Ohio History Journal




(438)   THE WORLD WAR MEMORIAL WING-NORTH FACADE



DEDICATION OF OHIO'S WORLD WAR

DEDICATION OF OHIO'S WORLD WAR

MEMORIAL

 

An event of first importance in the history of the

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society is here

to be recorded. On April 6, 1926, the Memorial Wing

of the Museum and Library building of the Society was

dedicated with impressive ceremonies. This was the

culmination of a movement that began soon after the

close of the World War. The collections of the Society

had outgrown the space provided in the main building.

The accumulation of trophies and mementos of the

World War, including a large consignment promised

from Washington, the growth of the library, including

tons of newspapers, documents, manuscripts and other

material collected while the war was in progress, and

the natural growth of the museum through mound ex-

plorations and other sources all emphasized the impera-

tive demand for more room. It was also felt that this

building, located at the State Capital and on the grounds

of the Ohio State University where it is annually visited

by thousands of students from all parts of the state,

should include as a prominent feature a memorial to the

soldiers of the World War.

Efforts to get an appropriation for the building at

the session of the legislature in 1921 were not success-

ful. Much was gained, however, by bringing to the at-

tention of that body the needs of the Society, and the

General Assembly, in 1923, made the necessary appro-

(439)



440 Ohio Arch

440     Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

priation to complete the building that had already been

commenced with funds of the Society.

A detailed account of the successive steps taken in

the building of this dignified and appropriate memorial

will be related in succeeding pages. The purpose is

here to present a brief account of the dedicatory exer-

cises, including all the addresses delivered. Suffice it to

say that the new wing, added to the north end of the

original building and extending westward on the Uni-

versity grounds on Fifteenth Avenue, 180 feet, makes

a total frontage of 230 feet on the avenue. The base-

ment floor is divided into a number of work rooms, in-

cluding a cabinet shop and apartments for the curator

of history, curator of archaeology and others assisting

in the preparation of exhibits. The first floor of the

wing is divided into four rooms, including the memorial

room with the bronze tablets, one room on each side for

World War exhibits and a large audience room at the

west end, which will later be used for museum purposes

as will also the four rooms of the second floor.

Professor Joseph N. Bradford, Architect of the

Ohio State University, designed the Memorial Wing.

He was also the architect of the original building front-

ing High Street. His plans were approved in the first

instance by Major Robert S. Harsh who was then State

Architect, but who was succeeded in that position by

Mr. Herbert B. Briggs. Major Harsh continued his

contact with the work through appointment on the Me-

morial Building Committee. Both he and Mr. Briggs

worked in perfect harmony with the trustees of the So-

ciety and Mr. Bradford in perfecting the architectural

and artistic features of the building.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 441

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial  441

Every feature of the dedicatory program had been

carefully arranged by a committee of which General Ed-

ward Orton, Jr., was chairman and the leading spirit.

Arrangements had been made to have the University

regiment march in the afternoon procession and detach-

ments from Fort Hayes and the Ohio National Guard

were to participate. About 4,000 uniformed men under

arms would have been in the line of march had the

weather been favorable. The forenoon meeting, to be

devoted to addresses on the development of interest in

the field of Ohio history, had also been carefully planned.

Under the immediate direction of Professor Wilbur H.

Siebert, an excellent program had been arranged and

speakers had been secured.

The day chosen for the dedication was the ninth an-

niversary of the declaration of war against Germany

and the central powers by the United States. The morn-

ing dawned with threatening skies. The weather was

cold. At intervals rain fell with sleet that threatened

to change to snow. The inclement weather kept thou-

sands from attending the exercises. The uniformed

men were ready to march regardless of the rain that

now in intervals changed to torrents, but those in charge

were determined that nothing should occur to endanger

the health of marching students and soldiers. General

Orton had arranged his plans for just such an emer-

gency, should it arrive. The program with very slight

changes was therefore presented without a single break.

Practically all of the speaking was in the audience

room of the new wing, and the "loud speaking" ap-

paratus furnished by the Columbus Evening Dispatch,

installed in the other rooms of the building, made dis-



442 Ohio Arch

442      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

tinctly audible every word that was uttered by the speak-

ers. The exercises throughout were well received and

the cordial appreciation of guests and friends was freely

expressed at the time and has often since been echoed

by those who were so fortunate as to be present.

At 10 o'clock A. M., Wilbur H. Siebert, Professor of

European History in the Ohio State University, called

to order the conference on "Cultivating the Field of

Ohio History" and made brief introductory remarks as

follows:



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 443

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       443

 

The holding of this conference on "Cultivating the Field of

Ohio History" and the dedication of the handsome Memorial

Wing of this building this afternoon, marks, if I am not mis-

taken, an epoch in the history of the Ohio State Archaeological

and Historical Society.

It has long been the wish of the Trustees of this Society to

promote research and develop a wider interest in our state his-

tory, in cooperation with the leading historical societies of Ohio.

We who are present have the privilege of witnessing and taking

part in the beginning of this movement.

I am sure I express the sentiments of this company when I

congratulate most heartily the Ohio State Archaeological and His-

torical Society on this notable and auspicious occasion.

We have a program of five speakers, which I think we may

begin at this time.

I wish first to introduce Mr. Arthur C. Johnson, President

of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, who will speak

in behalf of our Society.

Cordial applause greeted President Johnson, who

spoke as follows:

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: Not the least pleas-

ure and satisfaction which the Ohio State Archaeological and

Historical Society is deriving from this glorious day in its history,

is the privilege of playing host to this forenoon's gathering.

You have come together for a conference upon the subject

that is closest to your hearts, "Cultivating the Field of Ohio His-

tory," a purpose that presupposes a need and indicates a desire

for more satisfactory results, both tangible and intangible, for

the good of the cause we represent.

It was with hesitation and some misgiving that the president

of the Society consented to appear before you this morning, even

to read this brief introductory paper. He realized that he must

appear as the veriest layman among those highly trained and ex-

perienced in their line of work. He realized that you would be

here because of the magnetic presence on the program of such

names as Siebert, Flick, Cathcart, Greve and Keeler, so you need

have no fear of being wearied by any digressions at this time. It

is the purpose of this paper, not to recount the history or achieve-

ments of the state Society, which you well know, but to extend a

hearty welcome, to discuss briefly the Society's relationship to its

sister organizations, and to make a single suggestion in the hope

that it may prove of some constructive value.

It is safe to say that our historical societies of whatever na-



444 Ohio Arch

444       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

ture, whether voluntary, endowed or state supported, can have no

real excuse for being and functioning, other than to render some

service to their respective communities or to, the state at large.

The Ohio State Archaeological Society bears the greater responsi-

bility in this respect, because it must account to the whole people

of Ohio, including the very members of all other Ohio historical

organizations who are in that measure its patrons and its sup-

orters. As such, they have, or could be expected to have, the

keenest interest in its welfare. If the Society is rendering a

service commensurate with the cost of its maintenance and the

effort expended in its behalf, then its existence and its operation

are justifiable If not, it must soon lose what confidence and

support it has enjoyed.

There is in this no veiled suggestion that the Society is

not worth while. Quite the contrary. We take the greatest pride

in its history, in its accomplishments, and in the character and

personality of that long line of men and women who struggled

against public indifference and endless discouragements through

its formative years, that we might enjoy the fruits of their en-

deavors. For their sake alone we should keep the faith all the

more rigidly.

But the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society

cannot afford to overlook any opportunities for progress and

greater things, nor can any of its sister organizations. There

might be a distinct advantage to all concerned, in cooperative

effort. The way has been paved by the pioneers in the work.

There is an unmistakable awakening of public interest in the

subjects with which our organizations have to do. There is a

persistent and growing demand for historical truth as the fa-

cilities for successful research work have been increased. The

world has turned from the horrors of war with a growing appe-

tite for cultural things, and there is a loosening of public and

private purse strings to satisfy that appetite. The highly special-

ized cultural lines have been among the last to profit, but their day

is at hand.

How, then, can we best merit this ready support?

