONES."


Well, the writ against S. N. Wood was sent to "Y'r ob's", but

when he went to arrest that gentleman legally, he found him --

not at home. He before arrested, or attempted to arrest S. N.

Wood, without a warrant or any show of authority whatever, but

"some twenty others" not being clear-sighted enough to perceive

any difference between a private citizen and a bogus second-

handed Sheriff acting without the "papers", took occasion to give

him their views upon the subject and he concluded to leave. But

the same spirit (bad whiskey) that makes a packed Grand Jury

find an indictment against a hotel and two printing presses, and

try ex parte and order the destruction of the same for being

nuisances, all at one heat, made a preliminary Grand Jury and


John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 293

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence       293


Court of S. J. Jones, and he decided that they are guilty of felony.

It was for the arrest of these men that J. B. Donaldson assembled

around Lawrence several hundred ruffians, and afterwards turned

them loose to plunder and sack that unhappy town.

J. H. K.

New York Tribune, July 26, 1856.

LAWRENCE, K. T., Aug. 14, 1856.

The quiet which has reigned in the Territory for a few weeks

has been brought to a close this week by some more outrages on

the Free-State settlers, and the appearance of another proclamation

of a doubtful character, issued this time, not by Postscript Don-

aldson himself, as Marshal, but by his son as Adjutant. Here

it is:



Order No. 1.

A general parade of the Second Regiment of the first Brigade

of the Southern Division of the Kansas Militia will take place at

Wheatland, or Spicer's P. O. on the first Monday of September

next, at 10 o'clock. All persons subject to the militia law are

ordered to attend, or be dealt with according to law.

All persons subject to this order are requested to organize

themselves into companies, of not less than thirty men, elect their

officers, and report the same to the Colonel of the Regiment be-

fore the day of muster. By order of

H. T. TITUS, Commanding.

WM. F. DONALDSON, Adjutant.

This proclamation is without date. Col. Titus, the bosom

friend of Shannon, has distinguished himself lately by a variety

of adventures, two of which will serve to show the character of

the man.

About two weeks ago, Titus took possession of a claim near

Lecompton, which belonged to a Free-State man named Smith,

one of the first settlers in Kansas. In Smith's temporary absence,

he tore down his house and erected a shanty of his own. When

Smith returned, he rallied a few of his neighbors and re-erected

it; whereupon Titus with a superior number came and ordered

him off. Smith refused to go; a fight ensued; Titus and his party

294 Ohio Arch

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triumphed and the building was burned to the ground. Shannon

was then applied to by Smith's friends for protection. He prom-

ised to do something about it; and the next day sent a company

of dragoons to protect Titus in his assumed right to the claim and

improvements, furnishing another beautiful illustration of squat-

ter sovereignty.

Last Sunday night this same Titus went to the house of a Mr.

Hancock, a Free-State man, one of his neighbors, and was ac-

companied by two of the faithful from Lecompton. He de-

manded pay for some cattle which he charged Mr. Hancock with

having killed. Mr. H. protested that he had killed no cattle.

Titus then told him that he must pay for them or he would have

his life on the spot. The front door of the house was then closed,

and Hancock fled to the prison camp about a mile distant to call

the dragoons. In the mean time, they broke open the door, a

scuffle ensued between Titus and Mrs. Hancock during which she

disarmed him of his revolver. He promised to leave if she would

return his revolver. She did so, and he left in time to save him-

self from the dragoons. Such is the "Titus commanding," of the

above proclamation.

The outrages to which I alluded above are as follows: Two

companies of Georgians and South Carolinians have been en-

camped on Washington Creek, a small branch which empties into

the Wakarusa, and at Franklin, a Pro-Slavery village about four

miles from Lawrence. Those on Washington Creek have been

living on plunder for some time and foraging almost every night

the corn fields and poultry yards of Free-State settlers. They

asked assistance from the people of Lawrence. Mr. Hutchinson

went to Major Sedgwick and asked him to send enough dragoons

to disperse them. The Major replied that the Lawrence people

were hoaxed; that the Southerners there were gathered for peace-

ful purposes and that it would be perfectly safe for any Free-

State men to go among them and satisfy himself that such was

the case. Mr. Hutchinson returned to Lawrence, and in the

afternoon, Mr. Hoyt was sent entirely unarmed to ascertain the

truth of the rumors. He was taken by these "peaceful settlers" on

Washington Creek and shot.

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 295

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence     295


As soon as the intelligence of this event reached Lawrence, a

company of men volunteered to go and drive them out. Accord-

ingly, on the evening of the 12th inst., about a hundred young

men marched down to Franklin, where quite a number of arms

were secreted, which had been taken at the sack of Lawrence,

and were kept in charge of about eighty ruffians from the South.

The Free-State men intended to get these arms and then march

to the Pro-Slavery camp on Washington Creek. When they

reached Franklin they found that the Southerners were prepared

to receive them, by having barricaded a large block house, which

served them as a fort, through the chinking of which they pointed

their arms. They were called upon to surrender their arms, which

they refused to do. The Free-State men then determined to

storm the fort. It was a beautiful moonlight night. The battle

lasted about three hours, when the chivalry called for quarter and

surrendered. They then threw down their arms and ammunition

and fled. The number of guns taken by the Free-State men were

as follows:

One brass cannon (a six pounder), supposed to belong to a

United States arsenal somewhere;

Fifty United States muskets supposed to be stolen from a

United States arsenal somewhere; and

Several guns, varying in caliber, known to have been stolen

from Lawrence on the 21st of May last.

The loss of the Free-State men was one killed and six

wounded. The Chivalry lost none, but report four wounded. In

consequence of their loss the Lawrence boys returned home, but

intend to pay the Washington Creek camp an early visit, if the

Dragoons do not. They took no prisoners.

Yesterday morning two companies of Dragoons were ordered

to Franklin, but I have not heard what they have done.

People are anxiously expecting the arrival of Geary, the new

governor, as they feel that anything whatever will be a change for

the better.


New York Tribune, August 23, 1856.

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Walker's Camp on Rock Creek, Kansas, Aug. 15, 1856.

The brutal murder of Major Hoyt has caused an intensity of

hatred to ruffianism and a desire to rid the Territory of ruffians,

never, perhaps, equalled in the history of our difficulties. The ag-

gravated and savage-like circumstances of the murder, seemed to

arouse even the peaceful and conservative portion of our citizens,

who heretofore have taken a grin-and-bear-it position, so that on

Thursday last it was evident to all that nothing less than hanging

the murderers would satisfy the people. Accordingly, about fifty

men, armed to the teeth, marched from Lawrence to this place

as a reinforcement to the citizens already assembled there for the

same purpose. It will be remembered that Fort Saunders is the

title given to the den of the desperadoes who have been robbing

and insulting Free-State settlers on Washington Creek, a branch

of the Wakarusa.

When the reinforcement arrived here from Lawrence, a coun-

cil was held, which resulted in the appointment of a committee to

visit Major Sedgwick, the commandant of three companies of

dragoons, near Lecompton. The committee was directed to in-

form the Major of the brutal murder of Mr. Hoyt, who had been

riding along peaceably and unarmed, in the vicinity of Fort Saun-

ders on Washington Creek; that when his body was found by

some Free-State men, it was pierced through with ten balls, his

throat cut, and a paper plastered on his face to prevent his being

recognized by his friends. The committee was also directed to

tell him of the murder, on the Santa Fe road, of Mr. George

Williams, another Free-State man, and to ask him to drive the

gang from the Territory. The committee returned here today,

about noon, and stated that Major Sedgwick was acting under

orders, and that he had no orders to disband any company unless

required to do so by his superior officer, or by the Governor, or

something to that effect.

In the meantime rumors reached us that about thirty of the

Kickapoo Rangers under command of Stringfellow, had passed

over Blanton's Bridge in the direction of Fort Saunders on

Washington Creek, and the number of Ruffians there was vari-

ously estimated at from 150 to 300 men. In the morning a scout-

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 297

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        297


ing party of forty horsemen had been sent from our camp to

reconnoiter, and to ascertain if possible the best method of attack.

They soon returned and reported, and at 1 o'clock this afternoon

about 300 men under command of Gen. Cook took up the line

of march from this camp to Fort Saunders.

The distance between the two camps is about six miles, and

as the long defile of men marched over the high ground which

forms one side of the valley of Washington Creek, they presented

a rather imposing appearance. From this point, at a distance of

four miles, we could see the fort as it stood on a high bluff on the

south side of the creek.

Crossing the creek about two miles below the fort, the Free-

State men marched up a high hill or rather a continuation of

bluff, common to most of the streams of Kansas. At last we

came in sight of the fort, which looked a great deal more formid-

able at a distance than it did when near to it. Still the ground was

well selected, and no better place exists in Kansas than that to

make a successful defense. On each side of the fort were two or

three large tents, and everything looked, externally, as if the

Ruffians took comfort.

A company of infantry was drawn up in front of and within

rifle-shot of the fort while two companies of cavalry were drawn

up at right angles to the line of infantry, thus closing three sides.

About this time, a single horseman was seen riding from the fort

toward the ravine in the rear; but no effort was made to intercept

him. It was now generally believed that the fort was either de-

serted, or else they were laying in ambush to encourage the closer

approach of our forces. The order was given, and a company

from Lawrence known as the "Stubbs," charged through the fort

and down into a steep ravine where it was supposed the Ruffians

had hid in the low brush and timber. Not a soul could be seen,

and the Chivalry, who figured so bravely at the destruction of

Lawrence were, on this occasion, not so chivalrous. On scanning

the prairie with a telescope, a few straggling horsemen were seen

riding at full gallop. A negro slave-boy. about eighteen years of

age, crawled out of the brush somewhere, and reported that some

sixty men had been there about an hour ago, but when they saw

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us coming they mounted and rode away. As the case was re-

versed and as his master had run away from him instead of he

from his master, I told him he was free. I did not see him after-

ward, but I suppose he went to some of the cabins of the Pro-

Slavery settlers, close by, with whom he was probably acquainted.

A great many interesting relics were taken from the fort be-

fore it was destroyed; some of them indicative enough of the

character of its inmates. For instance, there was any quantity of

"yaller-kivered" literature; a copy of "The Laws of Kansas,"

bound in calf; several silk parasols and other articles of dress

belonging to the Lawrence ladies, taken during the sack on the

21st of May; and some United States muskets. But the best

trophy of all--one which exhibited the appreciation and taste

of its designers to the best advantage--was a flag with a white

ground, in one corner of which were thirteen black stars. Across

it were three black stripes, each about six inches wide, and in

another corner were the words, "Enforce the Laws, '76," with

the names of two ladies, supposed to be donors. The fort, built

of logs, squared and hewed, with its port-holes, barricades and

entrenchments, was soon demolished, and we returned to this

camp tired enough. The camp-fires are now burning, the Chicago

Company and Gen. Cook feel fine, and "all goes merry as a




LAWRENCE, August 17, 1856.

This past week (this is Sunday) has been not the least event-

ful one in our history as a Territory; and today, strange as it

may appear, although there was no battle fought, was the most

exciting one of the week.

A little before noon, Gov. Shannon, Major Sedgwick, of the

United States Cavalry, and Dr. Roderigue, a citizen of Lecomp-

ton, and a few others, came into town and "put up" at the Cin-

cinnati. A Council was immediately held between them and a few

of the Free-State leaders, with closed doors, which Council lasted

five or six hours. In the meantime a large crowd of men had

collected in and around the hotel, to hear the result of the Council,

and to ascertain, if possible, what was going on. At length, about

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 299

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        299


6 o'clock, Col. Walker, one of the Free-State leaders, came out

in front of the hotel and stated that a peace agreement had been

made, the terms of which will more properly appear in Gov.

Shannon's speech.

After Col. Walker got through with his remarks, Gov. Shan-

non came out in front of the piazza and addressed the crowd.

He looks very thin, and apparently careworn -- far more so than

the last time I saw him, about a week after the sack of Law-

rence; but he has been so often described it would be out of

place to say a word here, only that he was sober.



Fellow Citizens: I appear before you today under very ex-

traordinary circumstances, and I ask your attention for a few

moments to a few remarks in relation to them. I came down

here today for the purpose of adjusting these difficulties, if pos-

sible. and I regret as much as any man can -- as much as any

man within the sound of my voice--the existence of these dif-


I wish, too, to set myself right before the people of Lawrence.

I have been traduced and misrepresented through the press, my

motives -- those which have heretofore actuated me -- have either

been misunderstood or purposely aspersed, and things have been

said of me which never happened. I desire now to say, while I

remain in office, that I have never done a single act but what I

believed would best subserve the interests of the whole people.

God knows I have no ill feelings against any man in this territory.

But on the contrary I desire the health, happiness and prosperity

of every man in the Territory.

I am sorry that blood has been shed here. In the war of the

Revolution our fathers from both the North and the South fought

and bled together for the same common cause--the cause of

Liberty -- and the result was a glorious triumph of arms. and

the security to themselves and to posterity of their inalienable

rights. So it was in the war of 1812 -- so it was in the war with

Mexico; the North fought side by side with the South and the

stars and stripes floated each time over a conquering nation. And

shall we steep our hands in our brother's blood here? (A voice --

"Give us back Barber, and others that were murdered." Cries of

"Order," "Order," "Law and Order." Another voice -- "Don't

insult the Governor." "Go on.")

I came down here for purposes of peace, to try and adjust a

300 Ohio Arch

300      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


serious difficulty between the people now in this Territory. In a

few days my successor will be among the people of this Terri-

tory; and I desire now to say that the few days which remain of

my continuance in office will be devoted to further peace and

harmony and to the carrying out, as far as in me lies, the terms of

agreement which are mine to perfom. I trust the result of this

agreement will be the final settlement of all strife and difficulty,

that these will be succeeded by peace and prosperity and happiness

to all. Only let the people have these invaluable blessings, and

the bones and muscles and brains of contented citizens will de-

velop the rich natural resources of the Territory -- a Territory

far surpassing in richness and beauty any other on God's broad

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 301

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence       301


earth. (A voice -- "Let us hear the terms of the agreement, I

did not understand them thoroughly." Several voices -- "What

are the terms?" Let us hear them.")

Captain Walker has stated the terms, and the few days that I

remain in office will be devoted, so help me heaven, in carrying

out faithfully my part of them and in preserving order. (Cries

of "Let's hear the terms," "Order," "Law and order.")  The

terms are simply these. I agree to release the prisoners held at

Lecompton -- five in number -- and to use the military force un-

der command of Major Sedgwick to repel any armed body of

men who shall be found in the Territory for any other than

peaceful purposes. I also agree to deliver over to Major Sedg-

wick the cannon taken from Lawrence on the 21st of May last,

said cannon to be subject to the order of Captain Walker. On

the other hand you agree to deliver up the nineteen or twenty

prisoners which you hold, and set them at liberty. (Here he was

interrupted by a great many questions, explanations, etc. When

order was restored he proceeded:) Fellow citizens of Lawrence,

before leaving you I desire to express my earnest desire for your

health, happiness and prosperity. Farewell!

As soon as the speech was finished, Capt. Bell, formerly of

Illinois, and Capt. Cutter, formerly of Boston, made some re-

marks explanatory of the terms of the verbal treaty. The five

prisoners alluded to are those arrested by Deputy-Sheriff Fane, so

that it will be seen that Gov. Shannon virtually ignores the bogus

laws at last. We thought it would finally come to this, but not

so soon. The Free-State men gave Gov. Shannon the greatest

attention throughout. There was a good deal of cheering, and

most of our men were satisfied with the terms of the agreement;

but it remains to be seen how faithfully they will be carried out

by his Excellency.