By doing our job in the best possible manner and by pre-

senting a solid front in the promotion of our common cause. To

accomplish this it might be well for the various organizations

whose interests and purposes lie within the range of historical

work, to consider the formation of a new state association with

a working principle to which they can all safely subscribe.

If in the past old jealousies prevented such a movement, it

is time those jealousies are forgotten; if in the past some unfor-

tunate prejudices or competitions may have arisen as bars to



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 445

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      445

 

closer relationships, they can now be put aside. The spirit of the

times has changed. The suggestion is offered stripped of details,

but in its larger aspect it carries no thought of physical or finan-

cial consolidations, no thought of interference, no abandonment

of individual activities.

May we not hope that in the very spirit of this meeting here

today, there will be shown the seed of united, unselfish, well-

ordered and systematic effort in "Cultivating the Field of Ohio

History," to the end that Ohio may reap by our hand an ever in-

creasing cultural harvest.

 

ADDRESS OF DR. ALEXANDER C. FLICK

In introducing the next speaker, Professor Siebert

said:

We are fortunate in being able to secure the presence of Dr.

Alexander C. Flick, from Albany, New York, who is Director of

the Division of Archives and History of New York State, who

will make the chief address of the morning on the subject, "The

State's Function in Promoting the Cultivation of its History."

Dr. Flickthen delivered with fine effect the following.

address:

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: --

Chauncey M. Depew in his reminiscences covering a period

of eighty years takes credit to himself for the observation: "Some

men are born great, others have greatness thrust upon them, and

still others come from Ohio." I am proud of the fact that I may

claim membership in the third category. Ohio is my birthplace

as it is that of my father and mother. My grandparents, like

many of yours, came into this state on the great waves of immi-

gration from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Among my earliest

recollections are the heroic deeds and hardships of the pioneers

and their encounters with the red men, heard at the knee of my

great-grandmother, who came to Ohio when it was a wilderness

and before it was organized as a commonwealth. With these as-

sociations in my mind, it is a pleasure to address this Society on

such an auspicious occasion. I come from an older sister state

and such advice as I have to offer is both as a native of Ohio and

as an adopted son of New York.

The city of Boston, which played no small role in the early

colonization of Ohio, has the reputation of being a self-centered



446 Ohio Arch

446       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

community. It was quite in keeping with this character that Bos-

ton selected as its motto a Latin prayer which runs as follows:

Sicut patribus sit deus nobis. A class of Boston school-boys was

asked to give the English version of that motto. One of them

gave this translation: "Oh, God, how sick we are of the old

fathers." There is occasion for amazement and alarm at the in-

difference manifested by Americans at the lack of interest in their

own family origins, and in their local, state and national history.

Recently in addressing a club of about one hundred members of

more than the average intelligence, I asked how many of them

knew the names of their great-grandparents. Only ten per cent

had the information and only a few of them could tell the birth-

place of these ancestors.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 447

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      447

 

A few years ago Doctor Starr of the University of Chicago

visited those remarkable ruins in Central America -- rivals of

the pyramids of Egypt -- old palaces and temples built no one

knows when or by whom, of huge blocks of stone, and laid up

without mortar and yet with such precision that one cannot in-

sert a knife blade in the joints. After some difficulty travelling

by canoe, pony and on foot he reached the ruins and was intro-

duced by his guide to the old Indian chief who rules over that

part of the world. The chief asked him to sit down for a pow-

wow. Among the questions asked was this: "Where do you live?"

"I live in a great city called Chicago," replied Doctor Starr.

"Chicago? Chicago?" said the chief, "Where is Chicago?"

"Well," answered Dr. Starr, "if you take your swiftest pony, turn

his head towards the north star and ride in that direction for

three moons, and then turn his head towards the rising sun and

ride in that direction for three more moons, you will at last come

to Chicago, where I live." The wrinkled old red man looked up

with amazement and pity on his face and remarked: "Well!

Well! how far you do live from the center of the world!" One

feels the greatest admiration for the old chief's pride in his lo-

cality. His outlook on the world was greatly circumscribed but

he had a pardonable loyalty in the place of his birth and an at-

tachment to the source of his protection. We, too, need to cul-

tivate a deeper loyalty to our origins, to the ancient shelters, to

the institutions which minister to our needs, and to the organiza-

tion to which we belong.

Some years ago I heard Booker T. Washington, the great

Negro educator, give an address in which he told of an ambitious

colored boy named Sam who wished to make his life count for

something. After giving due consideration to the various trades

and professions, Sam informed Mr. Washington that he would

like to become a school-teacher. In that calling he felt that he

could do the most good and at the same time live a congenial life.

"Well, Sam," said Mr. Washington, "if you go down to the

county seat, pass the examination, and get a certificate to teach,

I'll get you a school." Sam took the examination in due time,

and upon his return Mr. Washington asked "Well, Sam, how did

you get along with the examination ?" "That was a very peculiar

examination, Mr. Washington," Sam replied. "I passed the tests

for reading, writing, arithmetic and geography without any

trouble. But the history examination was something awful, ter-

rible  Why, Mr. Washington, what do you think they asked me

in that history paper? They asked about things that happened

long before I was born! How was I supposed to know?"

Too many of us are like Sam -- we are interested only in



448 Ohio Arch

448       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

the present. Naturally we should be concerned about the prob-

lems of today and should strive to solve them so as to improve

the communities in which we live, and the state, nation and world.

But we cannot understand our problems today and meet them

intelligently unless we know their origins, their development, and

the previous efforts to adjust them. The roots of the present lie

deep in the past and the present is intelligible only in the light of

what has gone before.

An ancient philosopher tried to beguile a certain bored king

by reading poetry to him, but the monarch did not respond to the

treatment. Then the philosopher played his trump card and sug-

gested the historians! To this his Majesty replied: "No, not

the historians! I want the truth for a change!" Thus it will

be seen that from early days down to modern times, when a great

industrial magnate characterizes all history as "bunk", the his-

torian has labored under peculiar disadvantages. There may be

some consolation, however, in the fact that the very man who

so cavalierly waves aside all history as "bunk" is spending a for-

tune in creating a unique museum of history and is exceedingly

particular about the genuineness and authenticity of his exhibits.

For this, at least, we historians may be thankful.

 

SURVEY OF THE BEGINNINGS OF OHIO HISTORY

Few states in the Union have a more varied, fascinat-

ing, picturesque, heroic, and instructive history than Ohio.

The history of Ohio may be said to be an epitome of the history

of Colonial North America. Its beginnings were cosmopolitan --

French and English -- Dutch, German, Scotch, Irish, Swede and

Negro; Quaker, Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Mo-

ravian, and Methodist; New Englander, New Yorker, Pennsyl-

vanian, Jerseyite, Marylander and Virginian -- all contributed to

the creation of this commonwealth. No doubt much of its virility

and resourcefulness is due to these united influences.

Broadly speaking, it is divided into two great epochs -- that

of the aborigines concerned with the Mound Builders and In-

dians, and that connected with the Europeans. Viewed in time

it stretches back from the present through nearly 300 years of the

white man's dominion, at least an equal number of years of the

red man's occupation, and no one as yet knows how long under

the Mound Builders. Do you realize that the human story of

this State has evolved under five distinct racial and national

groups?

I. The Mound Builders about whom, thanks to this Society,

we know so much, and yet, since they left no written records, so

aggravatingly little, begin the account.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 449

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       449

2. The Indians, whose direct and indirect influence on white

civilization has been given too little attention, come next. Traces

of Indian blood are still found in the people of the State. They

scattered Indian names over nearly every county. They left an

indelible impress on the literature. Their trails were widened

into roads in later days. They taught the white pioneers the use

of new foods and medicinal plants, the canoe, cunning in the

chase and on the war path, courage, hardihood and endurance.

3. The French period ran from 1608 to 1763, or 150 years.

New France extended from Quebec to Louisiana and brought

Ohio under the white flag and golden lilies of the Bourbons.

Early in the 17th century French explorers, traders, missionaries

and soldiers penetrated this region and by exploration and occu-

pation gave France title to Ohio, as it did to northern and western

New York. La Salle in 1669 took formal possession of Ohio in

the name of his royal sovereign. The French allied themselves

with various tribes of natives to drive out the hostile Iroquois.

They built forts and stationed soldiers in them to hold the terri-

tory.

For about a hundred years the French were bitter rivals of

the English and their savage allies, the Iroquois, for possession

of Ohio. Both sides recognized that here was an inland empire

worth fighting for. In 1749 Celoron de Bienville took formal

possession of southern Ohio by planting leaden plates at the

mouths of the streams flowing into the Ohio River. In 1754 the

French drove the British out of the fort they had built at the

forks of the Ohio and constructed Fort Duquesne. It was the

race for this rich territorial prize which brought on the French

and Indian War and resulted in the conquest of all of New

France by the English in 1763.

One of the neglected factors in the history of Ohio is the

French influence extended over nearly a century and a half. Nor

did the French contribution end in 1763 with conquest by Britain.

I cannot refrain from reminding you of another infusion of

French blood and ideas -- not large but still significant -- in

which a New Yorker played an important role.

In 1786 the Second Ohio Land Company was organized at

Boston to settle Ohio. The next year Dr. Manasseh Cutler of

Connecticut bought from the national government for this com-

pany a large tract of land north of the Ohio River, eastward from

Marietta, and took an option on a second tract westward from

Marietta to the Scioto. Here enters Colonel William Duer of

New York to whom was transferred half of the Scioto tract.

Colonel Duer, like many other ambitious men of that day and

this, was a land speculator. He thought of France as a lucrative

Vol. XXXV -- 29.



450 Ohio Arch

450       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

field for his operations. In 1788, one Joel Barlow was given

power of attorney to sell Ohio lands and hurried off to Paris

where he opened an attractive office, had a beautiful colored map

of the Scioto tract made with a village and farm lots plotted out

on it, and began to advertise this El Dorado in the New

World to the gullible Frenchmen. His prospectus praised the

climate as balmy and frostless; mentioned the fine streams

abounding in big fish; called attention to the miraculous trees that

produced sugar spontaneously and the bushes that grew candles

ready to light; described the abundance of edible fowls and tame

venison; told of the rich and fertile soil; and stressed the absence

of devouring wolves, lions, tigers, elephants, taxes and military

service. Evidently salesmanship is not a recent art for within a

short time Barlow had sold many farms, collected the first pay-

ments, and supplied the deeds.

At this point, to add interest to the scenario, Barlow disap-

peared with the cash. In 1790 about 600 French purchasers of

unseen farms in the Ohio wilderness left for the New World.

They landed in Virginia only to discover that Barlow's deeds

were to lands which he was not authorized to sell. To the credit

of Colonel Duer be it said, that at his own expense he transported

the defrauded Frenchmen to Ohio, did his best to straighten out

their titles, and helped them build their blockhouse and log huts.

Their new village was named Gallipolis. The national govern-

ment tried to make amends by voting them the "French Grant".

But they were unsuited to a pioneer community. Among them

were excellent goldsmiths, watch-makers, painters, sculptors,

glass-blowers, stone-cutters and gardeners, but the wilderness had

no use for such accomplishments. The settlement soon broke up

and the members scattered over the State or left it altogether.

Many an Ohio family is proud to claim one of these French

pioneers as an ancestor. The institution and civilization of the

Buckeye state cannot be interpreted correctly without taking into

account the French influences.

4. The English period in Ohio history began with the dis-

coveries of the Cabots and the settlements on the Atlantic sea-

board. The charters of Virginia, Connecticut and Massachusetts,

in defining boundaries rather vaguely from the Atlantic westward

to the Pacific, included this State and formed the basis for later

claims.

Great Britain sought to strengthen these early assumptions

to ownership, as against France, by treaties with the Iroquois

Indians. This powerful confederacy claimed jurisdiction over

Ohio as well as northern and western New York, even after being

driven out of part of it by the Wyandottes, Miamis and Shaw-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 451

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial        451

 

nees with the aid of the French. Since the Iroquois needed Eng-

lish military aid against their French and Indian foes, they readily

entered into a treaty in 1701 by which the King of England was

given title to Ohio. This early cession was reconfirmed by later

treaties in 1726 and 1744. When that capable empire-builder,

Sir William Johnson, appeared in New York as the Superintend-

ent of Indians for the northern district, his jurisdiction extended

over Ohio and he labored unceasingly and successfully in

strengthening his monarch's title to Ohio. Read the Papers of

Sir William  Johnson now being printed by the Division of

Archives and History of the State of New York, and you will

realize the magnitude of Sir William's operations, which have

not been given sufficient notice by historians.

The English were not slow to add to the claims of discovery

and Indian treaty that of occupation and settlement. Certainly

as early as 1730, perhaps much earlier, English traders and ex-

plorers from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit eastern

and southern Ohio. The Moravian missionaries labored among

the Indians at an early date and used Gnadenhutten as headquar-

ters. An English settlement seems to have been established in

Shelby county as early as 1719. The First Ohio Company, or-

ganized by prominent Virginians and Englishmen in 1748 to

colonize the Ohio Valley, obtained a large tract of land from

King George II and in 1750 sent Christopher Gist to explore the

lands adjacent to the Ohio River as far down as the Scioto. In

1754 the English built a fort at Pittsburgh which was seized by

the French, as mentioned before.

The long clash between France and England for Ohio, and

other valuable regions, culminated in the French and Indian War.

With the dying words of Wolfe at Quebec in 1763, Great Britain

added to what Professor Egerton calls The First British Empire,

a gigantic region including Canada, the Great Lakes, Ohio, and

regions westward. Thus it came to pass that Ohio became an

English colony without a rival in 1763. Even the claims of the

colonies, based on their charters and earlier stressed by the British

government, were now ignored. For twenty years Ohio was an

undisputed British colony.

5. The American period began in 1776 and has endured

150 years. Ohio's part in the Revolution has been rather sadly

neglected. It is not commonly known that three important causes

of disruption of the British Empire by civil war were associated

with this British colony. In the first place, a royal edict in 1763

forbade the acquisition of any lands from the Indians beyond the

Appalachian mountains. In the second place, all trade with the

natives was restricted to those who had secured royal licenses.



452 Ohio Arch

452       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

These two measures aroused the indignation of the frontiers.

men, who joined the disgruntled merchants of the sea-coast and

the angered planters of the south in resisting the interference of

the British Parliament in colonial affairs. The third measure

was the Quebec Act in 1774 which annexed Ohio to Quebec, le-

galized the Catholic religion and French law, and extended

them to Ohio. This act aroused the fears of the Protestant

colonists and went far to provoke rebellion.

During the Revolution the white settlers on the frontier,

augmented by thousands who joined them from the east, and aided

at times by Continental troops, kept up a continual warfare with

the Indian allies of the British. Lord Dunmore and General

George Rogers Clark won the Northwest Territory for the Amer-

icans, and in 1783 the Mississippi was recognized as the western

boundary of the United States. Fort Laurens, the first military

stockade in Ohio under American authority, was abandoned in

1779. This region was the theater of active Indian warfare from

1780 to 1785 in which Colonel Williamson operated in the Tus-

caroras country, and Colonel William Crawford was burned at

the stake at Upper Sandusky.

Meanwhile six states revived their claims to western lands,

which they wished to use to pay their soldiers and to meet Revo-

lutionary war expenses. Virginia and New York both claimed

all of the Northwest. Massachusetts and Connecticut insisted

upon having the middle third of the Northwest. Maryland in

1776 demanded "that the back lands claimed by the British crown"

should be surrendered to Congress for the common good and

formed into separate states. By 1781 all claims by separate states

were waived, although Connecticut reserved a strip of 120 miles

along the southern shore of Lake Erie known as Western Re-

serve, and Virginia reserved a military tract on the Little Miami

for her Revolutionary soldiers.

After the Revolution Ohio was open to settlement. In 1786

the Second Ohio Company was organized by New England

Revolutionary soldiers to colonize the Ohio region. The North-

west Territory was organized in 1787 and Arthur Saint Clair was

appointed Governor. The next year, 1788, he and other terri-

torial officials arrived at Fort Harmar and then located at Ma-

rietta, which became the capital. The first courts were opened.