LAWRENCE, K. T., Aug. 16, 1856.

News reached the camp at Rock Creek last night that ten

citizens of Topeka, who were on their way to join the Free-State

forces, had been arrested by one Titus and a company of South-

erners. I gave The Tribune a few items about this Titus a few

days ago, so that you will have a pretty fair idea of the man. As

Titus had threatened to hang every Free State man whom he took

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prisoner, and as he had said that he would neither give nor ask

quarter in any fight, it was supposed that an arrest by such a

fiend was equivalent to a murder. Acting upon this idea, the men

at Walker's camp under command of Col. Walker, Capt. Brown

and others --  en. Cook having gone to Topeka -- immediately

marched to Titus' camp, near Lecompton, the distance from Rock

Creek being about ten miles. They reached the place a little after

daybreak, and immediately surrounded it with a company of cav-

alry. Like Fort Saunders it was built of square-hewed logs, but

had not the natural strength of position of Fort Saunders. The

cavalry company were immediately fired upon from within, and

Captain Shombra, formerly of Indiana, was mortally wounded.

The cavalry then retreated about rifle-shot distance from the

fort; a single six pound piece of artillery was planted, and after a

few shots the Ruffians stuck a white flag out of the window and

waved it some. Hostilities ceased and the Free-State men took

nineteen prisoners including "Titus, commanding," and "Don-

aldson, adjutant," of the "Order No. I," which was sent to The

Tribune a few (lays ago. Some twenty or thirty muskets were

taken, and a Sharp's rifle taken from here on the 21st of May was

recovered. The loss was as follows: Two Pro-Slavery men killed

and three wounded; one Free-State man killed and one wounded.

Titus was among the wounded, but his wounds are not of a

serious nature, having only lost a finger and thumb.

A programme of the future was found at this place in the

shape of a letter addressed to a friend at the South. It stated

that the southern companies were to incite the "Abolitionists" to

retaliate, whereupon Gen. Smith was to "pitch into" them and

with the assistance of the force to be raised by "Titus, command-

ing", along about the first Monday of September, he would drive

them out of the territory. It will be seen that the plan of oper-

ation was perfected on a grand scale, but like many other good

projects, its execution will probably be defeated by the inten-

sity of its grandeur.

The prisoners were taken to Lawrence and confined in the

office of the late Herald of Freedom where but a few months

ago some of them had assisted in raising a blood-red flag in

honor of "South Carolina" and "Southern rights". So we go.

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 303

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      303

The place from which on the 21st of May last they howled forth

their shouts of victory is now their prison.

We learn that all the United States troops stationed around

Lecompton have gathered into that town to protect it but this

movement was altogether unnecessary, for the Free-State men

will attack no place, unless it is known to be the den of mur-

derers and robbers. The actual and bona fide settlers of all par-

ties will be protected, and no peaceably-disposed settler of what-

ever political sentiments need fear danger from  them. The

Free-State settlers begin to feel that the time for appeals for re-

dress of grievances is past; hereafter they will protect themselves.

Yesterday Deputy Sheriff Fane arrested five of the citizens of

Franklin for being engaged in the battle at that place on Tues-

day night. The writ was issued under the bogus code on the in-

formation of Wm. Crane, the postmaster at Franklin. The pris-

oners were taken to Lecompton.

There was some rain today, but it has cleared up, and the

weather is fine.

Stringfellow and his Rangers are reported to be in camp on

the Big Stranger. Unless Congress has done something for us,

I fear our troubles have but begun. Potter.



Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 18, 1856.

Things look very dubious today. A thousand and one re-

ports are in circulation about threatened attacks of the Missour-

ians aided by a company of about 500 Southerners who have

just come up the river. A prisoner was taken this afternoon

who was supposed to be a spy from West Point. Nothing de-

finite is known; but one thing is very certain, that an effort is

being made in Jackson and Clay Counties to get up another in-

vasion, the success of the effort being the only thing that re-

mains in doubt.

Today a detachment of about twenty-five dragoons came

from Lecompton with the five prisoners held there under a bogus

law writ. It was understood that they were to be released un-

conditionally, but they were duly tried by being brought before

a justice, and as no evidence appeared against them, they were

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released. However, the Governor gave our cannon to Major

Sedgwick, to be delivered to us. The troops then came down,

and claimed our prisoners, eight or ten of whom were discovered

to be German workmen on the capitol at Lecompton, who had

been pressed into a service they did not know the nature of. The

whole nineteen -- Titus, Donaldson and all-- were delivered

over to the troops and escorted out of town by the Stubbs, who,

together with a company of horsemen, have gone to get the can-

non taken from Lawrence in May. When they return with the

cannon, the celebrated verbal treaty of yesterday -- Shannon

treaty No. 2 -- will then have been faithfully carried out on our

part. But there is a part of the treaty which time only can show

whether it will be faithfully carried out on their part, and that is

in relation to armed mobs entering the Territory. Gov. Shan-

non is now bound by the pledge of his honor to protect us -- to

do nothing more than he ought to have done from the beginning.

Let us watch him.


New York Tribune, August 29, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 20, 1856.

The clouds are thickening, but the exact day and hour when

the storm shall come, or with what fury it will rage when it

does come, we know not. We only know of its coming by the


North of the Kansas River, that is, in Doniphan, Delaware

and Leavenworth cities, great preparations are being made, as

the following handbill will show. These handbills are posted all

over the northern division, that is, north of the Kansas River.


Headquarters, 1st Div. K. Militia,

Aug. 18, 1856.


Whereas, I have received reliable information that a state of

actual war exists in this Territory, and that robberies and other

flagrant violations of the law are daily occurring in this Division,

I hereby order that the entire strength of this Division rendezvous

at the points hereinafter named to receive further orders, to-wit:

The First Brigade, Brigadier-General Marshall commanding,

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 305

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence  305


to rendezvous at Doniphan, Doniphan County, on Wednesday,

Aug. 20, 1856.

The Second Brigade, Brigadier-General L. I. Easten com-

manding, to rendezvous at Leavenworth City, on Wednesday,

August 20, 1856.               Wm. P. Richardson,

Major General, Ist. Div., K. M.

Brig. Gen. Easten, Leavenworth City, K. T.

In accordance with the above order, I command all persons

composing the Second Brigade, North Division Kansas Militia

to rendezvous at Leavenworth City, on Wednesday. Aug. 20,

1856, to await further orders.

By A. Payne, Commanding.

August 19, 1856.


This "Northern Division" includes Weston, Mo., and Platte

County generally. In the "Southern Division" a good deal is

being done to "make a raise", but with poor success. This di-

vision includes Westport, Independence, and other Border-Ruf-

fian localities in Jackson and Clay Counties, Mo., but their

"headquarters" is at Lecompton.  The celebrated Haney, or

Haynau, was down at Westport yesterday, but reports the people

there being willing to let the Chivalry take care of themselves.

He says that nothing will be done till both Divisions together

number 4,000  men. The Cherokees and Creeks-- both slave

holding nations--have been called on to assist, but it is very

doubtful whether they will come. Up to this time nothing has

been done in the way of collecting and organizing the Free-State

forces. After the treaty of Monday last the few who were or-

ganized went quietly and peaceably to their homes and employ-

ment on Monday morning; but the city is filled with emigrants

who have arrived from Chicago at other places by the northern


Another brutal murder took place near Leavenworth yester-

day. A gentleman named Hopps or Hupps, from Ohio. came

here last week and left his wife and returned to Lawrence for

his goods, etc. When he had got a mile or two this side of that

city, on his return, he was overtaken (it is supposed), shot and

scalped, and in this condition was found by some troops who

happened along shortly afterwards. No clue to the murderers

Vol. XXXIV--20.

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306       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


has yet been found, but it is supposed that he expressed his senti-

ments too freely in Leavenworth. The Rev. Mr. Bird came from

Leavenworth today for his wife, who is a sister of the Rev. E.

Nute, pastor of the Unitarian Church in this city.

Another murder took place in Westport, yesterday, of a man

named Jennison, a Lawrence teamster, who was on his way home

from Kansas City with a load. He was also scalped, and his

load and team taken to Milton McGee's house.

On these murders I will make no comment. I only chronicle

them as being a part of our history.

Henry J. Sombre, esq., who was killed on Saturday last in

the battle of Titus's Camp, was a highly respected and popularly

known member of the bar in Richmond, Indiana. He was un-

married, and was about thirty years of age. He was buried yes-

terday with military honors, and his remains lie side by side with

those of the murdered Barber. There let him rest!

His last words were these: "Tell my friends that I offer

up my life a willing sacrifice to Freedom  in Kansas."  How

many young men of the North are willing to do so? And yet

the dearest interests of Constitutional Liberty are at stake, and

thousands of young men look idly on!


New York Tribune, August 29, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 25, 1856.

The rumors that large bodies of men were gathering to-

gether at Leavenworth, Westport and Little Santa Fe, for the

purpose of another invasion, have proved to be more than ru-

mors. On Friday last, the Ruffians threw the engine, boiler and

other machinery for the large saw mill, into the Missouri, at

Kansas City. It was the property of the New England Emi-

grant Aid Society, and was consigned to the firm of Walker &

Chick, forwarding merchants, and had not been delivered to

the agents of that Society. This firm, of course, will be the

losers, if the laws of Missouri are good for anything.

Yesterday, a committee of five of the citizens of Lawrence

waited upon the Governor at Lecompton, to see what course he

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 307

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence  307


was going to take in regard to these mobs which were about to

march upon us, and to see whether he was still willing to carly

,out faithfully his side of the treaty of last Sunday. When they

reached Lecompton they found Woodson acting as Governor.

He was in the tent or quarters of the officers in command of

the troops, eight hundred in number, now at Lecompton. The

committee stated to Woodson that the people of Lawrence were

out of provisions; that their roads were blocked by armed mobs:

that two of their teamsters had been murdered, and that they

desired to know whether he would grant them a guard to their

teams to Westport and Leavenworth, or leave them to guard

their own teams and open the roads. They desired to know fur-

ther, whether he intended to interpose with the troops to pre-

vent this overwhelming mob from murdering, burning and pillag-

ing, or whether he intended that they, the people of Lawrence,

were to take care of themselves.

These questions were asked Woodson directly by the com-

mittee, and that gentleman vouchsafed this reply: that if the peo-

ple of Lawrence would obey the laws (the Bogus laws), and

if he (Woodson) could have assurance to that effect, this thing,

that is, the proposed invasion, could be settled in five hours--

that he would bring the troops of which he is commander-in-

chief, to bear upon these mobs and disperse them.

Now, it would not be easy to conceive a more impudent re-

mark from any official, and especially from a Governor, than

this. Reducing it down, it simply means this: "Gentlemen, if

you obey these laws, passed by a mob from Missouri, for your

government, I will protect you; but if you don't, I will let a mob

from Missouri cut your throats, scalp, shoot, or hang you, as

they may see fit." This is the gist of the reply -- its entire es-

sence; and I submit that its impudence is unequalled in the his-

tory of civilized diplomacy. C. 13. Babcock, esq., chairman of the

committee, then said:

"Governor, are we to understand that your position is this:

That if we obey the bogus laws you will protect us with the

whole force under your command; and if not that you will allow

us to be murdered? Is that your position?"

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Here Gov. Woodson protested that he had no desire to see

them murdered, but that the laws must be obeyed, and writs

must be executed. Some further conference was had with the

commanders of the United States troops; but the Committee

came to the conclusion that if Lawrence is to be defended her

own citizens will have to do it. It may be that Woodson, Smith

and Cook will look on and see this struggle without any inter-

ference of the troops. Col. Cook is commandant of the whole

force at Lecompton, was late Commandant at Fort Riley. and

must not be confounded with Gen. Cook, the Commander-in-

Chief of the Free-State Volunteers, about whom The Squatter

Sovereign howls so much. They are two different men.

This morning, a regiment of volunteers, mostly residents of

Topeka and its vicinity, arrived here, and things look decidedly

warlike. The forts, built last winter, are being repaired, and

new forts are to be built. A strong guard is now placed around

the city. It is believed that from fifteen hundred to two thou-

sand armed men can be raised in twelve hours to defend Law-

rence. The mob gathered to attack us have about three thousand

in all, at Kansas, Westport and Santa Fe. The mob at the Big

Stranger may not number over five hundred. Of course, not

much dependence is to be placed in the numbers which rumor

gives. To avoid exaggeration, I have given the aggregate of the

minimum of the estimates which I have heard. The battle will

come off on Wednesday, the 27th inst. -- so they, the Ruffians,

say. They will attack us simultaneously, on both sides of the

Kaw River. So much for the war.

The following is a correct list of the wounded on the Free-

State side of the battles of Franklin and Titus' Camp:

G. W. Smith, Jr., formerly of Butler, Pa., wounded slightly

in the head and legs.

Arthur Gunter, formerly of Boston, Mass.; wounded very

dangerously in the breast and chin; case very doubtful.

A. W. White, formerly of Missouri; very dangerously in the

arm and breast. (His arm has been amputated since.)

George Henry, formerly of Hartford, Conn.; slightly, in the


John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 309

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        309


James N. Velsor, formerly of New York City; a severe shot

through the arm.

John Brook, formerly of Mansfield, 0.; a dangerous wound

in the head.

---------- Wells; slight wound in the hand.

D. A. Clayton, formerly of Union, N. Y., a severe wound in

the ankle.

George Leonard, formerly of Massachusetts; a slight wound

in the back.

Charles Jordan, formerly of Maine; a slight wound in the


Samuel Shepherd, formerly of Ohio; a flesh wound in the


John Crocker, formerly of Massachusetts; a slight wound in

the head.

These patients are well cared for, are in a temporary hos-

pital and are under the care of a board of surgeons, with Dr.

Prentiss at their head. There is but one doubtful case in the

hospital, and that is the case of Mr. Gunter.




The newspapers carried contradictory accounts of the kill-

ing and scalping of Mr. Hupps or Hops -- the name is variously

spelled. The Pro-Slavery papers denied all responsibility for the

act and for the escape of the murderer. Their view of it and

other exciting incidents is published in part in the New York

Tribune of September 8, 1856. In the same paper, however, oc-

curs the letter of Rev. Mr. Nute, copied from the Springfield

Republican. The letter is as follows:


Lawrence, Kansas, Aug. 22.