Hamilton county was organized in 1790. Governor Saint Clair

made a treaty with the Six Nations and with six other tribes in

1789 but there was no real peace until General Anthony Wayne

in 1795 broke the Indian alliance against the whites and forced

them to sign the peace treaty at Greenville, Ohio. In I798 a

territorial legislature was elected and met in 1799 in Cincinnati



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 453

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       453

 

The first church was built at Columbia in 1790 and the earliest

newspaper printed in Cincinnati in 1793. Then followed settle-

ments in rapid succession -- Marietta in 1788; Columbia 1788;

Cincinnati 1789; North Bend 1789; Gallipolis 1790; Manchester

1791; Cleveland 1796; Chillicothe 1796 and so on.  By 1799

there were 15 settlements with 15,000 white people, and by 1810

the population had jumped to 231,000. Meanwhile, in 1803, Ohio

had become a state and had started on her marvellous growth.

I have outlined the fascinating beginnings of this common-

wealth. For the later development, I refer you to Professor Sie-

bert's excellent book on the government and history of Ohio, and

to other works.

SOURCES OF OHIO HISTORY

Every group of people leaves behind it certain remains from

which its civilization may be reconstructed more or less satisfac-

torily. These sources are of two kinds -- unwritten and written.

The unwritten sources consist of oral traditions, customs,

and material things. A vast amount of information has been

handed down in this commonwealth by word of mouth from

generation to generation from the days of the Indians and the

pioneers. All of you will recall the traditions, tales and stories

received from your ancestors. The quantity of this material is

tremendous. Only a fraction of it has been recorded. Much of

it has perished with the passing of the older people. What re-

mains should be gathered up and preserved in some systematic

manner. I realize of course that much of it may be of question-

able value, but nevertheless most of it is unique and priceless.

Once lost, it can never be recovered.

In like manner the customs, habits and ways of doing things

have gradually changed during the past century. Political, social,

religious, educational, and industrial institutions of today are

unlike those of our grandfathers and still more different from

those of our great grandfathers. Who has noted in detail the

changes? A few diaries, letters and histories have recorded some

of them, but no systematic and concerted effort has been made

to record accurately this evolution in the civilization of this com-

monwealth. It is still possible to reclaim much, but the longer the

delay the more difficult will be the task.

The next group of unwritten sources is so numerous that it

will be best to summarize them under the following four heads:

I. Buildings of historical significance either as types of

different periods of civilization or because connected with some

important incident or with some famous person. Under this

heading would come the log cabin, the early homes of boards,



454 Ohio Arch

454       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

brick and stone -- school-houses, churches, taverns and public

buildings -- sawmills, grist-mills, cider-mills, and  bridges --

blockhouses and forts, etc.

2. The furniture and furnishings of these buildings such

as kitchen utensils, dishes, chairs, tables, beds, rugs, curtains,

stoves, lamps, candlesticks, spinning-wheels, musical instruments,

mirrors, pictures, statuary, etc., etc.

3. Clothing and articles of personal use and adornment for

children, young folks, and grown ups.

4. Machinery and tools used, on the farm and in various

trades and industries, weapons, traps, harness, vehicles for work

and pleasure, etc., etc.

These articles illustrate the life, labor, occupations, habits,

comforts, hardships, amusements, beliefs, and culture of by-gone

generations in a manner not to be obtained in any other way.

Thousands of these valuable sources may still be obtained from

deserted buildings, cellars, attics, sheds, barns and junk shops,

They are disappearing with the passage of each year, however,

through the furnace, the rubbish heap, the ash man and the Sal-

vation Army wagon. Through public and private initiative, the

State should be scoured to collect and preserve them. A hundred

years from now, they will all have disappeared except those de-

liberately reclaimed. Five centuries later, they will be priceless

sources of the period just behind us.

The written and printed sources of the State's history include

the following four classes:

1. Private diaries, letters, business records, family Bibles,

sermons, lectures, and minutes of all sorts of clubs and societies.

2. Cemetery records, tombstones and church records.

3. Public records and official maps of townships, villages,

counties, cities and the State.

4. Newspapers, pamphlets, magazines and books.

This is the material on which historians must rely largely to

write local and state history and personal biography. "No doc-

uments, no history," said the famous French historian Langlois.

Yet with the exception of the newspapers, journals and books

most of these primary sources are in manuscript form. What is

still worse, these precious materials are largely in private hands,

and many of your official documents are owned by institutions

and individuals outside of the State. I venture to guess that you

would find them scattered across the Republic from New York

to Seattle. Your local records have been shamefully and inex-

cusably neglected. Many have already perished forever from

fire, flood, mildew, and theft. Those remaining are largely in

the hands of local officials who have no idea of their value and



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 455

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       455

little concern for their safety. They are housed, in many in-

stances, in buildings that are not fireproof, and are seldom cata-

logued for use. Few of them have been printed. Such is the

status today of the records that tell the story of the settlement,

political organization and growth of this great Buckeye State of

whose history you and I are so proud.

The public records of the State, I am led to believe, are in

better condition than the local records. They are by no means

intact, however, and many of them remain unprinted. There is

room likewise for improvement in their safety and in their ar-

rangement and cataloging for use.

After painting this dismal picture, perhaps I may console

you with the statement that Ohio is not alone in the neglect of its

historical records. It is a common American disease, and even

New York has ample room for improvement.

 

PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL SOURCES

After explaining the character of this state's historical

sources, the next question is, by what means can they be pre-

served for use? I should like to discuss three agencies which

ought to be brought into cooperation for this service. They in-

clude private initiative and state aid.

1. It goes without saying that all native and adopted sons

and daughters of Ohio should have sufficient pride in its history

to support every effort to improve the present deplorable situation.

This task is a larger one, however, than might appear at first

thought. The people generally are apathetic and indifferent. To

overcome this inertia will require much missionary work on the

part of the devotees of Clio. The press will be glad to open its

columns to publicity for the purpose of arousing a deeper and

wider interest in state history.

2. The historical and patriotic bodies of the state must bear

the brunt of this task. Ohio is fortunate in having some strong

regional organizations like the Western Reserve Historical Society

of Cleveland, the Historical and Philosophical Society at Cincin-

nati and the President Hayes Memorial Library at Fremont.

These societies should be supplemented by others so that the

whole state would be completely covered. New York has more

than a hundred such bodies, the tendency being to organize them

by counties and cities. These local societies should assume re-

sponsibility for stimulating interest in local history, for the pres-

ervation and publication of local records as well as other histori-

cal materials, and for the formation of local historical museums.

They will have to take the initiative also in the preservation of

historical buildings; in the erection of markers on historic sites;



456 Ohio Arch

456       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

and in the completion of a survey of historical materials, his-

toric spots, and historic structures. Finally they should cooperate

with the local patriotic societies, schools, newspapers, churches,

lodges and clubs, and be willing to join with other historical so-

cieties in a state-wide federation of all such bodies under the

leadership of this State Society.

The patriotic organizations of the State should be the staunch-

est allies of the historical societies. In New York we find them

willing to cooperate with every movement to further interest in

historic things and consequently we greatly prize their friendship.

Looking at your situation in Ohio somewhat as an outsider,

it seems to me that, logically, effective leadership in the renascence

of interest in state history must devolve upon the State Archae-

ological and Historical Society. It has a venerable career and

enjoys a nation-wide reputation. Located in the capital, connected

with the State University, and receiving support from the State

treasury, it holds a singularly advantageous position. Its work

in the field of archaeology and ethnology, and the Museum which

has resulted from its researches, are notable. The time has come,

however, when it must seek to do for the history of the state in

general what it has done for the archaeology. It should correlate

and federate all the local and regional historical agencies in order

to define and direct some uniform state policy.

Perhaps some adjustments may be made so that the principal

regional societies may have representation on your board of trus-

tees. It certainly would induce friendly and effective cooperation

between the State Society and local bodies if a federation or

league could be established by which all members of county and

regional associations became, automatically, members of the State

Society as in Iowa and Wisconsin; Massachusetts has a Bay State

Historical League of more than twenty societies; and Pennsyl-

vania operates under a Federation of Historical Societies.