The horrors of ruffianism gather thicker and closer around

us. My home has become a house of mourning. A brother-in-

law came out to us and reached our house a week since, with his

wife, an own sister of mine. On Monday last he started to re-

turn to Leavenworth, leaving his wife sick. That night he was

shot through the head, within a few miles of Leavenworth, and

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his scalp exhibited in fiendish exaltation by his murderer in the

town, who declared: "I went out for the scalp of a d--d Aboli-

tionist, and I have got one." This is only one of a score of such

butcheries that have been perpetrated within a few miles of us

during the last week. These men have gone out of our door

straight to their death by the hands of murderers. In each in-

stance the bodies have been horribly mutilated. I have tried in

vain to raise a company of men to go for the recovery of our

brother's remains to give them a decent burial, and for the effects

about his person -- all his money, &c. I have taken a rifle and

offered to be one of fifty to go. A sufficient number responded,

and were pledged to go the morning after the sad tidings reached

us, but it was thought best to delay until we could get an answer

from the officer in command of the United States dragoons, en-

camped about ten miles from this, to whom we had applied for

a force to go with us. It came at night, referring us to the su-

perior then on the way with several companies to protect Pierce's

bloody officials at Lecompton. Twice we have sent making the

request of him for the protection of an escort to go with our

teams to Leavenworth for provisions, and twice we have been


There is not a single sack of flour or a bushel of meal for

sale in this vicinity, and we have at least 2000 men, women and

children to be fed. What shall we do -- what can we do, but

fight our way through, with the desperation of men who know

themselves surrounded by merciless savages? This we are de-

termined to do. You will have the report of bloody work before

this reaches you. It may be that nothing short of a massacre

of the sovereign people of Kansas will arouse this nation to a

sense of the inconceivable wickedness of the men who are at the

head of affairs. You may imagine the feelings with which I read

the cold-blooded sneers, the diabolical sport, which is made of

our sufferings in The Boston Post, which I have just received.

Are all the feelings of humanity, is all sense of decency dead in

the souls of the men who uphold this infamous Administration?

Many of our number have ceased to hope for anything but the

foulest injustice from the Government. All that seems to be in

store for us worth aspiring to is an heroic martyrdom. Plead

for our cause with all the might you have. I send this, with as

many more as I can write before the mail leaves, under cover to a

friend in St. Louis. The chance that it will reach you seems to

me very small. The Missourians are coming over the border and

gathering at several points to the number of thousands, we hear.

I dare not trust the particulars of our military condition and plans

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 311

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence       311

to this, for fear it will fall into the hands of the enemy. Only

this: we are prepared and determined to strike terrible blows.


Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 27, 1856.

It is my duty to record one of the most hellish outrages which

ever disgraced any age or country; but which, alas! is not an

isolated one in our beautiful Territory. Let this case be handed

down as an evidence of the demoralizing effect upon humanity

of that cursed institution which our rulers are trying to force

upon us.

A Mr. Henry Hyatt, with his wife and family, moved from

Milton, Wayne County, Indiana, to Kansas, and settled on a

claim on Washington Creek, about seven miles south from this

city. Accompanying his wife was a young widow lady, a friend

of the family, who desired to emigrate to Kansas. Mr. Hyatt

commenced building a mill on his claim last spring, and as extra

hands were needed, a Pro-Slavery man was employed who

boarded at his house.

It was soon noticed that when any news of the movements

of the Free-State or Pro-Slavery parties reached Hyatt's, this

man after supper time, would go off to the rendezvous above,

known as Fort Saunders, which has since been broken up, and

there stay until quite late in the night, and that on Sabbath eve-

ning he spent all his time either there or at the house of a Pro-

Slavery neighbor close by. At last Mr. Hyatt's family, whose

feelings and sympathies are with the cause of Freedom here,

charged him with being a spy, and the young lady cited instances

of his visits to Pro-Slavery places after the receipt of news by

them, with an earnestness very distasteful to the Ruffian. The

result was that he left Mr. Hyatt's employment.

On the night of Wednesday, Aug. 20, when all the family

had gone to rest, the young lady left her room and went to one

of the outbuildings in the rear of the house. On her return

she was seized by four masked ruffians, and so overcome was

she by terror that before she could scream her tongue was

choked out of her mouth and tied with a string behind her head

and around her neck. She was then told that if she made the

least noise she would immediately be shot; and a revolver was

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held to her head while they tied heir hands behind her back.

They then carried her a few hundred yards from the house into

a patch of long prairie grass and commenced their hellish deed

-- three standing guard while they each in turn violated her per-

son. She had swooned from her fear and had not returned to a

state of entire consciousness when the inhuman assault was made

upon her. After completing their infamy, they kicked her in the

sides and abdomen and left her, it is supposed, to die. How

long she remained in a state of insensibility she does not know,

but she was enabled to stagger in the direction of the house.

On reaching it she was unable to open the door, her hands be-

ing tied behind her back, and she was also unable to speak, her

tongue being tied with a string and now swollen to an alarming

size. She was too weak to shout and in the effort to do so she

fainted. In falling she overturned an empty churn which stood

near the door, and the noise made by the churn against the sid-

ing of the house awoke Mr. Hyatt and his family, who found

her in the condition described.

On Sunday last, the 23d, she took, at the request of Dr.

Avery, some nourishing food; but her case is nearly hopeless.

She has had several fits of convulsions, and, though her friends

believed last night that she would die before this morning, she

still lives. It is supposed that the Pro-Slavery hired man and

three of his associates were the perpetrators of this villainy.

The facts of the above case were given to me by Dr. Avery,

who attended the lady professionally, and who accompanied the

Richmond company into this Territory. On his statement I

have the most implicit reliance. He is spoken of by the Buf-

falo Convention Committee in their report as being "a wise, dis-

creet and accomplished physician," and as he made a profes-

sional visit to the lady he knows all about the case. And yet,

with all these most inhuman outrages before their eyes, there

are a class of men, even in the North, who profess to believe

that negro Slavery elevates the character of the whites.

It is needless to say that these villains are at large, and, like

the murderers of Hoyt and others, always will be, the bogus

laws having been made for the punishment of Free-State men


John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 313

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      313

Reliable information reaches us that the Northern wing of

Atchison's army has been divided up into three or four com-

panies of over one hundred each, and that they are scouring the

Territory from Easton to Delaware on the river; that they are

driving Free-State settlers from their claims and putting men

on them to hold them "till after the war". This rumor was cor-

roborated by the arrival yesterday in this city of seventy Free-

State men from the waters of Big Stranger Creek, some of

whom had been driven from their claims; others had had their

horses and cattle stolen. This morning a hundred men volun-

teered to go back with them and see them righted.

The fact that the leading Ruffians have been trying (and

rumor says they have succeeded to some extent) to induce the

different tribes of slave-holding Indians to join them, while it is

an evidence of the deep determination to make this a terrible

and final struggle for Slavery supremacy, also shows that the

border counties are not so alive to their appeals as they were

last winter, during the Wakarusa war. Another evidence of this

determination is the tone of the border newspapers. Take, for

example, the following paragraph from The Kansas City (Mo.)

Enterprise, Aug. 23:

"There has been no time since the commencement of the

Kansas troubles wherein we have noticed so deep and settled a

purpose in the public mind as has been manifested for the past

ten days. There seems to be a settled determination to stop the

occurrence of outrages for the future. The fact that a small

army of hired soldiers have been sent from distant states and

signalized their entry into the Territory by robbery, murder, and

house-burning, has aroused a feeling in the border country that

will brook no compromise short of their complete and permanent

expulsion -- and it will be done."


The murder of Mr. Hupps causes great excitement here. The

volunteers who went to Leavenworth today, will investigate the

circumstances of the murder, and if it is found that he was

scalped alive, as reported, then the murderers will be brought to

justice at any risk.

Gen. Lane has entire command of the Free-State forces.


314 Ohio Arch

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Lawrence, K. T., Aug. 29, 1856.

This city presents a more lively appearance today than I

have ever seen it do before. Several causes have operated to

make it so, as the object of this letter will be to show.

Yesterday the particulars of the murder of Mr. Hupps reached

us, and the circumstances are of such an atrocious character, that

the people, I am afraid, became possessed of a feeling of re-

venge rather than of a desire to bring the murderer to justice.

But to the particulars. Mr. Hupps and his wife, emigrants to

this Territory, landed at Leavenworth about two weeks ago.

His brother-in-law, the Rev. Ephraim Nute, lives here, and as

his wife was in feeble health from the fatigue of the journey,

he brought her to the house of Mr. Nute, till such time as she

should recover. After staying a day or two at Lawrence, Mr.

Hupps started in a buggy to Leavenworth, intending to bring

away his effects. He started from this city on the morning of

Aug. 20. On the morning of the same day a drunken Missourian

at Leavenworth offered to wager $6 against a pair of boots that

he would kill an abolitionist before night. The bet was taken,

and the ruffian went forth to win his bet. As he could find no-

body in Leavenworth who had avowed himself an Abolitionist,

although there were a good many Free-State men there, he took

the road to Lawrence, hoping to get a shot. When about two

miles from Leavenworth he met Mr. Hupps and stopped him,

and the following conversation took place between them, and was

told afterwards with all the gusto a villain could feel at such an

exhibition of his brevity in business.

"Hello! whar d'you come from?"

"From Lawrence," was Mr. Hupps' reply.

The villain then raised his rifle and shot Mr. H.; the horse

ran, he fell from the buggy and the villain approached and scalped

him and left him there in the road, supposing he was dead. A

thought occurred to him that he might as well rob him, too, and

so he returned, took out his watch, and was preparing to rifle

his pockets, when the cries of some children who were picking

wild plums a few hundred yards distant frightened him from his

horrible work.  He ran, and, through fear or by accident

dropped the watch on the road. The children did not approach

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 315

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence     315


the road but went to their home, which was in an opposite di-

rection. Shortly afterwards a few United States troops with a

government wagon, on their way from Fort Leavenworth to

Lecompton, discovered the unhappy man still alive but insensi-

ble, and conveyed him to the nearest house, where he shortly

afterwards died. In the meantime, the ruffian returned to Leav-

enworth, exhibited the scalp, told the circumstances of the mur-

der, took his boots, which had been so nobly won, remained in

Leavenworth all night, and the next morning took a steamboat

and went down the river. Such is the statement as it reaches

us by several persons at different times, and although this state-

ment was made here several days since, such is its enormity that

few if any believe it. It is now corroborated, and there is no

room for doubt.

It will be remembered that I mentioned in my letter of the

27th that a company of men was sent on that day with teams

for provisions at Leavenworth. Mr. John H. Wilder, of the

firm of Hutchinson & Co. of this city, also went to superintend

the shipment of a large quantity of goods belonging to that firm.

The escort which was sent was only designed to protect this

train of teams from the guerrilla ruffians on the road, so that it

was thought best not to enter the city, but to wait a short dis-

tance from it for the return of the teams with the goods and

provisions. It was a comparatively small escort. A scout left

Leavenworth yesterday afternoon and told the escort that the

teamsters and those who were with them were taken prisoners;

that one of the teamsters was shot in the streets for not halting

when told to do so; that Mr. Nute, who went to settle the af-

fairs of his brother-in-law, was going to be sent down the river

a la Pardee Butler; that Dr. Avery (of Indiana, now on his way

home and mentioned in my last letter) and the other prisoners

were well guarded and could not be taken with such a small

force. The escort accordingly returned last night to this city.

This morning General Lane gave orders that five hundred

men make ready to march to Leavenworth to escort our wagons

and their drivers to Lawrence. In the meantime a Committee

was sent to Gov. Woodson and the troops to inform them of

the state of affairs at Leavenworth and to know what they in-

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tended to do about it. While this Committee was gone, and

while the several volunteer companies detailed for duty at Lea-

venworth were making ready, a report reached town that a great

battle had been fought at the south somewhere, between Atchi-

son's ruffians and Capt. Brown's scouting party, and that the peo-

ple of Lawrence must go to assist them. Several persons had

arrived from the Wakarusa Valley and said that they had heard

long and heavy reports of artillery for about two hours;

that the reports came from the south-east. While the people

were conjecturing what this could mean, a report more alarm-

ing in its nature reached them. This was that the United States

troops were now on the march from Lecompton to Lawrence to

arrest Gen. Lane on a writ for high treason.

About noon the committee of citizens sent in the morning to

Lecompton returned, and reported that their interview with the

authorities was of no consequence, they having referred our citi-

zens to the Kansas laws for redress; that the troops were now

on their way to enforce a process of that law.

About 1 1/2 p. m., two companies of troops arrived here un-

der command of a man named Ben. Newsem, who used to be a

kind of body-servant of Judge Elmore, one of the Supreme

Judges of this Teritory. He drew from his pocket a writ di-

rected to "James H. Lane, the Safety Committee, and the people

of Lawrence generally," asking them to deliver up the bodies of

two men held as prisoners by them, or to show cause why they

were held. The writ was signed by one John P. Wood, Judge

of the Probate Court of Douglas County. This man Newsem

(they call him Nuisance at Tecumseh, where he lives) is the same

who broke open and searched the trunks of some five Free-State

men, whom he saw fit to stop on the road a few days ago by

authority. After reading the writ he desired the people to know

that he was a U. S. marshal, intending by this statement to hint

that it would not do to infringe on his dignity. The men named

in the writ were taken yesterday as spies and held prisoners dur-

ing the night, but set at liberty this morning, so that this parade

of troops to enforce the law was simply ridiculous. The boys,

therefore, joked and laughed with the soldiers, hurrahed among

themselves, poked fun at the ninny who held the writ. When

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 317

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence      317


they were leaving town the boys gave three cheers for the troops

and groaned at the process server with as much hearty good-

will as ever a Galway Irishman did at the same functionary.


New York Tribune, Sept. 9, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 1, 1856.

On Friday night, Aug. 29, G. W. Hutchinson and another

gentleman went to Governor Woodson at Lecompton, to expostu-

late with him about the arrest by the Ruffians of Mr. John H.

Wilder, who went to superintend the shipment of goods belong-

ing to the firm of G. W. & W. Hutchinson & Co. of which he

is a member. Also to ask Woodson to send a protective escort

to Leavenworth, to see the goods safe through to Lawrence. On

the return of these two gentlemen, they were arrested a few rods

from the door of the Governor's office by an armed mob and held

in prison ever since. It will be remembered that that very same

day a hundred of the United States troops were employed to set

two of their own Border-Ruffian spies at liberty, in case they

found them arrested as they supposed they would be; but let

it be borne in mind that peaceable citizens who go to do busi-

ness with the Governor are arrested by a mob close to his of-

fice, and he offers not even a single deprecatory syllable! Wise

Governor! Pierce and Douglas will rise up, and call thee blessed!

Saturday morning about one hundred of the Free-State

forces at Lawrence were detailed to go as an escort to meet

about one hundred emigrants who were on their way to assist

in defending this and the surrounding towns. They were over-

hauled near Lecompton by the United States troops and ques-

tioned as to their intentions, etc. They stated their object and

were allowed to pass on. They took the California road and

met the train at Topeka. While between Big Springs and Wash-

ington the escort intercepted and turned back sixteen mounted

men under command of Judge Elmore. They were doubtless on

their way to Lecompton to join Stringfellow's Platte County

army, numbering about six hundred men inclusive of Buford's

last installment. Yesterday the escort came back here with the

emigrants, but as they had some valuable stores they struck off

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the California road, for the reason that if Woodson was going

to use the troops to disarm them, which was the report, he would

have to send them to Lawrence to do it. It seems, from reliable

information, that Stringfellow's entire army of 600 men was

drawn across the California road in battle line to intercept them,

and take away their stores -- if they whipped them. The whole

train reached Lawrence in safety.

On Saturday morning, Aug. 30, Gen. Lane, instead of open-

ing the road from Lawrence to Leavenworth, as my letter of

the 29th anticipated he would do, went to render assistance to the

Free-State men of Prairie City, who had another battle with the

Ruffians on that same morning at daybreak. It seems that when

they got enough of them together at Little Santa Fe, they started

on the Santa Fe road, and probably came up into the Territory

as far as Bull Creek, where they probably camped. There are

different rumors about the number of them, and as I have heard

this Border-Ruffian army variously estimated at from 600 to

2000, we will call it 1000 armed men, not including the Northern

Division, which may be as many more. On arriving at Bull

Creek this army must have been divided up into three divisions,

for the reason that 500 were at Osawatomie, 76 at Prairie City

and the balance at Bull Creek, on Saturday morning. When they

separated and for what reason they did so, we know not.