The State Society should insist upon the protection of the

remains and records of state history, whether in private or public

hands, from loss through neglect and wanton carelessness. It

should maintain a bureau of information on state and local his-

tory, including biography and genealogy. It should outline some

sensible plan by which local and state records may be printed. It

should induce the state to replevin or to repurchase its lost public

records, or at least to obtain photostat copies of all materials

necessary to complete the State's collection. In conjunction with

your excellent State Library, it should suggest some systematic

and thorough survey of the whole state in order to ascertain (I)

the location, care and condition of the public records; (2) the

private papers and records; and (3) the marked and unmarked



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 457

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      457

historic sites and buildings. In New York the State Historical

Association is collaborating with the State Library Association

to do this important work.

With this survey completed, this Society should promote some

organized effort in conjunction with local historical and patriotic

societies, churches, schools, clubs, and civic bodies to mark sys-

tematically all the places and buildings of historic interest within

the state. In New York a bill has been introduced in the legis-

lature to appropriate $50,000 for historic markers to be spent on

a fifty-fifty basis up to $500; that is, any locality willing to appro-

priate money to mark its shrines will receive state aid. One

county in New York, after making a survey, has arranged to

cooperate with the schools in putting up cheap markers - boards

painted white and lettered in black. Historical sites and battle-

fields suitable for use as public parks, should be set aside for that

purpose. And last but not least, Ohio should have a comprehen-

sive and authoritative history of the State written -- one based

possibly upon the model of the Wisconsin Domesday Book con-

sisting of General Studies and Town Studies prepared and printed

under the auspices of the State Historical Society. An essential

part of this work would be complete bibliographies for the state

and all localities. Ohio has some excellent county and city his-

tories and some satisfactory works on the colonial and statehood

periods, but no comprehensive account of the commonwealth in all

its activities.

3. Now what can and ought the state do to encourage and to

supplement the efforts of individuals and private organizations in

the preservation of state history?

In the first place, let me remind you of the newer conception

of the functions of the state. The old idea of the state as a big

policeman to protect life and property and as a tax gatherer, has

just about disappeared. Today we think of the state as the servant

of the people. It does for us collectively what we could not do

so well individually or by groups. In addition to protecting life

and property, it educates the people; safeguards their health;

builds roads and canals; brings pure water into the cities; aids

the farmer, day laborer and business man; cares for the poor

and unfortunate-in short, looks after the general welfare of

the people. I am happy to say that few states in the Union have

taken a more advanced position in making the state serve the

needs of the people than Ohio. You Ohioans may not be aware

of the extent to which your new constitution has been an inspir-

ing model to more backward commonwealths.

In the second place, let me remind you of the change in the

state's participation in education. Its support of the little red



458 Ohio Arch

458       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

school house has been widened to include the high school, normal

schools, colleges, a state university, a state museum, laboratories,

state libraries, professional schools and other educational agen-

cies.

With the broadened functions of the state, what can and

should it do to preserve and print the history of the state? In

answering this question, let me indicate some practical activities

which are legitimate political duties:

1. Care of public records. These records not only give the

history of the state and its political subdivisions, but are the foun-

dations for all land titles; for highways, railroads, canals, public

parks and reservations; for vital statistics and marriages; and

for laws and court decisions. The safeguarding of public records

and maps is indeed one of the fundamental obligations of the

state. Yet our public records are notoriously neglected, and Ohio

is one of the worst sinners. The local records have disappeared

in some instances. Those that are left are too often given inade-

quate fire-protection; many are shamefully neglected by local of-

ficials who have no idea of their value; and they are seldom cata-

logued and arranged for convenient use. The state records are

given better attention but they are incomplete; are scattered

among the various departments of the State government; and

are neglected, badly arranged, and inadequately catalogued for

use. Under these deplorable conditions, what should be done?

This Society should cooperate with sympathetic members of the

state government to enact laws to compel local as well as state

officials to keep all public records and maps in fireproof safes and

vaults, or in fireproof buildings. State and regional halls of rec-

ords might be erected advantageously. A State Archivist should

be appointed with an adequate staff to enforce the law, and to

work out some policy for repairing and cataloguing manuscripts.

The State of New York, in common with many others, has

a state supported Division of Archives and History. The State

Historian is its Director and it is a part of the State Department

of Education. The law specifies the duties of the Director as fol-

lows: "to collect, collate, compile, edit and prepare for publica-

tion all official records, memoranda, statistics, and data relative to

the history of the colony and state of New York."

To give adequate protection to local public records New

York in 1919 created the office of local historian in every political

subdivision in the State. They are appointed for indefinite terms

by the Mayors of cities, by the village presidents, and by the

supervisors for the towns. Salaries and expenses may be paid

by the local authorities but are not mandatory. As a result of this

experiment, the State Historian has a family of about 1200 local



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 459

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial         459

historians scattered all over the State to whom he may appeal

for cooperation and assistance and at small expense. I commend

this system to your consideration.

2. Printing of public records. One of the manifest duties

of the State is to make the public records as serviceable as pos-

sible to the people of this state and other states. The only way

to do this is to print the records so that they may be widely dis-

tributed to libraries, historical societies and individuals who are

interested. There should be two series -- one of state records;

the other of local records. Such records as have been printed

could be made to fit into the series. The publications should be

carefully edited.

3. Publication of other sources on State history. Almost

as important as the official records are the private papers, diaries

and letters, of prominent individuals; accounts of business con-

cerns; and records of societies, churches and educational institu-

tions. After a survey has been made to locate these materials

and to assess their value, the State might print some of them and

cooperate with historical societies and persons of means in print-

ing others. No doubt many of these important sources will be

found scattered over the nation, up in Canada and in European

countries. But recently I have located local records of New

York in the Congressional Library at Washington. About a year

ago some of New York's public records were sold at auction in

Philadelphia. Accidentally I discovered 200 letters of Sir Wil-

liam Johnson in a private collection of manuscripts in California.

Eleven orderly books of New York in the Revolution were lo-

cated in the State of Washington. You will have the same ex-

perience. Some of your scattered sources may be obtained as

gifts with a little diplomacy. It was in 1921 that the Massa-

chusetts Historical Society presented the valuable Trumbull Pa-

pers to the State Library at Connecticut. Funds should be pro-

vided to purchase others, and photostat copies may be obtained

of the remainder at small cost. The important thing is to have

some competent authority make a search, prepare a list, and

formulate a sensible policy of procedure.

4. A State Museum of history and affiliated branches. I

shall take it for granted that the support of a museum of history

is a legitimate function of a progressive state, because it is a

valuable educational agency. As proof of this, I need only hint

at its usefulness as an ally of the schools and colleges, of clubs

and societies of various kinds, of business houses, factories and

industrial concerns of all sorts, of newspapers and literary men,

and of many specialists in the study of various aspects of human

society. If the state is justified in financing a great annual fair



460 Ohio Arch

460       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

to encourage agriculture, stock breeding, poultry raising, horti-

culture, bee keeping, and the mechanical and industrial arts of

contemporary civilization, surely it is justified in encouraging the

preservation and exhibition of remains showing the beginnings

and development of our present civilization. Our boys and girls

are quite as important as stallions, rams and roosters. Culture

is more fundamental than agriculture. An intelligent apprecia-

tion of our institutions is as necessary as laboratories and experi-

ment stations. A museum of human nature has as much to teach

as a museum of nature. Patriotism has its real roots in history.

Advanced educators are getting away somewhat from les-

sons in books, and cut and dried questions and answers. Go to

nature for science, they say, and to institutions and people for

sociology, politics, economics and history. Teach by real things

through the senses. That portion of the child's brain which is

developed by observation and comparison is atrophied by some

of the public school methods. Boys and girls who study nature

in the school-room cannot find her out of doors. They study his-

tory but cannot see it in the life about them. Many a boy looks

for the colored line between Ohio and Indiana when he crosses the

boundary because it was shown in his geography.

The museum of history, rightly organized and displayed,

leaves no such delusions. The primitive life of the redman be-

comes a reality. A peep into a pioneer's log cabin gives a lasting

impression of frontier life. The clothing, clumsy boots, simple

tools, and weapons of the boyhood days of our grandfathers are

parts of actual life  The genuine objects of history correct the

fanciful notions pictured in schoolbooks and class recitations.

The museum of history creates a love of collecting, which should

be encouraged because it develops the capacity for observation

and comparison and induces habits of neatness, orderliness and

precision. Its usefulness is not restricted to children, because it

makes an equally strong appeal to adults. It interests visitors

as well as natives. It amuses while it instructs. It is by far the

most fundamental point of contact between the historical society

and the public whose eager appreciation is the best vindication

of its existence.

I have a final question to ask and an answer to give and then

I shall have finished. What should the ideal State Historical

Museum be? It should not be a side-show of monstrosities, or of

freaks, or of glittering junk. It should not be cluttered up with

Eygptian mummies, or stuffed squirrels, faithful Fido and a

double-headed calf, or relics of South Sea head-hunters, or Turk-

ish veils and pipes, or "funny" and "luck" stones, or Chinese

birds' eggs, or a prisoner's chain from the Bastile, or a cane from



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 461

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial        461

St. Helena, or European mediaeval armor, or a bottle of water

from the River Jordan and pressed flowers from Mount Sinai,

or clay tablets from the Euphrates, or Venetian glass beads, or

German beer steins, or curios from Central Africa, or butterflies

from Brazil, or totem poles from Alaska, or Italian manuscripts.

It should not be an accumulation of relics, curiosities, travel sou-

venirs, bric-a-brac, discarded antiques and a melange of artifacts,

minerals, and natural hisory.  These things may be tremen-

dously interesting and of much value in a museum on world civ-

ilization, or in specialized collections, but they have no place in a

Museum on Ohio History.

Indeed a state historical museum should not consist of a mis-

cellaneous, unorganized, haphazard collection of historical ob-

jects relating to Ohio, however typical and significant each object

may be. The very purpose of a museum on Ohio history is to

organize these historical remains so they will show in time and

geographical sequence the growth of the civilization and the in-

stitutions of the people of this state from the Mound Builders to

the year 1926. Each article must be made to tell its story in

man's life in Ohio and if it does not do that it is incorrectly used

or poorly exhibited. The true museum has its information to

give, its relations to show, its story of progress to tell, and its

lessons to teach, and hence it must be organized and arranged to

fulfil its mission. A museum may be a veritable hodge-podge of

the most valuable materials and yet without point or system. Of

what use is a book with the leaves jumbled together without order

or sequence? Of what use is a fine machine with the parts stuck

in wherever there happens to be a vacant place without thought of

their coordination?

The absolutely fundamental necessity in a museum of history

is an intelligent, flexible, scientific plan of organization and dis-

play. There must be a scheme covering the development of hu-

man society in Ohio. This outline should be blocked out with

the greatest care only after painstaking study by the ablest his-

torians and museumists within the State aided by expert advice

from outside. Unfortunately there are no comprehensive printed

guides or handbooks on the subject. There is needed for the

museum of history some classification of objects akin to Dewey's

system for a library, adapted of course to the peculiar environ-

ment. I might suggest the following chronological periods: (1)

The Mound Builders; (2) The Indians; (3) The French epoch;

(4) The English era; (5) The Revolutionary times; (6) the Ter-

ritorial years; and (7) the period of Statehood. Each period

in turn will have to be subdivided perhaps on the basis of insti-

tutional growth with some attention to time sequence and geo-



462 Ohio Arch

462       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

graphical location. This would give you a museum of civiliza-

tion -- one that would show man's life and progress politically,

industrially, socially, culturally and religiously.

Such a policy, adopted at the outset, would obviate many

pitfalls, and embarrassments. It would permit every worthy his-

torical object to fit into its place as a causal, resultal or illus-

trative factor. If it did not find a place, then it should be dis-

carded as irrelevant. It might be valuable for Texas, or Maine,

or Ireland, but it is of no educational use in Ohio. Well-mean-

ing donors will readily see what are needed as gifts, will not be so

insistent upon contributing extraneous articles, and may more

easily be persuaded to allow their collections to be separated in

order to strengthen the museum. Persons of means may be per-

suaded to fill up important gaps by purchase. It takes a good

deal of courage to refuse gifts of no constructive educational

value and to insist upon the right to distribute special collections.

Perhaps a museum should have a cemeterial storehouse to which

discards may be relegated until they can be sold or exchanged to

advantage. Far too many well-meaning persons think of a history

museum as a rummage exhibit, or a Salvation Army wagon, or a

junk shop, or a reservoir of all sorts of discarded objects. Such

contributions should not be refused, because jewels may be found

in a load of chaff. The problem is to locate the jewel and to get

rid of the rubbish.

Quite as essential as a plan and a policy, is a trained expert

with an efficient staff to supply tactful, enlightened and sym-

pathetic direction; to arrange the exhibits in an orderly manner

so as best to illustrate their cultural lessons; and to label articles

plainly and pedagogically. For lack of such guidance, many a

museum of history teaches falsehood, fosters unhistorical tradi-

tions, tells no story of man's life, gives no interpretation of prog-

ress, and merely incites amusement and curiosity.

It goes without saying that such an educational institution as I

have been discussing must have adequate physical equipment not

merely to house the museum but also to show the exhibits advan-

tageously. This is a larger problem than may appear at first sight.

Not alone shelves and cases, but suitable lights, vaults for the

most precious articles, filing cabinets for duplicates, a library for

reading and research, quarters for storage, work rooms and a

repair shop are needed.

Adequate funds must be supplied to pay a competent staff,

to organize the museum properly, and to purchase the necessary

apparatus, of course, but some sort of endowment or fluid funds

are imperative to fill in the many gaps by purchase whenever op-

portunities arise.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 463

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      463

Finally, a State Museum of History here in Ohio must take

advantage of its exceptional opportunity to cooperate with the

regional historical museums in the commonwealth. After all,

your purposes are a common one, namely, to preserve and to teach

the history of Ohio--your task is general; theirs is particular.

The ideal State Museum which I have tried to picture should be

applied to all the local museums. A system of exchange might

be worked out so that articles of general significance would come

here, while those of a local nature and value should be housed

with them. A check list of materials in the possession of all the

museums would facilitate such an interchange. The State Mu-

seum might send loan exhibits about the counties for educational

purposes. An interchange of lectures might be arranged, and

historical pilgrimages planned to the shrines in different parts of

the State. You might lend your expert staff to aid regional bodies

in the reorganization and reclassification of their museums, and

in turn, perhaps profit by their suggestions. In short, if all the

scholarship and all the interest in history in this great common-

wealth could be mobilized into active cooperation, Ohio would

soon win a primacy in the protection and utilization of its past

civilization as it has in so many other worthy fields.

The address of Doctor Flick was heard with the

closest attention. The speaker had his audience with

him from the first word uttered. His address is a con-

tribution of great value to the Society and all interested

in state and local history. Doctor Flick's position at the

head of the division of archives and history of the en-

tire state of New York and the eminence that he has

won in this special field enabled him to speak as one

having authority. His address sets forth the ideals to-

ward which the newer historical societies of the Middle

West may well direct their efforts. It was just what

those to whom it was delivered need at this time.

ADDRESS OF WALLACE H. CATHCART

At the conclusion of Doctor Flick's address, Pro-

fessor Siebert inquired, "Is Mr. Wallace H. Cathcart in

the room?" Mr. Cathcart, the well-known and success-



464 Ohio Arch

464       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

ful Vice-President and director of the Western Reserve

Historical Society, came forward and spoke as follows:

Ladies and Gentlemen: I was waiting to see if Dr. Siebert

recognized me, but he has the same misfortune I have, and is a

little near-sighted.

It is a real pleasure as an Ohioan to be here this morning;

as an Ohioan, who for some forty years has been interested in

the cultivation of the history of the State of Ohio. I think I can

rejoice with the same genuine rejoicing that Mr. Galbreath, Dr.