On Tuesday, Aug. 26, a company of Free-State men under

command of Capt. Shore, surprised a camp of Missourians on

South Middle Creek. There were about 50 Missourians, but

the attack was made by six Free-State men. The former were

under command of an editor from Fort Scott, Mo. They did

not fight long, for the rest of Shore's company coming up at the

time, rather frightened them so that they threw down their arms

and ran; fifteen of them being first made prisoners, and two of

them killed. The spoils amounted to three wagon-loads of stores

and some guns.

The next day they, in company with Capt. Brown, followed

up the Missourians as far down as Sugar Creek. They saw

that they were being chased, and made toward Missouri, where

it is to be hoped they will stay. The Free-State men here re-

ceived about seventy head of cattle gathered, it is supposed, to

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 319

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence       319

sustain the Border-Ruffian army when they could not steal any

more, and in case they got driven back. This party of Free-

State men got back to Osawatomie on Friday night, the 29th

August. On the same evening, the man who carries the mail

from Osawatomie to Westport, returned to Osawatomie, after

having been a prisoner at Santa Fe (new) for ten days, charged

with the infamous crime of Free-Stateism. He reported that

the Ruffians intended to attack Osawatomie very soon; that is

was liable to be attacked at any time; and advised the people

either to leave or defend it. This was in the night, after most

people had gone to bed.

Osawatomie is situated in the fork formed by and near the

confluence of the Marais des Cygnes with Pottawatomie Creek.

On the banks of the creek the timber grows to about half a mile in

width. The town was beautifully located, and its residents have

proved themselves a brave people.

On Saturday morning, about eight o'clock, a number of peo-

ple came into town with the news that the Missourians had

come and were within two miles of the town. No defense had

been anticipated, and the Free-State men were but poorly pre-

pared to defend it. However, they determined to do their best.

It must be recollected that their women and children had been

removed for a long time, at least ever since the town had been

threatened with destruction. The men numbered about 35 to 40.

The Ruffians must have numbered 500 to 6oo, for when drawn

up in line of battle their line reached from the timber of the

Marais des Cygnes to the timber of the Pottawatomie, a distance

of at least three-quarters of a mile, at the points where their align-

ment was made. They had two pieces of cannon, and were

mostly armed with United States muskets, though many of them

had Kentucky rifles and Sharp's rifles. The Free-State men ral-

lied at two or three points and fired into them as best they could.

Capt. Brown was at one point with a handful of men, Capt.

Shore at another point, and so they fought manfully and gal-

lantly, against this fearful odds. At last they were driven further

back into the timber, and their ammunition gave out. A com-

pany of about fifty Ruffians advanced into the timber and a few

Free-State men fought them till the others escaped by means of a

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private ford which the Ruffians forgot to guard. At last they

closed upon them, and three men swam the river while a com-

pany of fifty fired upon them. Two of the three came out on the

other side; the other -- a Mr. Partridge -- is supposed to be

killed. Capt. Brown is supposed to have reached the private ford

and crossed over. If so, he is safe; if not, he is killed. Five

Free-State men are known to be killed, and the loss on the

other side is supposed to be twelve killed and twenty wounded.

One of the Free-State men killed was a son of Capt. Brown, but

he was killed before the battle began.

As soon as the Free-State men retreated, the Ruffians ad-

vanced and sacked and burned the town, except two houses,

which were those of Pro-Slavery men. They then went away,

feeling quite patriotic, no doubt, after such a noble achievement.

Was the satisfaction of burning a few houses worth their thirty-

two killed and wounded? It must be borne in mind that these

five or six hundred men were a wing of the new Santa Fe army

which Atchison his been raising so long and who make their

general headquarters, while in the Territory, at Bull Creek.

I have not got the particulars of the battle of Prairie City,

but will send them as soon as I can. It is to this place that Gen.

Lane, with a part of his army, is gone, and it is the great new

Santa Fe army he is going to meet.

News has just reached us that Lane drove the Missourians

into Missouri yesterday. There was no battle, but a general re-

treat. They (the Ruffians) number 2000 in all. In the mean-

time, the Stringfellow wing at Lecompton, numbering about 500,

are burning houses and "carrying on" tremendously. If there are

any at Leavenworth they are very quiet. We have had no com-

munication from there in over a week, and it is supposed our

prisoners taken there are at Lecompton, with Stringfellow's com-


This afternoon a company of dragoons encamped in sight of

Lawrence. There are none at Lecompton now. There are 800

guarding the Treason Prisoners.


New York Tribune, September 12, 1856.

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 321

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        321


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 6, 1856.

Events come upon us so thick and fast that it is quite dif-

ficult to keep track of them in the order in which they occur.

The destruction by arson and pillage of the houses and other

property of Free-State settlers in the vicinity of Lecompton, on

the nights of Monday and Tuesday last, which I noticed inci-

dentally in my letter of the 3d inst., has had an effect upon some

of the Pro-Slavery Volunteers from  Missouri, as unexpected

to the great Gen. Stringfellow as it was fortunate for the Free-

State Army. It seems that Col. Robinson of St. Joseph's. Mo.,

so far forgot his allegiance to Border Ruffianism  and Bully

Stringfellow as to "file exceptions" to this barbarous mode of

warfare, and said so to the leaders of the Pro-Slavery camp at

Lecompton, in a manner which indicated not only his sincerity,

but his extreme disgust of such proceedings. He told them that

he came there with his men to fight for a principle, and to stop

the burning and the outrages upon actual settlers, and now he

had discovered that these very acts were perpetrated by the men

of the "Law-and-Order" army. He said, too, that if the game

was to shoot into houses where there were nothing but a few

women and children; if this was the game to be played, he, Col.

Robinson, was to be counted out. It is further reported that

Gen. Stringfellow sent to the Colonel a challenge, and that the

Colonel replied that he fought duels only with gentlemen, and

that he pulled up the stakes of his tents, and with his 130 men

marched the same day in the direction of St. Joseph. This was

on Wednesday last. In the meantime, news had reached the

Pro-Slavery camp at Lecompton that Gen. Lane had routed the

Southern Division of the "Kansas Militia", and they had re-

treated to Westport, Mo., and were fortifying the town expect-

ing that Lane would follow them there. But as we understand

this war to be one of defense, instead of aggression, there were

no fears of Lane and his army entering Missouri. The Ruffians

reasoned in their own way, probably, and thought that Lane had

as good right to invade Missouri as they had to invade Kansas.

Hence they fortified their stronghold. News had also reached

the Ruffian army at Lecompton, by dispatches from New Santa

Fe, of the battle of Osawatomie and its results, which prove to

Vol. XXXTV-21.

322 Ohio Arch

322       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


have been far worse to the Ruffians than I anticipated in my let-

ter of the 1st inst. They report thirty of their men killed, and

as many wounded, while it is known that but five Free-State

men were killed, with none wounded. The difference between

the strength of the respective forces is not so great as was at

first reported. There were but thirty Free-State men against

three hundred Ruffians, ten to one, instead of twelve to one, as

at first reported. It is believed that if the Free-State men had

had a sufficiency of ammunition and some extra side-arms, the

victory would have been theirs, even with such fearful odds

against them. The battle of Osawatomie was the decisive bat-

tle of this war, not only from its material results, but from its

moral effect upon both parties. It demonstrates to the country

that the Free-State men now in Kansas are superior to the Ruf-

fians now or then in Kansas, both in courage and in the use of

arms. In speaking thus, I have made no invidious comparison,

for I believe if there is any circumstance calculated to call out a

man's bravery, it is the defense of his home against a heartless

and blood-thirsty invader.

Nothing was known in Lawrence of the disaffection in the

Pro-Slavery camp, on Wednesday. On Thursday morning a

man came over the ferry from the direction of Leavenworth, and

stated, as well as he was able, that he and two other Free-State

men had started from Leavenworth on Monday, to join the

Free-State army in defense of Lawrence; that they had been

taken prisoners on the road by the banditti and taken into the

woods, and all three were shot. He fell, insensible, and when

he recovered he found that the ball (from an eight-inch revolver)

had lodged in the muscles of the neck. The pistol must have

been held quite close up to his face, because numerous particles

of powder had penetrated the skin, making black spots. One

side of his face was awfully mangled. He says he knows one

of the party. An Indian came with him from the Delaware

Reserve, and corroborates the statement. The unfortunate man

is in the hospital and will probably recover. When he can talk

without pain, he will give more particulars. The bodies of his

companions were found yesterday.

Speaking of the Delaware Indian Reserve, reminds me of a

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 323

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        323


very important item. It seems that the Ruffians in and around

Leavenworth have been engaged in stealing horses from the

Delawares, until they could not bear it any longer; in short, the

indian element, in their manhood, called for redress or revenge,

and that too, immediately. Accordingly, on Wednesday last, a

delegation headed by Sarcoxie, their chief, visited Gov. Wood-

son, and, after stating their grievances, told him that unless im-

mediate measures were taken for their protection, they would

raise five hundred braves and offer themselves to Gen. Lane at

Lawrence, to assist in clearing the Territory of their enemy,

the white Missouri horse-thieves. Gov. Woodson told him that

they would be protected, and immediately sent a company of

United States dragoons to the rescue. The Delawares do not be-

lieve in the peculiar institution.

On Thursday, Sept. 4, in the afternoon, the citizens of

Lawrence were again delighted with a visit from Marshal Don-

oldson, some deputies, and four companies of United States

dragoons. He had United States high treason writs against

Gen. Lane, Col. Walker, Mr. Grover and others, but as nobody

knew where these gentlemen were, the doughty Marshal, after

perambulating the streets, and observing to his satisfaction, or

dissatisfaction, the forts and-so-forths of the city, quietly re-

turned with Uncle Sam to Lecompton, probably to write an-

other postscript.

On the same day a regiment of Free-State Volunteers were

ordered to cross the Kansas River, and march up on its north

side as far as Lecompton. The object of this force was to cut

off any retreat in the direction of Leavenworth of the Pro-Slav-

ery forces at Lecompton. This Free-State force numbering 150

men, armed mostly with rifles, arrived at a point about a mile

north of Lecompton about dark. Col. Harvey, who is in com-

mand of the 1st Regiment of Volunteers, disposed his men in

such a manner as to cover the road for a considerable distance,

thereby making it impossible for a body of men numbering even

five times that of his party to retreat. Here they lay on their

arms till daybreak, under one of the most violent thunder and

rain storms of the season. In the meantime, Gen. Lane with

the balance of the Free-State army, was to have marched upon

324 Ohio Arch

324       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


Lecompton that night, and attack the place at daybreak, if the

Ruffians refused to surrender. As was already remarked, noth-

ing was known by either wing of the Free-State army about the

disaffection in the Pro-Slavery army, because the messengers

sent to find out had been taken prisoners.

Owing to the drenching rain and the severe thunder storm,

Gen. Lane failed to march at the appointed time, and about 10

o'clock on Friday, the first regiment, after making prisoners of

a few scouts of the Ruffian army, took up their line of march

back to Lawrence. When within a mile of the city, they were

met by a messenger telling them that Gen. Lane had marched

upon Lecompton that morning and expected them to cut off the

retreat of the Ruffians who might attempt to cross the river on

their way to Leavenworth. But the message was too late--the

men were fatigued and hungry -- and it was thought best to march

forward to Lawrence to get some refreshments and rest.

About two o'clock p. m. a messenger came from Gen. Lane

directing that the First Regiment had returned, to let them rest;

and, if repulsed, to be ready to march to his assistance at a mo-

ment's notice. But no assistance was necessary, for Lane had

taken possession of a hill overlooking the entire city, and had

planted two pieces of artillery without any attempted resistance

on the part of the Ruffians whatever. This was about 4 p. m.

on Friday. Gen. Lane then deputed two of his men to go into

the Ruffian camp, and make a demand for the Free-State prison-

ers taken at Leavenworth and other places. He also gave them

the necessary instructions how to proceed. One of these men

was Chas. H. Branscomb, esq., of Lawrence; the other was Cap-

tain James B. Cline of Osawatomie, the same who was held a

prisoner in a Missouri jail and who a week ago commanded con-

jointly with Capt. John Brown, sr., at the battle of Osawa-

tomie. These gentlemen, bearing a flag of truce, rode into

Lecompton, and halted before the unfinished State Capitol, which

was for the time being used as a Border-Ruffian fort. The Ruf-

fians were drawn up in line of battle, and were mostly armed

with United States muskets. The following is a verbatim re-

port of the interview:

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 325

John   Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      325

Mr. Branscomb -- "Who has command of the forces here

assembled ?"

Several Voices -- "General Richardson."

Mr. Branscomb -- "Can I see General Richardson?"

Here General Richardson stepped forward and bowed.

Mr. Branscomb -- "General Richardson, are you in command

of the forces here assembled?"

General Richardson -- "Well, I don't know as I am."

An individual here stepped forward and inquired as follows:

"General Richardson, do you still retain the command?"

"No, I suppose not, I resigned this morning," was the reply.

This individual then turned to Messrs. Branscomb and Cline,

and said: "I am in command of the forces here assembled and

am ready to receive any proposition."

Mr. Branscomb -- "Who are you, Sir?"

Individual -- "I am General Marshall."

Mr. Branscomb -- "I am directed by Gen. Lane, Commander

of the Free-State forces of Kansas, to demand of you the un-

conditional and immediate release of all Free-State prisoners

now in Lecompton."

Gen. Marshall -- "We wish to make no compromise with

Gen. Lane, only that he shall treat our prisoners as kindly and

courteously as we treat his."

Mr. Branscomb -- "Do I understand you to refuse to sur-

render the prisoners demanded?"

Gen. Marshall -- "Such is the understanding."

Messrs. Branscomb and Cline were about to return to Gen.

Lane's lines, when Gen. Marshall requested them to wait a few

minutes. They did so. After a private consultation with some

others, the General returned and gave Mr. Branscomb the strange

intelligence that all the prisoners demanded had been released

that morning, and that provision had been made to obtain an

escort of United States dragoons to attend them to Lawrence the

next day. He then told him that he made a demand on Gen.

Lane for all the Pro-Slavery prisoners which had been taken,

and asked Mr. Branscomb to state the demand. This ended the


In the meantime, three different messengers, at three differ-

326 Ohio Arch

326       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications


ent times--the intervals must have been very short--had been

dispatched to the camp of the United States troops about two

miles from Lecompton, asking them to come over and save their

city from the clutches of Gen. Lane and his army. Col. Cook,

the officer in command, finally came with a few of his company

and he and his staff reached Lane's lines about the time the mes

sengers to Lecompton got back. Col. Cook said to Gen. Lane

and his staff, "Gentlemen, you have made a great mistake in com-

ing here today. The Territorial militia was dismissed this morn-

ing; some of them have left, some are leaving now, and the rest

will leave and go to their homes as soon as they can." Mr. Par-

rott of Leavenworth City, who was twice sent down the river

by the Ruffians, replied to him as follows: "Col. Cook, when

we send a man or two men, or a dozen men to speak with the

Territorial authorities, they are arrested and held. like felons!