Mills and Mr. Johnson, President of the Society, are rejoicing in

this wonderful and beautiful addition to the Ohio State Archaeo-

logical and Historical Society building.

I must state that when Prof. Siebert telephoned me about



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 465

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      465

this meeting he asked me to present the details of what we were

doing over in Cleveland, sketch the history of our Society and

sum up conclusions. I think he knew how well Dr. Flick would

present everything else.

I do not think the members of this Society, or the members

of all the auxiliary societies and kindred organizations in the

State of Ohio will lack for something to do, if they carry out a

small part of what Dr. Flick has so ably suggested this morning.

In 1811, when Cleveland had a small population of some

fifty-five, and eighteen families, there were sixteen men who

formed a Library Association. Among these men were some that

were afterwards outstanding characters of the State of Ohio.

Among them, Dr. David Long, Samuel Williamson, and Mr.

Alfred Kelley, of whom the last-mentioned became so closely

identified with the public works of the state.

This library association commenced to gather books. Among

the first books obtained was a file of the Connecticut Evangelical

Magazine, which is now in our Library. They kept on until

1848, when the Cleveland Library Association was formed, and

they in turn received the collection of books previously accu-

mulated.

In 1867, an amendment was made to the charter of the Cleve-

land Library Association, permitting the formation of a branch

as the Historical Division. The historical works that had been

accumulated since 1811, were turned over' to the Historical

Branch, known as The Western Reserve and Northern Ohio His-

torical Society. In 1892, the society was incorporated under the

name of The Western Reserve Historical Society, to gather ma-

terial pertaining to Ohio and the West, and to quote from the

Charter "The purpose for which said corporation is formed is not

profit, but is to discover, collect and preserve whatever relates to

the history, biography, genealogy and antiquities of Ohio and the

West, and of the people dwelling therein, including the physical

history and condition of that State; to maintain a museum and

library, and to extend knowledge upon the subjects mentioned by

literary meetings, by publication and by other proper means."

It was my pleasure to become connected with the society in

1890. In the early days much attention was given to archaeology.

Judge C. C. Baldwin, and his brother, David, of Elyria, also Col.

C. C. Whittlesey, who had made some of the early archaeological

surveys of the State, were all very much interested in that phase

of the work. In a careful study of the situation, I found that the

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society was taking care

of part of the work more ably than we could expect to do. How-

ever, I felt that for the benefit of those in the immediate neigh-

Vol. XXXV--30.



466 Ohio Arch

466       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

borhood, we should have a collection bearing on the archaeology of

the State that would be fairly representative, and that perhaps our

best efforts should be given to gathering the printed and manu-

script material, bearing on the State's history. So during the last

40 years we have perhaps devoted more effort to that side than

we have to the other. The Library of the Society, by means of

legacies, donations, and by purchases supplemental thereto, has

accumulated a specialized library of rather great importance, if

size alone is considered. We have about 200,000 books and pam-

phlets on American history. This will compare favorably, I think,

with the older and better endowed historical societies of the East.

But numbers, in themselves, give very little idea of the true

strength of any library.

Our collection of source books of history relating to the

Northwest Territory and especially to Ohio is practically com-

plete. In statistical publications of the State and Municipality we

have nearly complete files in the order of publication. Of the

earlier ones of the State of Ohio, published before they were

bound as executive documents, we have really a very fine collec-

tion.

The department of travel, in the Library, is a very important

one. This consists of the published notes of those early adven-

turers who made the perilous trip from Pittsburgh to Cincinnati

or Louisville, by land or water. The accounts of the wonderful

things they saw of man and nature, and the experiences they met

with were eagerly sought in the East and in England and

France. Men were longing for habitation in this marvelous valley

of the River Ohio, a river of such striking beauty that it was

named, "The Beautiful River," in all the languages of the rival

races of men that claimed the region as their own. These books

followed each other rapidly from 1750 to 1825. Their value as

sources of history is very high. They are now very scarce and it

would not be possible to find all of them, or indeed, a few of them,

in many libraries. The Society has practically a complete set of

the original editions of these English and French works.

I was just thinking that if a man started in today to try to

accumulate these books, it would be an impossible task. The

other day I was at Anderson's sale in New York, and I saw a little

pamphlet of about twenty-odd pages, and with part of the pages

torn out, yet it was rapidly bid up to $200. The information that

was contained in it was not worth five dollars, yet any one collect-

ing Ohio material would like to have that book. This only shows

the eagerness with which Ohio material is sought for and the

price that some are willing to pay for it.

The Genealogical Department is one of the outstanding fea-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 467

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      467

tures of our work. It is used extensively by the Daughters of the

American Revolution, and those who would be Daughters of the

American Revolution; not only by those in Cleveland, but by

many from all over the United States. Correspondents sometimes

send in queries that would take a week to answer, and oftentimes

these come in without even a stamped envelope for the reply.

We have nearly three thousand distinct separate genealogies

of families.

Local and town histories, covering all the Eastern and older

states, with a goodly number for the newer states, altho not nearly

so complete as of the Eastern states, have been carefully sought

for and placed on the shelves of the Library.

Rosters of the several Wars, Pension Rolls and Year Books

of Patriotic Societies also serve as aids to the searchers of family

history.

A library of Ohio imprints holds an important place in our

collection. With the advent of the first printing press in a com-

munity, came the newspaper, also the opportunity of printing

books or pamphlets of a local nature that otherwise, in most cases,

would never have been printed.

What an opportunity is given, by means of these old books,

to study the thought and tendencies of the day; also the literature

that the people were then reading!

Of these special collections of the Society, probably the larg-

est and most outstanding is the William P. Palmer Collection on

the Civil War. I think I can say it is not excelled by any library

outside of Washington. This collection covers not only the State

of Ohio, but the entire country. There are over 40,000 books on

this particular period. On the War of 1812 we have a large num-

ber of volumes. We have manuscript papers of two of the four

Western Brigadier Generals. The papers of the other two we

have never been able to locate.

Some years ago Dr. McLean published a most excellent history

of the Shakers of Ohio in the QUARTERLY of the Ohio State

Archaeological and Historical Society and later a bibliography of

the Shaker publications. As we had only three or four of the 600

or more listed, I felt that with North Union village of the Shakers

almost at our back door, our Society should have a collection a

little more worthy of this wonderful Communistic organization.

Dr. McLean had formed the largest collection then known,

consisting of about five hundred books or pamphlets writen by, or

about the Shakers, and perhaps two hundred Ms. items. These

he sold en bloc to the Library of Congress. A smaller collection,

I believe, he gave to your organization.

For a time I felt that the opportunity to collect this material



468 Ohio Arch

468       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

had passed and turned my attention to other things, when an un-

expected gift gave me a start. On visiting some fifteen different

villages of Shakers, scattered from Maine to Kentucky, by the

expenditure of a good deal of time and some little money, I suc-

ceeded in gathering some fifteen hundred printed books and pam-

phlets and about three thousand manuscripts. These were later

turned over to the Society for permanent preservation. We have

always felt that although good books may have been written, cov-

ering the history of a subject, the sources from which they have

been gathered should be preserved for others, who may approach

the same subject from another standpoint. To illustrate, in col-

lecting we had discovered safely housed in the Ministry's private

rooms at Mt. Lebanon, the records of that great spiritualistic

movement, which passed through all the Shaker communities, and

of which most careful records have been compiled. Dr. McLean

stated, and the rank and file of the Shakers believed, that these

records had been destroyed to avoid any use of them in the future,

by those who would not have a full knowledge of this special

movement.

Again in reference to the Zoar Community, Dr. Randall, for-

merly Secretary of your Society and the Editor of your Journal,

published a most comprehensive history of this Communistic So-

ciety. One might well hesitate to write another, but at the same

time, when the opportunity presented itself, we felt it well to

preserve the original sources of this movement and in so doing,

we were able to obtain many letters written to and by Mr. Bime-

ler, the founder, in the early part of the 19th Century, from the

time when this group left the Old Country and with the help of

the Quakers in the East, came and settled on Ohio lands. These

letters, diaries and account books will be valuable to those who

may wish to go farther into the history of these movements, per-

haps from a different point of view.