How, then, are we to know what is going on in Lecompton?

Why, we have to come here with an army to find out what is

going on. How else could we know?" To this Col. Cook made

no reply.

An incident occurred here worthy of record. Deputy Mar-

shal Cramer rode up to Lane's lines, encouraged to perform this

act of bravery, doubtless, by seeing the United States troops;

but his object was not apparent. He was immediately taken

prisoner by our scouts, and as he was passing Col. Cook he ap-

pealed to that gentleman for protection. Col. Cook did not in-

terfere in his behalf, and the bogus process-server was led to the

rear. He was shortly afterward released and was the recipient

of some good advice from one of the boys.

Some more conversation. of an unimportant character took

place between Col. Cook and Gen. Lane and his staff, and the

Free-State forces took up their line of march to Lawrence, where

they arrived about 9 o'clock last night. There are a number of

interesting incidents connected with this Lecompton affair, but

want of time prevents me from writing them. The mail runs

regularly to Westport three times a week, but whether you get

these letters or not I cannot tell. THE TRIBUNE comes "once

in a while".

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 327

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence       327


The people here feel sorry that the House receded and did

nothing for them. They now intend to rely upon themselves.


P. S.--A report has just reached us that the Topeka Volun-

teers have taken Tecumseh. No lives lost. No particulars.

New York Tribune, September 19, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 8, 1856.

We have a lull once more, but it feels like the lull which pre-

cedes a second storm. This time the clouds are not so thick.

and the few that remain on the Missouri-ward horizon are not

so black. The feeling of the people here is this: let the storm

come, we have got our umbrellas up!

My last letter brought us down to the surrender, or may we

call it the capitulation of Lecompton, and the return to Missouri

of the "Kansas militia''. Whether they all returned to Missouri

is a question of some doubt. It is quite certain, however, that

130 from St. Joseph, under Col. Robinson, did return, as the

quarrel mentioned in my last was one that will not be easily healed.

The company or regiment which he commands is known among

the Ruffians by the awe-inspiring name of the "Tigers", their

uniform being supposed to resemble the natural uniform of that

humane animal. Their name may be intended to convey to in-

nocent and unsuspecting Free-State men the human blood-loving,

raw-head-and-bloody-bones character of the company. Be this

as it may, those who know Col. Robinson, their commander, de-

scribe him as a gentleman in every particular, but one who was

weak enough to be led by the misrepresentation of Atchison,

Stringfellow and Company to take part in the raid into the Ter-

ritory. He did so, with the understanding that his mission was

to stop outrage and violence on the part of the Abolitionists.

He was, therefore, but ill prepared to see the shoe on the other

foot--to see law-and-order men commit the outrages which he

was told belonged only to the depraved and desperate Abolition-

ists; and still worse was he prepared to see it counseled or

winked at by the great Stringfellow! Hence their quarrel, fol-

328 Ohio Arch

328       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

lowed by a challenge, which was followed by his refusal to fight

except with gentlemen; this last event was followed by the

Colonel's return to Missouri with his "tigers" -- tamed, doubt-

less, by the news of the battle of Osawatomie. This brings me

to speak of Capt. John Brown, sr. It will be remembered that

after the retreat of the Free-State men, when their ammunition

was expended, Captain Brown was last seen crossing a private

ford with a Sharp's rifle in one hand and a revolver in the other.

As he was not seen afterward he was supposed to have fallen,

and the people here mourned him as dead. It was therefore with

much pleasure that they welcomed back on Sunday last, the

venerable hero of Black Jack and Osawatomie. Captain Brown

is a tall, gray-haired, blue-eyed man, about sixty years of age,

and the expression of his countenance indicates anything else

than the ferocious character in which the Border newspapers

paint him. He reports that but one Free-State man was killed

in the battle, but that two men were murdered (one of them

his own son) before the battle, and one after the battle, making

four in all. The Border newspapers contain a list of the killed

and wounded on the Pro-Slavery side, and their statement is

corroborated in part by Captain Brown. They had thirty-three

killed, and thirty-seven wounded. Captain Brown remained

around Osawatomie taking care of his property and watching

with a few of his Company the movements of the Borderers.

All is quiet in that part of the Territory.

On Saturday last, according to the terms of the Lecompton

settlement of the day before, fourteen Free-State prisoners were

escorted by the dragoons to Lawrence. There are two yet held

in Leavenworth, not included in the terms, one of whom is Mr.

John Wilder, the other is the Rev. Mr. Nute, who was re-

ported to have been sent down the river. The same day, Gen.

Richardson, Commander-in-Chief of the "Kansas Militia", had

the hardihood to ride into Lawrence alone. He had an inter-

view with the Free-State leader, and stated that he was on his

way to Westport to disperse the parties who were coming into

the Territory. Gen. Lane took his statements for what they

were worth, treated him kindly and escorted him out of town.

Lane is reported to have told him that if he (Richardson) found

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 329

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      329

it difficult to disperse them, to bring them up into the Territory

and he (Lane) would do it for him. He is said to have ex-

hibited to Gen. Lane a Uriah Heep humility. However, nobody

will be deceived by these protestations of peace from such a

source. They have been made before with the intention of get-

ting the Free-State men off their guard; and until the great ques-

tion of Freedom or Slavery for Kansas is settled, the Free-State

men will be as vigilant as now in defending their homes against


Today was that fixed upon for the trial of the Treason pris-

oners, and a number of our citizens went, unarmed, to attend

court at Lecompton; but when I left there, at 4 o'clock this aft-

ernoon, no Court had appeared. The only United States Ter-

ritorial officer there was Deputy-Marshal Cramer, of whom men-

tion was made in my last. He commenced using abusive lan-

guage to M. J. Parrott, esq., one of Gov. Robinson's counsel, un-

til the "Stubbs" (unarmed) entered town, and he then "hushed

up" of his own accord. He evidently intended to get up a row,

till he saw it would not pay. Mr. Parrott promised him an in

futurio hearing.

It is worthy of remark that although Lane and his men

marched close by the now deserted house of Gen. Clark, the

Pierce Indian Agent, the murderer of Barber, not a particle of

property was destroyed belonging to him except a few melons,

thus affording another instance of the prudence of Lane and

the desire to keep an unblemished record. Had Clark been there,

it might have been difficult to restrain them.

Nine o'clock at night -- A gentleman has just come from

Lecompton, who says that Jeffreys Lecompte has arrived, and

the Court will be opened at 9 o'clock in the morning. Post-

scriptum Donaldson came with him. I will be there, and keep

you posted.                                      Potter.


New York Tribune, September 19, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 15, 1856.

The dispatch sent to The Tribune yesterday morning as the

mail was closing anticipated Gov. Geary's interference with the

330 Ohio Arch

330       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

United States troops to protect Free-State men. It must be re-

membered that on the 11th inst., as soon as Gen. Lane heard of

the arrival of Gov. Geary and that Free-State men were to be

protected, he left Lawrence and went to Topeka, on his way to

Nebraska. On the following day we received the Governor's

message and proclamation, and the people here discussed the

merits of both for some hours in public meeting. The same eve-

ning, and while the meeting was yet in session, news came of

the enemy from two different directions. It seems that while

the Free-State men were rest-

ing, under the belief that Gen.

Richardson would disperse the

mob at Westport, which he

promised to do, that treach-

erous man was bringing them

into the Territory, till their

number amounted to about

two thousand five hundred.

They got within fifteen miles

of this city before any person

knew it to a certainty. They

came up through the Shawnee

Reserve to the Blue-Jacket

Crossing, just as they did in

December last, and encamped,


as they did then, on the Wakarusa Bottom. Their scouts were dis-

covered by the people of Franklin, who soon communicated the

fact to those of Lawrence.

The facts were embodied in a dispatch, and sent the same

night (Friday) to the Governor at Lecompton. On receiving

it, he immediately started with 400 dragoons for Lawrence,

where he arrived the next morning about daybreak. After

breakfast he spoke a few words to the citizens, assuring them of

his desire to promote peace and to protect the lives and property

of all peaceably-disposed citizens. He said he would visit our

city at an early day, and give his views of matters at more

length. He was sorry that we were threatened with invasions,

but he would see that there would be no more. As the ad-

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 331

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence     331


vance guard of the Ruffians (80 horsemen) had retreated to

the Wakarusa, it was supposed that they had gone home, and

so the Governor went back to Lecompton and took the troops

with him. Yesterday morning about church time, news again

reached us that the enemy were approaching Franklin, which

place, ever since the battle there, has been considered a Free-

State town. An officer of the Ruffian army with two others rode

ahead of the rest to reconnoiter, but happened to be taken pris-

oner by two young men of Franklin. When they took them

they did not take the precaution to make them deliver up their

arms, and as they rode along one of the prisoners fired at his

captor and missed him. The act of the Ruffian was such a

cowardly one that the Free-State man immediately drew his re-

volver and shot him dead. Had all the Ruffians been treated

thus who had been found violating the rules of civilized war-

fare, there would have been less scalping and other barbarities

to record.

About half an hour afterward the rest of the scouting party

of eighty advanced and took possession of the town, and burned

a house and a sawmill which belonged to Free-State men. The

flames were distinctly visible at the new fort lately built at

Mount Oread, which at this time (4 1/2 P. M.) was held by the

Cabot Guards, a company of young men of Lawrence. This

company is composed mostly of business men and is named after

Dr. Cabot of Boston. At 5 o'clock a long defile of horsemen

were seen riding along the road from Franklin to Lawrence, and

as there were but one hundred and fifty to two hundred men

able to bear arms in Lawrence, it took all the military tact of

our leaders to dispose of them in such a manner as to make the

most effectual and bloody defense.  In the meantime several

messengers had been sent to Gov. Geary at Lecompton inform-

ing him of the state of affairs.

About 5 1/2 P. M. a company of the mounted Ruffians num-

bering about 50, and another company numbering about 40,

marched and halted outside of rifle-shot distance of Lawrence.

For about an hour the firing between them and our horsemen,

20 in number, was brisk. They had left their first position and

took refuge in the ravine, when they were followed by a part of

332 Ohio Arch

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the "Wabonsie boys" with Sharp's rifles. At dark the invad-

ers retreated to Franklin -- the whole force of which this patty

was the advance guard--intending to be ready to make the

grand "wipe-out" at the dawn of the next morning.

In the meantime an affair of a very serious character took

place in Lawrence. A fellow named Vandervourt was arrested,

charged with being a Pro-Slavery spy. It was asserted that he

had that day written three dispatches to the Ruffians, informing

them of the deserted condition of the town; that Lane had gone

away; that the citizens, on the strength of the governor's mes-

sage, had gone home to their families and their claims; that

there was hardly a soul left here, and that if ever they wanted

to get possession of Lawrence, now was the time. The letters

were said to have been addressed to a Mr. Wallace at Franklin.

but as there were two Wallaces there, one of the letters went to

the wrong man. By the rules of war, this man Vandervourt

should have been hanged, but he will probably be set at liberty.

He is now under guard, and we are waiting for further proof

of his guilt or innocence. He is one of Buford's men, but pro-

fessed to be a Free-State man. He is a dentist by profession.

He protests innocence, and thinks it very unkind of them be-

cause they will not allow him to help defend Lawrence. He has

been long suspected as a spy, and till lately has been pretty

closely watched. We leave the question of his guilt to time.

which solves all such problems.

About 9 P. M. Secretary Woodson, Deputy Marshal Cramer

and one of our mesengers came from Lecompton with news that

the troops were coming down to Lawrence to protect us. I have

been informed that this Woodson purposely delayed sending, or

did not send at all, the proclamation of the Governor to this

Missouri army.

About 11 P. M. the United States troops -- about three hun-

dred and seventy-five in all -- arrived at Lawrence. They placed

four pieces of artillery on the point held by the Cabot Guards;

the cavalry took their position on the plat between the latter

point and the Kaw River, a little southeast of the city. Here

they still remain.

No further attack was made during the night; but at 8 o'clock

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 333

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      333

this morning a part of them were seen advancing from Frank-

lin. The Governor and suite, having arrived here early in the

morning, now rode down to meet them, and they returned with

him to their encampment. He has been with them all day; but

his professed attempts to disband them have not been successful.

I have heard that their officers, except Titus, Jones and some

others, agreed to disband and go home. These last-named per-

sons swore they would not do so unless he (Gov. Geary) would

first let them "wipe out" Lawrence. Such is the talk; but when

they find that they will have to fight the troops, that fact may

change their minds. About two hundred of them, who say they

are citizens of Kansas, have marched up to Lecompton ostensi-

bly to give up their arms; the rest--twenty-six hundred--are

"Missourians" -- this is, Southern invaders generally.

I will now explain why Lawrence was found so defense-

less at the very time when her defenders were most needed:

When Gen. Lane reached Topeka on Thursday last he heard

that about 450 Ruffians were committing depredations on the

Grasshopper and driving out Free-State settlers. Accordingly,

with a force of 125 men of Topeka, he marched in the direction

of their camp, and discovered them on Friday in a log strong-

hold. He saw that nothing but artillery could drive them out

without great loss to the attacking party. He accordingly dis-

patched a messenger to Lawrence for help. About 100 citi-

zens of Lawrence marched immediately and took with them a

six pounder. They were commanded by Gen. Harvey and in-

stead of going by way of Topeka, they went across the country

to save about fifteen miles' travel.

In the meantime Gen. Lane retreated from Hickory Point to

Pleasant Hill, a distance of ten miles, to wait for the reinforce-

ments from Lawrence. While they were eating supper a man

rode into camp with the Governor's message. Gen. Lane read

it to his men and told them that in all probability the forces at

Lawrence were disbanded and had gone to their home; that they

would probably have no men to send to his assistance, and that

probably Geary would clean out the nest of Ruffians with the

troops, and so save the Free-State men the trouble. He said

that he would take fifty and go on toward Nebraska, and meet

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the train of emigrants which was on its way to Topeka--the

rest could go home and go to work.

While this was being enacted at Pleasant Hill, Col. Harvey

and his men were marching to Hickory Point -- as he supposed

-- to find Gen. Lane. He found the enemy, however, and a bat-

tle ensued. After fighting for some time, a cessation took place.

An agreement or treaty was signed by the officers, by which it

was agreed that they would return prisoners, horses, etc. on both

sides, and the Kickapoos would go home. While our men were

marching home, they were all arrested and disarmed by the

United States troops, and taken to Lecompton. Dr. Cutter was

allowed to go home to Lawrence to take care of a man-- Mr.

Baldwin -- who was wounded in the battle. He brings the only

intelligence we have of the fight.

A large train of emigrants is expected from Nebraska this

week. Gen. Pomeroy is expected with it.


New York Tribune, Sept. 27, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 16, 1856.

I sent The Tribune, a few days since, the statement of I. W.

H. Golden, who, with two others was shot between here and

Leavenworth by the Ruffians. Sunday morning another of these

men came into Lawrence, after having wandered through the

timbers for twelve days without seeing a human being, almost

without food and clothing, and suffering from two severe wounds.

The United States troops who were sent to look after their bod-

ies could find but one man, whom they buried. Mr. Bishop,

who came here Sunday morning, supposed the other two were

dead. I went to the hospital, and he made to me the following


"My name is Thomas Bishop. I live in Leavenworth. I was

formerly of Illinois, but was raised in North Carolina. When

the town of Lawrence was threatened two weeks ago, I started

in company with Mr. Golden and Mr. Roberts--both citizens

of Leavenworth, to join Lane's army. This was on Monday

night, Sept. 1. We stopped during the next day with a friend

this side of Leavenworth, and the same night we started for

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 335

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        335

Lawrence, supposing it would be safer to travel in the night than

during the day. We were all three unarmed. When we got

about half a mile this side of Tonganoxie's, in the Delaware Re-

serve, among the timber, we were overtaken by a band of

mounted men and made prisoners. We were led toward their

camp.   This was about (or perhaps after) midnight. They

talked to Mr. Roberts, who was quite a young man (formerly

from Ohio), and asked him if he feared death--if he would

like to die, etc., with the design of scaring him. When they got

on the Leavenworth side of Tonganoxie's, they stopped and held

some conversation. Three men then rode close up to us. They

then shot Mr. Roberts. Mr. Golden was shot; and when they

fired at me I fell down, although uninjured. To make sure

work, they shot at us after we were down, and the second shot

took effect in my arm, making a slight flesh wound. I distinctly

heard them pronounce the others dead. One asked if I was

dead. A fellow advanced and felt my pulse and exclaimed:

'Dead? H--1 and d--n'. He then gave me a blow over the

back part of the head with the butt end of a musket. How long

I remained unconscious I don't know. When I returned to con-

sciousness, which must have been within an hour, I crawled to

the timber and lay there all that day. At night I felt feverish,

and moved a little to find water, but found none. The next day

and the next night were long ones to me, but I finally reached the

Stranger Creek, and on Thursday night, Sept. 4, I first found


How I spent the time from that time till now is more than

I can tell. In fact, it appears like a dream, the whole of it; but

my head and arm feel very like realities. The blow on my head

affected my sight so that I could see only a very short distance. I

moved about from place to place during the night. I lived

chiefly on hazelnuts, but found some watermelons at Tongan-

oxie's. Tonganoxie, who is a Delaware Indian, and who kept

a kind of halfway house between Leavenworth and Lawrence,

had moved away for safety, so his house was entirely deserted.

I hid in his corn and in the bushes for several nights, but I

knew I would die soon from starvation if I stayed there. I

heard human voices very often, but could not distinguish whether

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they were friends or foe, as my eyes were so badly affected I

could not see. At last I determined to find Lawrence, and on

Saturday, at dusk, I started from my hiding place. I arrived at

the Lawrence ferry at midnight, but as I was not sure of the

place I did not arouse the ferryman till Sunday morning (the

14th). I then heard for the first time that one of my compan-

ions, Mr. Golden, was alive and the other killed."

Such is the statement of this man, which agrees entirely with

the statement made by Mr. Golden (formerly of Pennsylvania)

who was shot so badly in the mouth. They are both in the hos-

pital, and though their wounds are not dangerous, they require

medical attention and care. I have no doubt but that many

cases of suffering, nearly as bad as the horrible one just re-

corded, have never been made known to the public, nor have I

any doubt whatever that many have perished in Kansas under

circumstances of a character like those described. How seared

must be the heart who can read such outrages and say, "all is

quiet and peaceful in Kansas" and think no more of it.

Gov. Geary has been a week in the Territory, and his acts

thus far have been very far from those which would indicate

a partisan. He has been impartial. He has disbanded nearly

three thousand invaders who had this city almost in their

clutches, and he has arrested about a hundred Free-State men

(those of Col. Harvey), mentioned in my last letter. These

will probably be released and disbanded after the Missourians

are known to be out of the Territory. Once released, these Free-

State men will return to their homes and claims, which they

would never have been called upon to protect had it not been

for the inefficiency or wickedness of Shannon, Woodson and the

other appointees of Pierce. Reserving comments, which might

do injustice to either party, it is due to Gov. Geary to say that

he has shown a promptness of action in these matters which jus-

tifies us in assuming, that whatever he conceives to be right will

be "put through", a la Jackson. Whether he will declare mar-

tial law-- without which he has no more "power to hang any

man right up on the spot", than has one citizen to hang another

-- whether he will disarm all the citizens or not, the future alone

must tell. If he will only keep the invaders out, and stop the

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 337

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence      337

burning of property and murder, the Free-State men do not care

how soon they are disarmed; but they will have to be well as-

sured of this before they will part with their arms. Those who

were disarmed will receive their arms back as soon as they are

released, of course. About 100 Free-State volunteers of our

militia are holding themselves in readiness to act under Col.

Cook of the United States army, by request of Gov. Geary. The

Pro-Slavery men at Lecompton said they did not want Geary or

any other man for Governor but Woodson. He declared the

Territory in a state of insurrection and rebellion at a time when

they wanted it done, as a pretext for this last grand raid from

Missouri. I am satisfied that had Gov. Geary been, here two weeks

sooner no proclamation declaring rebellion would have been is-

sued. What nonsense to call men rebels because they choose to

defend their homes from invasion! No, I think Gov. Geary will

not allow himself to be caught playing at "Tom-fool in the mid-

dle" with any faction or clique in Kansas or at Washington


I have just learned that this large body of men who came

up to attack this city are a part of the posse summoned in pur-

suance of the proclamation issed to Gen. Coffee and others, but

as they were not in the Territory when the "Northern Division"

was disbanded at Lecompton, no effort was made by Acting

Governor Woodson to send to Westport, Missouri, to tell them

this fact. Hence they came in, under Gen. Reid, a member, I

believe, of the Legislature of Missouri.

After the visit of Gov. Geary to this camp, and after they

had agreed to go home, about 200 of them marched to Lecomp-

ton in order to take the ferry across the river at that place. While

on their way, however, they still continued their old tricks of

horse-stealing and murder. They got as far up the California

road as Mr. Henry M. Simpson's house. They wanted his horse,

but his wife got her arms around its neck and would not part

with it.

"What state are you from?" asked one of them.

"From Massachusetts."

"Did the Emigrant Aid Society pay your expenses here?"

"No, Sir, they did not."

Vol. XXXIV--22.

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"Is that your wife that hangs on to the pony?"

"She is."

They thought it best not to steal the horse, and the proces-

sion moved along.

At Wheatland, where Titus was to have had his general

training, they committed no outrage, although Postmaster Spicer

has several good horses. They probably spared him on account

of his being like James Buchanan, sole proprietor and only resi-

dent of Wheatland. When they had gone a mile or two further,

they pressed a couple of horses belonging to Capt. Thomes, into

whose house the "Northern Division" fired, when occupied by a

few ladies, two weeks ago. Going on still further they pressed

a horse belonging to David Buffum and his brother, who is said

to be a deaf and dumb man. David Buffum went out to remon-

strate against their taking his horse, and was immediately shot

down. The pony saved by the fair arms of a true-hearted woman

was then employed to procure a surgeon. But the errand was

useless. Mr. Buffum was shot in the abdomen, and although he

still lives, the wound is considered mortal. Gov. Geary was on

the spot a short time after the murder, as he happened to be on

his way from Lawrence to Lecompton when the murder oc-

curred. I understand he is investigating the circumstances, with

a view to bring the murderer to justice.

Speaking of murder reminds me of an incident which will

illustrate the manner in which the Buford brigade has been

"used up". As we were returning from Lecompton's Court to

the camp on Wednesday last, accompanied by some of the high-

treason prisoners and Marshal Donaldson, we met a man with a

gun in his hand, inquiring for the City Marshal. "What do you

want with him?" asked Mr. Donaldson. "I want to give my-

self (hic) up," was the reply of the drunken young man. "What

have you done?" we inquired. "Why, I expect I have commit-

ted a regular (hic) full-blooded homicide. I suppose I shot one

of my (hic) best friends." "Where do you belong?" asked Don-

aldson, very uneasily. "I belong to the militia, and we were on

our way to Atchison, and --"  "What's your name, and where

are you from?" asked Donaldson. "My name is Wells, formerly

of Georgia. The man I killed was Mr. (hic) King; that's so:

John Henri Kagi --Newspaper Correspondence 339

John Henri Kagi --Newspaper Correspondence    339


formerly a Floridian."  "It's too bad," said we abstractedly.

"Yes," said the murderer, "It's a G-d d-d shame!" The mar-

shal took him into custody. This was the result of a drunken

quarrel but it was the entire coolness with which the fellow spoke

of the act which surprised me. The record of this conversation,

verbatim, will illustrate many things which space prevents recall-

ing, but which your memory will easily supply.

The statement in my last that both companies which attempted

to enter Lawrence on Sunday afternoon were mounted is a mis-

take. Only one company was mounted, the other was infantry.

I have just heard that David Buffum is dead.

All except one company of the dragoons have gone back to

Lecompton. The weather is fine.


New York Tribune, September 27, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 19, 1856.

There is no doubt in the mind of any person here, that the

Pro-Slavery party of Kansas, or rather of Missouri, united with

the crimes of murder, arson and robbery, that of base treachery

to the Free-State men by dishonorably breaking their pledges,

and this explains some of the strange events of the last ten days.

After surrendering the Free-State prisoners at Lecompton, after

assuring Gen. Lane that the rabble called the "Kansas Militia"

was disbanded and would be sent home where they belong, after

assuring us that he was going to Westport to disband and dis-

organize the mob and discountenance their attempt to invade

our homes--after all this, Gen. Richardson under the escort of

Gen. Lane, to whom these assurances were made, rides through

Lawrence to Westport and unites with others in encouraging this

raid which came so near blotting us from existence on Saturday

last. The Ruffians at Lecompton acted their part well. They

were civil, and some of them even courteous to Free-State men.

Gov. Woodson, in conversation with me, went so far as to ex-

press his regret at the unhappy state of affairs in the Territory,

when he knew well that his infamous proclamation was the

cause of it all. Still, it was lucky for the "High Treason" pris-

oners that the week of our lethargy--the week we slept upon

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the above assurances--was their week for trial. Had it been

a week earlier, there is no telling what treatment they might

have met with from the fury of Stringfellow's mob at Lecomp-

ton. While we slept-while the majority of our forces had

gone to their homes believing that Woodson and Richardson

would disband the Westport as they had done the Lecompton

regiment, they were plotting with Atchison the destruction of

our best town and its already exasperated inhabitants. The Ruf-

fians well knew by their system of espionage the exact position

of the Free-State men. They well knew that Gen. Lane after the

treaty of peace at Lecompton (which he believed was made in

good faith, and which was kept in good faith on his part), had

gone to look after those dear, good souls who had been sent

ostensibly to intercept him when he should attempt to escape

from the Territory, but really to drive back the trains of Free-

State emigrants who would come in on the Iowa road to To-

peka. At the latter place Gen. Lane heard of their whereabouts,

and so, with a small force, marched to their rendezvous. He sur-

rounded them in one of their log-built dens, and sent to Law-

rence for a piece of artillery and some force to drive them out.

While waiting for these he got the message of the new governor,

and concluded that he could do the job much easier with the

troops than he (Lane) could do it with his men. Lane accord-

ingly disbanded his men and went with fifty to meet the train

coming from Nebraska. Meanwhile, Col. Harvey marched from

Lawrence with 100 volunteers and a piece of artillery, came upon

these fellows, fought them, made them agree to leave, and then

returned himself with his company in the direction of Lawrence,

when almost every man of his company were made prisoners and

disarmed by the troops by order of Geary.

In the meantime the Ruffians went up the California Road

in order to cross the ferry at Lecompton -- the same crowd who

coolly shot down Mr. Buffum, a cripple, because he objected to

their stealing his horse -- instead of going to Leavenworth to dis-

band, as they pretended they would do, went up the north side

of the river to Topeka and attacked that town. Such is the re-

port. At any rate, Gov. Geary has gone there with the troops,

but what the result of his visit will be I cannot yet tell. Whether

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence 341

John Henri Kagi -- Newspaper Correspondence    341


he will see fit to drive back the emigrants known, to be on their

way into the Territory, time will show. If he does, then he will

have shown his hand, a partisan instead of the impartial governor

of the whole people. But we will not anticipate; we hope for

better things.

What a beautiful sentiment was that of Jeff. Davis in his

letter to Gen. Smith, where he says that "patriotism and humanity

(why didn't he add Slavery?) alike require that rebellion (and

the rebels, too, of course) should be promptly crushed." Now,

you cannot appreciate this sentiment as we can here in Kansas,

especially as we in Lawrence are those whom "Patriotism and

Humanity", and Jeff. Davis and Slavery, are so anxious about.

Jefferson Davis, I notice, also recommends that in doctoring up

sick Kansas Gen. Smith must resort to phlebotomy some, but

not enough to bleed the patients to death. How kind!

At the battle of Oskaloosa -- the battle fought by Harvey's

men-some documents were found which threw      some light

upon the army of the Ruffians, and the means employed to raise

it. How strange it is that Southern men kept up a continual

howl for half a year, in the halls of Congress, about the New

England Emigrant Aid Society -- a society which never paid the

passage of a man to Kansas -- but never yelped once about the

Society which issued the following circular:


"Charleston, S. C., Feb. 26, 1856.


"Dear Sir: We respectfully ask your attention to the purpose

of the Society, the objects and officers of which you will find

on the next page. It is unnecessary when addressing Southern

men, to dwell at length on the grave and pressing importance

of southern action in aid of the Pro-Slavery party in Kansas.

Our immediate object is to inform you that a Society has been

organized here, which hopes to initiate an, earnest, systematic

and efficient effort in support of those who are battling for

Southern rights. The endeavor, so far, has been rewarded with

encouraging success. We would, therefore, ask such aid as you

may be disposed to afford, and request the fullest information

from you in regard to the temper and action of your immediate

neighborhood. We would further suggest that should there be

near you any men whose character and enterprise make them fit

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emigrants, but who stand in need of pecuniary assistance to carry

out their wishes, you would furnish us with a list of such names,

specifying a knowledge of their qualifications. Such a communi-

cation would, of course, be considered confidential, and is not

intended as a pledge on our part to send them until after a full

examination of our ability and their fitness.

"We would beg you to regard this letter not as entirely con-

fidential, but to be used only in private communication with your


"We have the honor to be, very respectfully,

"W. M. Whaley, Chairman."

"Attested March 5, 1856.

"Theodore G. Barker, Secretary

"S. Y. Tupper

"W. D. Foster

"J. M. Easton

"C. J. Colcock

"Theodore G. Baker

"John Cunningham

"W. H. Trescot

A. W. Burnet

W. E. Martin

F. B. Richardson

Wm. Lebby

W. R. Tabor

A. F. Browning

James Simmons"

Such is the circular. But let us turn the leaf and see the "ob-

jects and officers" of the Society of which it speaks. What if

it proves to be an "Emigrant Aid Society"? But, no, it can't be

that; the South was always opposed to such things. But there is

the inside:



Article i. The name of this organization shall be, "A Society

for the Aid of the Slave Settlements of Kansas," and it shall

continue until the question of the admission of Kansas as a Slave

State shall have been decided.

Art. 4. The duty of the Executive Committee shall be to pro-

mote the emigration of such citizens as will go to the Territory

of Kansas with a bona fide purpose of becoming inhabitants

thereof, and aiding the constituted authorities in maintaining the

government and laws now in force in that Territory, or such

other laws as may be passed for the preservation of slave institu-

tions. And it shall be the further duty of said Committee to pro-

vide for raising funds and to adopt such measures as they may

deem judicious for carrying out the purposes of this Society.

Art. 6. Any resident of the State may become a member of

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 343

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence       343


the Society by subscribing his name and contributing such a sum

as he may think proper to the purposes of the Society.



President -- Hon. James Rose


Hon. J. Harleston Reid

Chas. D. Carr, Esq.,

Hon. W. Porcher Miles,


Theo. G. Barker, Esq.,

Hon. Edward Frost,

Wms. Middleton, Esq.,

Elias Vanderhorst, Esq.,


E. Harry Frost, Esq.

Then follow the names of the Executive Committee, which,

I find by comparison, are the same as those who signed the "not

entirely confidential" letter above.

Then follow the names of the Executive Committee, which

are gotten up in a very "taking way." It is very curious that Mr.

Frank Pierce did not mention it in his conversation with the

National Kansas Committee.



Charleston, S. C., March 5, 1856.

To all the True Friends of the Rights of the South.

We hereby certify, That Mr. G. H. T. Alexander, the bearer

of this, is a true Southern man in sentiment, and emigrates to

Kansas with a bona fide purpose of becoming an inhabitant

thereof, and aiding the constituted authorities in maintaining the

government and laws, now in force in said Territory, and such

other laws as may be passed for the preservation of slavery in-

stitutions, and we earnestly commend him to the kind offices and

friendly services of all who are maintaining the rights of the



(Here follow the names of the entire "Executive Committee

of the Society for the aid of the Slave Settlements of Kansas",

attested by Theo. G. Barker, Secretary.)

Speaking of these South Carolinians reminds me of an in-

teresting event. It will be recollected that when the Herald of

Freedom was destroyed, a red flag, with one star and "Southern

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Rights" on it was hoisted on the building. It so happened that

when the same flag was being brought into town as a trophy by

the Free-State men, the press and type of the new Herald of

Freedom was coming in in an opposite direction. This was an

oiminous coincidence. The Herald will be issued immediately, at

the usual rates, I believe. Mr. Brown, no longer a prisoner, is

superintending his business himself.

But to return to the Southern army: After these men get

into the Territory by the Aid Societies of the South, it might be

interesting to your readers to know how these patriots are fed,

and so I send you another of these precious documents:


Headquarters 3d Regt. Kansas Militia,

ATCHISON, August 19, 1856.

Orders. No. I.

I. Each Captain of a Company composing this Regiment is

hereby required forthwith to provide his command with a baggage

wagon or wagons (as may be needed), and the necessary teams

for transporting the same, and to lay in sufficient supplies of pro-

visions for the use of his men for a campaign of two weeks.

2. Wagons, teams and provisions will be pressed into this

service wherever the same may be found not preoccupied by other

Companies of this Regiment, the Captains giving receipts for the

same to the owners thereof.

3. Reports relative to the execution of this order will be

male to the Colonel of the Regiment, on Wednesday, the 20th

inst., and the whole Regiment will hold itself in readiness to move

in military order from this place on Thursday morning, the 21st

inst., at 9 o'clock a. m. By order of


A. MORRALL, Adjutant.


The second of these orders is particularly Stringfellowish,

and considering that the receipts of the Captain's are not "as

good as gold" and hardly worth the paper upon which they are

written, it is quite a doubtful kind of pay.

The man Vandervourt, who was arrested on Sunday last

charged with being a spy was yesterday discharged, no proof be-

ing found against him. There is no doubt that there have been

regularly appointed spies in Lawrence all summer. They are

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 345

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence        345


harmless, however, as all we do is immediately submitted to the

world for its approval or condemnation. Still there are times, as

for example last Sunday, when they might injure us by bring-

ing upon us by surprise a much superior force.


New York Tribune, October 3, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., Sept. 22, 1856.

I have been waiting for some days to unriddle, if possible, the

mystery which hangs around the position of Gov. Geary in re-

lation to the Bogus Laws. To me that position is still a mys-

tery, and I therefore propose to tell you what the people here

think about it, judging him solely by his acts since he came into

the Territory. Some of these acts were duly mentioned in my

last letter, and. the state of the case will more fully appear by the

following statement of facts, made to me by Lieut. George Earle

of the Lawrence "Stubbs", who was made prisoner by order of

Gov. Geary.

I need not restate the circumstances which led Col. Harvey

to start to Lane's assistance with a force of over 100 men. It

appears now that the people here sent a dispatch to Geary stat-

ing the case, and recounting some of the outrages which that

body of Ruffians were every day perpetrating upon Free-State

men, and asking him whether it would be right to go to their as-

sistance. To -this Gov. Geary replied by messenger, who never

reached Lawrence, that they must not go. No messenger reach-

ing Lawrence, Col. Harvey marched on Saturday night, and on

the next day (Aug. 14) at 9 a. m. arrived at a place where

was a sawmill and improved claim belonging to a Free-State man,

but now entirely deserted, where they rested. This was six

miles from the Ruffian fort held by the "Kansas militia". After

eating some roasted corn for breakfast they started, and at about

11 a. m. they got within. range of the fort. They placed the piece

of artillery in front, and were supported by Captain Cutter's

company of infantry. The cavalry then rode to the right of the

fort, and were immediately fired upon by the Ruffians. The bat-

tle then commenced. The Stubbs were placed in a ravine to the

right of the fort, the cavalry (who had now dismounted) in a

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cornfield within Sharp's rifle shot. The battle raged, though not

incessantly, for about five hours, and just as the artillery were

taking their third position, a flag of truce appeared. The hostili-

ties now ceased, but Col. Harvey told the flag-bearer that until

the black flag which floated over the fort was taken down, he

would listen to no proposition. The flag was immediately hauled

down and destroyed by themselves, each protesting that he did

not help raise it. An agreement was then entered into that they

would retire and disband peaceably. There were three Free-

State surgeons along, and some of these volunteered to dress

their wounds. They had three killed and seven wounded. The

Free-State men had five wounded. They (the Ruffians) num-

bered eighty men, armed with United States muskets, knives and


At 6 p. m. the Free-State men marched back to the place

where they had rested in the morning, and in the mean time had

sent their surgeons to Lawrence with the wounded. They

reached the mill where they intended to camp over night. Col.

Harvey had been invited to eat supper at the cabin of a settler a

short distance from there, and after seeing that his men were

as comfortable as circumstances would permit, he went there.

About 10 p. m., the guard discovered a body of mounted men

on the hill overlooking the camp. On being challenged, they

stated that they were United States troops, Capt. Wood com-

manding. Capt. Wood rode down and inquired if this was Har-

vey's camp. He was answered affirmatively. He then inquired

for Harvey. Someone said he was not there. He then ordered

the Free-State men to fall into line. About fifteen did so. He

then informed them that they might consider themselves prison-

ers. He was then asked upon what authority he acted. He replied,

"By authority of the United States, and by order of Gov. Geary."

He told them that they must lay down their arms also. Capt.

Bickerton of the Free-State Artillery, said that, of course, they

would not resist the United States troops and would lay down

their arms, provided he (Wood) would be responsible for them.

This was promised, and the prisoners were marched, without

food, the same night in the direction of Lecompton, where they

arrived the next morning (15th) at 8 o'clock. Here they were

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 347

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      347


drawn up in line, and the Pro-Slavery men began to try to taunt

them by calling them "Abolitionists", and other names, and crow-

ing over their present position. They were told that Lawrence

had been "wiped out" last evening, and other things calculated

to excite them to a quarrel. But they bore these insults calmly.

They were then marched to the camp of the soldiers, and al-

though they called incessantly for food and though one man

sank down from exhaustion, no food was furnished them till 5

o'clock p. m. They were furnished with hard bread and bacon,

and though this kind of fare was rough and unusual, yet it must

have been sweet after a long march and (with the exception of

some roasted corn) a fast of forty-eight hours.

An incident happened at Harvey's Camp, which is, perhaps,

worthy of record. Immediately after the arrest of Harvey's

men, the Pro-Slavery guide who showed Capt. Wood where the

Free-State camp was, rode off in the direction of the Pro-Slav-

ery camp, intending, doubtless, to put the Ruffians on their guard.

He was immediately followed by three dragoons, they supposing

that he was a Free-State man who was trying to escape. They

told him to halt, three times. He refused to do so, and they

fired. He turned in his saddle and returned the fire of the dra-

goons. They then fired once more and shot him through the

heart. On bringing him to the light they found it was their

guide. His body was taken to Lecompton, tied to a feed-box

behind one of the wagons.

While crossing the ferry at Lecompton on Monday morning,

quite a number made their escape, so that when they were

counted, there were 101 instead of 125. For shelter, the pris-

oners had only two small tents, which would shelter, if crowded,

eight or ten persons. The balance had to take the prairie for a

bed, and the heavy night dew for covering. Lieut. Earle speaks

in high terms of the kindness of Lieut. Colburn of the United

States army to himself and other prisoners.

On Thursday, (Sept. 18), sixteen other Free-State prisoners

were brought down from Topeka. On Friday, fifty of them were

marched down to Lecompton to be examined before Judge Cato.

They were lined around the court room. and the citizens were

told to look at the prisoners and see if they could identify any

348 Ohio Arch

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of them. Several of the Ruffians who had promised Col. Har-

vey to go home, stepped forward and identified fifteen. The

Judge remanded all of them back to prison till Monday, and said

that there would be no more witnesses against them then. No-

tice was accordingly sent around to that effect, so that Pro-Slav-

ery men can have a chance to trump up charges against them.

The fifteen identified are charged with murder, robbery, grand

larceny, and all other crimes in the calendar. Of course all the

others will be identified.

On Friday night Mr. Earle with three others, took advantage

of the intense darkness, and rolled about a hundred yards, crawled

about as many more, and, as that brought them outside of the

sentinels, they made tracks for home. 'Tis said others have

rolled out.

Pro-Slavery men, in the mean time, are swearing to the own-

ership of Free-State horses and rifles which they never owned.

Indeed, upon application to Donaldson, they can sometimes be

had without an oath, and thus Free-State men are being robbed,

while they have no chance to rebut the oath or prove that their

property never was owned by its claimants. On being remon-

strated with about this matter, Mr. Donaldson made this reply:

"If you are released, you can apply to the Courts for redress."

What consolation!

The murderer of David Buffum is still unarrested and un-

hung. It is very singular that he is not yet taken. Not a Pro-

Slavery man has yet been arrested in the Territory by order of

Gov. Geary.

I have just heard from Lecompton. The Free-State men

are in charge of Col. Titus, whom Geary has enrolled as cap-

tain of a company, under command of Gen. Smith. Of course,

the Free-State men will be well taken care of by Titus. Geary

was down here today, I understand, trying to raise a company

of volunteers to serve, like Titus, under Gen. Smith. I think

the number (eighty-three) can be raised tomorrow. But they

will never consent to be used to enforce the bogus law, so that

he cannot ensnare them in that way at least. The Free-State

men were not examined today before Cato. They were re-

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 349

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence       349


manded back again till tomorrow. They will be represented in

Court by M. J. Parrott and H. Mills Moore, esqs.

I have refrained, thus far, from commenting to the disad-

vantage of Gov. Geary upon these facts, although these facts

are made the premises from which, without a very intricate

mode of reasoning, it is assumed that his influence is against

the Free-State cause. True, he may be able to show the wis-

dom of his policy, and such wisdom may be self-evident to the

Buchanan organs of the nation; yet he will probably find that

there are other elements than Buchananism at work in the popu-

lar heart. I have no doubt at all that Gov. Geary means well,

but when we remember that he is surrounded by the same batch

of Territorial officers which surrounded Shannon -- when we

remember that these men will offer their counsel and wield more

or less influence upon him -- when we remember that these men,

from Woodson down to Cramer, hate with malignant hatred

anything which looks like Freedom -- when we remember that

he was appointed by a puerile and wicked administration, and

instructed by the head of a bloodthirsty Department -- when we

remember all these things, and many more as strongly to the

point as these, we are fearful that the design of the President is

to crush out Freedom, and that even the individuality of John

W. Geary may be submerged, and perhaps lost, as Shannon's

was, in this grand effort.


New York Tribune, October 3, 1856.


Lawrence, K. T., October 8, 1856.

The question is now being mooted here very considerably

whether Gov. Geary is or is not a living and walking Toombs

bill. The arguments pro and con are, to say the least of them,

very interesting.

The Toombs bill proposed to amend and to repeal certain

territorial laws--those which Gen. Cass pronounced a "dis-

grace to civilization" -- but still it acknowledged the validity of

the Legislature, which its framers knew was the work of an

armed invading mob. What does Gov. Geary say on this sub-

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350        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

ject? Simply this, "that the people have the right to ask the

next Legislature to revise any and all laws." Well, we have a

Governor's assurance that at least one of our rights is still left

us, namely, the right of petition; but it is very evident that Mr.

Geary does not understand the position of the Free-State set-

tlers of Kansas, if he thinks that Free-State men will petition

a body elected under laws which they repudiate. The power to

legislate, in the first place, was a usurpation, and it follows that

all authority created by fraud is itself a fraud. Still, the assur-

ance that we have the right to petition is gratifying, especially

as we know that that right avails us nothing at Washington,

whatever weight it might have upon a nigger-driving Legislature

at Lecompton. The right of petition to a Legislature elected un-

der the bogus code will never be exercised. It is very plainly

seen that Gov. Geary acknowledges the validity of the bogus

Missouri Legislature, because he is very particular in saying to

people that the enactment must be religiously observed.  But

here are his own words: "In the meantime, as you value the

peace of the Territory and the maintenance of future laws, I

would earnestly ask you to refrain from all violation of the

present statutes."

Gov. Geary in his inaugural address devotes two very nice

paragraphs to the doctrine of "popular sovereignty, "and gives

his idea of that doctrine (in which he is a true believer) alto-

gether at loggerheads with the Toombs bill. Whether he so

differs by instructions from headquarters, or whether it is a mis-

take, or a new stroke of policy on old Buck's account, we will

not stop to inquire. We know that the Toombs bill proposed

to enact an election law for the Territory, and on this point

Lieut. Gov. Roberts entered his protest as a Democrat, and

showed the country the inconsistency of the position of the Pro-

Slavery Senate. We know that Gov. Geary holds the same opin-

ion of "popular sovereignty" which every old line Democrat in

the country held -- which every Democrat who came to Kansas

held "for a few days", till, convinced of its absurdity, it was

given up in disgust, and afterwards thought of only as an in-

fernal political hoax. So far Geary and the Toombs bill do not


John Henri Kagi-Newspaper Correspondence 351

John Henri Kagi-Newspaper Correspondence        351


The Toombs bill fixed the enumeration of voters at a time

when the Missouri River was blocked to prevent citizens of the

Territory from returning who had been driven from their homes

by a heartless mob. So Governor Geary asked Free-State men

to take part in a popular election, after he had arrested over a

hundred Free-State voters, guilty of no crime but the love of

Liberty. Here the action of Gov. Geary and the proposed

Toombs bill are identical.

We are led to make these remarks in view of the result of

the election held here last Monday. The Free-State men of this

city, and, I believe, all over the Territory, refused to take any

part in the election. Monday morning, Sheriff Jones came here

with two men from Lecompton, and opened the polls at the of-

fice of James Christian, a Pro-Slavery lawyer who lives here.

I went in during the day and inquired who was "running". Sher-

iff Jones answered my question by handing me the following:





For Congress:

J. W. Whitfield.

For Representatives:

Jos. C. Anderson

J. C. Thompson

James Garwin

G. H. Browne

H. Butcher

Mr. Christian, who is a good-natured little Irishman, asked

me to vote. I asked him how much I would have to pay. He

said, "Half a dollar." It was a dollar by the act of the bogus

Legislature, but the Pro-Slavery cause and tax are both reduced

one half since then. At night, when the polls closed at Lawrence,

there were seven "Law-and-Order" tickets voted, and the "Law-

and-Order" candidates may well be proud of having received a

unanimous vote in the "infected districts", as they call it.

At Lecompton they had a very fine time. The Ruffians there

polled 457 votes. At Willow Springs they polled 61 votes--

making in the entire county (Douglas they call it) about 525

352 Ohio Arch

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votes.  Not a Free-State man voted in this county, so that they

had it all their own way.

I have just heard of a very interesting trick which they are

said to have practiced at Lecompton. When a doubtful man,

one who they suspected was a little shaky, went up to vote, his

name was written on the back of his ticket, so that had he voted

on the other side of the goose he woull have been spotted. In

this election, there was no need for such precaution, as "the

goose" had but one side; still it is illustrative of the vigilance of

these men.

New disturbances have broken out at Osawatomie, in the

southern part of the Territory.  J. H. Holmes of that place,

formerly of New York City, had an interview with the Gov-

ernor in relation to these disturbances. Mr. Holmes, in behalf

of the people of Osawatomie, asked Gov. Geary if he would

allow the Free-State men to form  a company for protection

against a band of guerrillas which still existed in that part of the

Territory. Mr. H. told the Governor that fifteen houses of

Free-State settlers had been burned, and their owners, with their

families, had been driven away. Gov. Geary replied to Mr.

Holmes, that if the Free-State men formed a company, and

killed any Pro-Slavery men down there, "they would swing for

it"--to use his own language. He said that when the troops

(sent north to capture and take prisoners the emigrants) return,

he would go with them to this scene of trouble and "find out

about it". Another gentleman from Osawatomie, whose name

I have forgotten, went to him last Sunday on the same errand,

but received about as much satisfaction. There are a great many

citizens leaving that part of the Territory on that account; and

the worst of it is, they don't settle in any other part, but gen-

erally go back to the state whence they emigrated. Indeed, as

near as I can find out, there is not much inducement for settle-

ment, unless a Free-State trading post can be opened SOME-


have every reason to believe that the western border of Missouri

from Arkansas north to Iowa, is organized to keep out Free-

State settlement. Several men are known to have gone to Mis-

souri after loads of provisions who never returned. This re-

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 353

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      353


mark applies only to men in southern Kansas. Their teams have

been taken from them, and they have been given their choice,

either to be shot or to go home to the state from which they


I mentioned in a former letter the removal of Thomas Shoe-

maker from the office of Receiver of Public Funds for the Ter-

ritory, and the appointment of William Brindle to that office.

I have just heard of an incident which may serve to illustrate

how this Territory is governed and by whom it is governed.

Early in the summer it seems that an order came from the Sec-

retary of the Interior to the Surveyor-General of the Territory

to open the Land Office for the sale of the public lands. To this

order a certain functionary replied, that he would be d--d if the

office would be opened by his consent till that d--d Abolition

Shoemaker was removed. We know that the office was not

opened, and we know that Mr. Shoemaker is now removed, al-

though he was appointed at the instance of Douglas. But his

crime was in not understanding "Squatter Sovereignty" as Doug-

las does, and so they have now got a man who does understand

it in just that light and no other. Brindle is a well known small

politician of Northern Pennsylvania, but becoming disgusted

with the Free-Soil majorities there for a few years past, he left

the state and sets up for an "A No. I" Border Ruffian at Leaven-

worth. It is said that he took part in the scenes which re-

sulted in the death of Phillips. I do not know that this is true

of Mr. Brindle -- I hope it is not -- I would be sorry to have

the district from which we both emigrated, disgraced in that

way. Well, his term of office will not be a long one. Mr. Shoe-

maker is going to stump in "Egypt" against Buchanan, and in

favor of Fremont. As he is a lawyer and a good speaker, and

as he once had great influence in Illinois as a Democrat, it is not

likely Old Buck will gain much by the change. Gaius Jenkins,

esq., has also gone to Illinois to stump for Fremont and Free


The Free-State men have called a convention at Topeka on

the 13th inst., of the whole people, to take into consideration the

propriety of forming an electoral ticket under the Topeka con-

stitution. Whether this is good policy time must determine.

Vol. XXXIV - 23.

354 Ohio Arch

354        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

For my own part I cannot see the utility of it, except that a

vote on Fremont will determine the exact strength of the Free-

State party in the Territory. Should we be admitted as a state

in December, it is questionable whether the electors of Kansas

would be allowed seats in the Electoral College, especially if the

race were a close one.

Speaking of the race being close, reminds me that Sheriff

Jones offered on Monday last to bet me $1000 of his own, and

$10,000 of a friend of his that Buchanan would be elected.

These were arguments which I could not controvert on account

of not having the change, and so I was silenced. On my hint-

ing that if I had the money I would bet on 30,000 majority in

Pennsylvania for Fremont, he looked at me as much as to say,

"Poor Abolitionist, he's crazy; what a pity !" but made no reply.

At last Gov. Geary has offered a reward of $500 for the ap-

prehension and conviction of the murderer of Buffum, nearly

three weeks after the murder is committed. Gov. Robinson of-

fered last April a reward for the assassin of Jones of $500 the

next day after the affair. It is strange that Gov. Geary should

wait till the murderer of Buffum could get to his victim's antip-

odes before a reward is offered. "Better late than never."

I have just seen a gentleman from Wyandot who informs

me that at the election on Monday last the Pro-Slavery men

polled over 200 votes, while there are but forty odd legal voters

in the precinct. Not a Free-State vote was cast there, nor any-

where in the Territory as far as heard from. It is very evident

to me from the vote cast at Lecompton, Wyandot and Leaven-

worth, that more than half the votes cast are illegal votes. I

am, therefore, glad that the Free-State men took no part in the

matter whatever, as it is not likely they will ever receive fair play

from Pro-Slavery ballot-box stuffers, and it is nearly certain

that they would not have received fair play at this time.


New York Tribune, October 18, 1856.

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 355

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      355




The following letter from one of the Free State prisoners

gives a most graphic account of the oppressions inflicted in the

name of law upon the people of Kansas. It explains some trans-

actions left obscure in telegraphic dispatches.


September 29, 1856.

To the Editor of the National Era:

Just at this time, perhaps, the Freedom-loving people of the

States are congratulating themselves upon the prospect of jus-

tice being at last dealt out to Kansas. Such a boon would cer-

tainly be worth any rejoicing which the devotees of liberty

could bestow; and surely no people on earth could receive it

with more of gratitude than we. We too have seen these pros-

pects, but only to see them vanish, leaving in their stead noth-

ing but misery, pain, and sorrow. It was known, previous to

the arrival of Governor Geary, that he had been on intimate

terms with General Lane, and that he was his friend in the af-

fair last winter between Lane and Douglas. From this, we

thought we had reason to hope, and on the evening of the 11th

inst., a few lays after the arrival of the new Governor, and

while the people seemed filled with joy over the liberation of

Charles Robinson, their own Governor and idol, General Lane

came to Topeka, and, being called upon by the troops and citi-

zens, made them a speech overflowing with congratulations. He

said of the transactions of the few weeks since his return to the

Territory, that "one long-to-be-remembered campaign in the his-

tory of Kansas has closed -- favorably to the cause of liberty,

but covering all over with shame the great mob army which

came over with the avowed purpose of subduing us forever.

Such a contrast between two opposing armies has never before

existed. The enemy have outnumbered us in every engagement;

they have been better armed, clothed, and fed; and, being mostly

well-mounted, they have been able to come into action with

freshness and vigor, while we have had to meet them after long

356 Ohio Arch

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forced marches on foot, with but little food, and that of the

poorest quality. They published to the world that they would

show no quarter; that every Free-State man who fell into their

power should suffer death; and, cruel as was the threat, it has

resulted in a terrible truth. But we have murdered no prisoners,

burned no private dwellings; we have sought but one thing,

Liberty, and endeavored to obtain it by the use of prudence and


Speaking of Governor Geary, he said:

"I know him well, and believe that he is true to us and to

our cause. He has promised all the protection in his power, and

says he can call 50,000 militia to his aid. He promises to dis-

band the present Territorial militia, and to canvass the Terri-

tory, and enlist under a new organization all the bona fide citi-

zens of whom military duty may be justly required. I advise

you to enroll yourselves on certain conditions, or, rather, in the

absence of certain conditions; that is, if nothing is said concern-

ing obedience to the Territorial laws, enlist; but if he requires

of you a pledge to support those so-called lazes, tell him you

have no pledge to make. Geary has no more doubts than we con-

cerning the invalidity of these laws, yet he cannot positively re-

fuse to execute them. There is but one course left for us to

pursue. Just let the wagon go on, while we are getting in mo-

tion one of our own. Our Governor, the one elected by our own

suffrages, will, in a few weeks, call together the only legislative

body ever chosen by the people of Kansas and in this and the

election of Fremont there is great hope. The Missourians have

promised to go home and cease their depredations. If they do

so, we have little more to do. I am, however, reliably informed

that some of our men are held as prisoners of war at Iowa Point,

and to-morrow I shall go to their rescue. There are also some

emigrants waiting at Nebraska City, for an escort to this place.

For that purpose, I shall go there when I shall have accom-

plished my object at Iowa Point. When I return we will lay

clown the implements of war, and trust for protection the newly-

appointed Governor, until such a time when experience shall

have proven that our reliance has been misplaced."

At noon the next day, agreeably to this intentions, General

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence 357

John Henri Kagi--Newspaper Correspondence      357


Lane, with forty horsemen, left for Iowa Point. On the road,

fifteen miles from Topeka, he was met by a messenger from

Grasshopper Falls, with the information that the Missourians

were then in that town, sacking and burning everything in their

reach. The messenger had been dispatched to Topeka for aid.

The enemy were estimated at from two to four hundred in num-

ber. Lane, thinking it rashness to attack them with the num-

bers he then had, yet desirous of punishing them for their in-

solence, sent back to Topeka for re-inforcements, while he went

on and encamped at Pleasant Hill, eight miles further, and

within about ten miles from Grasshopper Falls. The re-inforce-

ments, forty in number, left Topeka the same evening about ten

o'clock and arrived at Lane's camp at sunrise the next morning,

and all immediately started for Hickory Point, to which place,

it had been ascertained during the night, the enemy had with-

drawn. This place contained not more than a dozen houses, and

is located some ten miles northeast from Pleasant Hill. On his

way there, Lane was joined by twenty men from Grasshopper

Falls. About noon, he arrived before the place and at three-

quarters of a mile's distance from it, drew up his men in line of

battle. Capt. Lenhart, with fifteen mounted sharp-shooters, was

sent around to the other side of the town, to harass the enemy

and cut off their retreat, in case they should attempt to make

one. But the enemy had all withdrawn into a blacksmith's shop

and to other log buildings, which they had converted into forts.

Over the blacksmith's shop there waved the black flag, the em-

blem of law and order. After several shots from the enemy, an

irregular fire begun and was kept up for an hour or more, with

no other effect than wounding six of the enemy, killing one of

their horses, and wounding two others on each side. Finding

it useless to attempt a storming of the forts without cannon,

Lane dispatched a messenger to Lawrence, instructing Colonel

Harvey to proceed with one hundred men and the six pounder

Sacramento to Topeka, across the Kaw at that place, and take

the Leavenworth military road -- the same by which Lane had

gone -- for Hickory Point. In the meantime he fell back to

Pleasant Hill, in hopes of drawing the enemy out in pursuit of

him, and giving them battle before the arrival of Col. Harvey.

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It was about sunset when he halted at Pleasant Hill and pre-

pared to camp. But here he was handed a copy of the Inaugural

Address and Proclamation of Governor Geary, issued two days

previous, upon reading which, he called his men together, and

told them that, in consequence of this proclamation, he had

changed his plans; that he, with the cavalry, would go immedi-

ately to Nebraska, to escort down the emigration from there,

and that the infantry should return to Topeka immediately, and

disband. He said the probability was that the people of Law-

rence had had a conference with the new Governor, during which

an arrangement had most likely been made, which would pre-

vent Col. Harvey's coming to his aid with the cannon. But,

thinking it possible that he might yet come, he sent back to To-

peka an order for him to return. But Harvey, after consulta-

tion with the State Central Committee, saw fit to disobey the

orders of Lane, so far as to go directly to Hickory Point, through

the enemy's country, instead of the route he had been directed

to go. On arriving at the town at 11 o'clock, the following day,

he was fired upon, and at once commenced a cannonade upon it.

After keeping up a slow fire for three or four hours, during

which one of the enemy was killed and eight wounded on their

side, and four wounded on the other side, and the fortifications

pretty much destroyed, the black flag was struck, and a white

one sent up in its place. Harvey himself went in to treat with

them, and they signed a written treaty, the terms of which were,

that they should disband and go home, never again to take up

arms against our cause. This they did very willingly, and

would have done much more, had it been asked of them. Har-

vey then got his command under way for Lawrence, and en-

camped five miles from the scene of action. Late at night they

awoke and found themselves surrounded by two companies of

U. S. troops, who had been sent for by some of the more treach-

erous of the defeated enemy. Harvey took to his horse, which

was a fleet one, and fled; the rest were all taken prisoners, dis-

armed, and marched to the camp near Lecompton.

On Thursday, the 18th, U. S. Marshal Donaldson, backed up

by two hundred United States troops, came to Topeka, and ar-

rested twelve of her citizens -- among others, your correspond-

John Henri Kagi-Newspaper Correspondence 359

John Henri Kagi-Newspaper Correspondence         359

ent. Some of the arrests -- if they may be called such, for they

were, in reality, nothing but seizures -- were made in the pres-

ence of the Governor, who had come into town a short time be-

fore the entrance of the troops, and.while the persons so seized

were in private conversation with him. In all cases, the Mar-

shal refused to show any writ or authority whatever. We de-

manded to know the cause of our arrest, but no one could tell

us. A guard was detailed for each prisoner, and fifteen minutes

were allowed us, in which to arrange our business, and prepare

to leave, for what length of time none knew. We arrived at

camp about sunset, and were placed under the same guard with

our comrades from Lawrence. Since then, Company "Q", as

some wags of our number jocularly style us, has daily been re-

ceiving additions--in all, twenty-one new prisoners have been

brought in, making the whole number arrested, up to this time,

one hundred and thirty-three. On Monday, the 21st, we were

escorted to within a short distance of the town by the United

States troops, and then turned over to the bogus militia under

Colonel Titus, who marched us into town, and quartered us in

a building one story and a half in height, the siding of which is

cottonwood, placed upright, and so shrunken as to leave cracks

between each board three-fourths of an inch wide, and placed

around it a guard of ten men, several of whom have stolen

Sharpe's rifles.  One common cooking-stove accommodates --

I was going to say -- the whole number; such, at least, is all we

have. Our cooking utensils and articles of table furniture are

very few. While in the camp of the United States troops, the

officers all treated us with the greatest kindness, and many of

them, with all the privates, were profuse in their expressions of

sympathy for us. In some instances, this was manifested by

"material" aid. One evening, a sentinel passed out three pris-