In citing these two examples we are doing it to urge your

Society to preserve, wherever possible, the original source material

that may pass through your hands.

Of material and books bearing on the Presidents of Ohio,

which ranks second only to Virginia in the number who claim

her as their native state, we have collected all we could obtain.

Another side of history that has not been as carefully culti-

vated as it should be although historians are now urging its im-

portance, is that of church history, and to meet this demand we

have been gathering histories, reports of various church organiza-

tions, church records, etc., wherever it has been possible to obtain

them.

This is also true of the educational work of Ohio, its acad-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 469

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      469

emies, common schools, and colleges, records of which we have

accumulated. President Hughes of Miami University, on a re-

cent visit to the Library, said that in Miami University history

and material, the collection surpassed that which they had. Ohio

is the state of colleges, and when one attempts to gather the ma-

terial of a half hundred colleges it is no little undertaking. Yet

we feel the beginnings and development of the educational work

in Ohio is and will be of great importance.

We had not gone far in our collecting before we found that

if we were going to get material for a complete history of Ohio,

we had to go to the other states for the beginnings of the history

of the Old Northwest and Ohio. Although out of the limits of

this State, we have brought in a very good collection on the vari-

ous states, such as Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jer-

sey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, etc. One cannot write

Ohio history without having recourse to the history and works of

the Eastern States.

The richest treasures of the Society are its manuscripts.

Most important of these are the records of the Connecticut Land

Company and its instructions to agents and surveyors. Next are

the field books and daily records and sketches made by the sur-

veyors at work on the Reserve. Then the finished manuscript

terial information of the early days and early settlements of the

Reserve. There are also many letters and documents relating to

the Indian troubles on the border and the War of 1812. Some

of these have been published by the Society; others have been

mounted and listed and the lists published, but there are large

deposits of papers, etc., which are still to be examined and pub-

lished when time and means will allow.

Among these I might call attention to the vast correspondence

and papers of General Simon Perkins, Turhand Kirtland, Elisha

Whittlesey, the latter prominent under all the Presidents from

Madison to Lincoln; thousands of manuscripts on the Civil War,

Colonel C. C. Whittlesey papers, papers of Governors Hunting-

ton, Tod, Brown, Trimble; papers of the Ohio Land Company;

manuscripts pertaining to the settlement and history of various

towns all over Ohio, the diaries and papers of early Clevelanders.

Of special interest to those in this Central-Southeastern part of

the State are those of John Kerr. These papers cover the entire

beginnings of Columbus and the opening of the Northwest Lands

in Ohio which are north of the Indian treaty line and west of the

Reserve; they also have a great deal to do with the early settle-

ments around Chillicothe. The C. W. Butterfield manuscripts

turned over by the daughter of Mr. Butterfield are important;



470 Ohio Arch

470       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

some of these have been published, others revised for new editions

and some have never been published.

One of our strongest collections is that of Newspapers. We

have some 8,000 volumes, among these the files of Cleveland pa-

pers from 1818. The Western Reserve papers started in 1812,

and we have practically complete files of the various counties in

the Reserve.

Of the Confederate newspapers issued during the Civil War,

there are some 24,000 separate issues.

The earliest American papers, such as the Boston News-

Letter, which started in 1794, and the New York Gazette, the first

of the New York papers, the first of the Rhode Island papers, also

the first of Pennsylvania, as well as of Virginia, have been pro-

vided by means of expensive photostat copies. It would be im-

possible for any library to get anything like a full file of these

early papers, and it can be done only through the kindness of those

owning them in permitting photostat copies to be made.

All of our newspapers have been carefully collated, imper-

fections noted, and made ready for research: There are many in-

teresting historical items contained in these early publications.

Our collection of historical maps and atlases is notably fine.

The nucleus of this collection was the large collection formed by

our late President C. C. Baldwin. I thought for a long time we

would lose these as the Library of Congress was very anxious to

obtain them, but the family of Judge Baldwin later presented

them to the Society. These maps cover the entire range of his-

tory from the 16th century to the present day.

They consist of:

The classic maps in original examples of the work of the

great cartographers of Amsterdam, London and Paris. They are

classified to show the development of knowledge of the Great

Lakes and the Ohio River, as based upon the return of voyagers

to the Royal Geographical Societies of France and England.

Maps designed by the explorers themselves and published in

their works; with few exceptions these are originals, but we have

also almost a complete line of reprints.

Maps issued to illustrate standard books of travel and his-

tory. These cover the period of opening of the Great West.

War maps of the Revolution and the border wars.

Maps for the tourist and emigrant of the pioneer period.

Colonial maps based on first surveys and political develop-

ments of Ohio.

Wall maps and atlases of the various counties and cities of

the Western Reserve.

Among the outstanding manuscript maps of the State of



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 471

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       471

Ohio, we might mention the first map of the Ohio Land Company,

showing the location of Marietta, Rufus Putnam's map of the

Military Lands, the John Kerr map of the Northwest Section of

the State, the maps of Duncan McArthur and Nathaniel Massie

of the Virginia Lands. We have several hundred manuscript

maps of the various towns of the Reserve and other parts of the

State. In the Civil War Collection we have a good many, both

printed and manuscript. Among the latter are those used by

General Hancock, General Braxton Bragg and others.

The publications of the Society first consisted of tracts

printed in simple newspaper form. In other words the newspaper

set them up and ran them as news items and from the type, sep-

arates were printed for the Society, although of late years we have

not been able to use the newspapers in this connection. The Tracts

now number 107.

The Journals of Trent, Heath and Brule, all pertaining to

Ohio, were issued indirectly through our Society and from ma-

terial we have gathered and preserved.

The Museum of the Society.

For the last two years we have had conducted an educational

survey in Cleveland, and we have surveyed and resurveyed, until

I don't know just what to say about this phase of our work. We

have a large collection of archaeological specimens and pioneer

relics, but I am afraid, as Dr. Flick says, and as Dr. Parker, who

spoke so strongly at the last meeting of the American Museum

Association, said, they have been thrown together in a more or less

hodgepodge way, on account of lack of space, and that is one of

the reasons why I rejoice with you in this beautiful building,

where space seems ample and your material can be shown and

grouped to its best advantage and for its widest educational ser-

vice. We have plans for a new building, in which we have ar-

ranged to carry out the work on very similar lines to those of

which Dr. Flick has so, ably spoken.

Now, just a word in closing. I have brought these things to

your notice, not with an egotistic thought, but with the idea that

you are interested in history as we are and that you like to know

where and what sources of the history of our great State of Ohio

can be found in Cleveland. I think we have done fairly well in

Cleveland, and it has been done entirely without help of taxation

in any way, and only by private means.

In our individual zeal for our good Mother State, Ohio, per-

haps one or another feels disappointed, as is perfectly natural,

when this or that item has been obtained by some one else, but

this should be only a passing feeling, for think how much better

it is to have it preserved and made accessible than to have it in-



472 Ohio Arch

472       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

accessible, or irretrievably lost. I do not feel that way when an

item belonging to the State's history comes into, one of our larger

Ohio institutions, but I do regret seeing things go out of the state

that would be of greater importance here in Ohio.

I very often have a chance to point with personal pride to the

Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society. I am interested in it

and have been for years. Colonel Hayes has talked over the

Hayes Memorial at Spiegel Grove and its work a number of times

with me. I have urged him, instead of trying to form another

collection of Ohio books, which would to a large extent simply

duplicate the collections in Cincinnati, Columbus and Cleveland, to

render to Ohio a service which to me seems of greater value, that

of gathering from the French, English and Canadian Archives

the manuscript records of this territory which may be found there,

and publish them. To what greater service can he put the funds

he has so generously given or with what greater memorial can he

honor his father, who was so deeply interested in Ohio history

and gathering of its sources?

I have been anxious to see some action by the Legislature for

the preservation of the real history of Ohio, as contained in the

State archives. I think it would make anyone here sick to go into

the basement of the State House as I have many times, and see

the records and files of this state, manuscripts of the period of the

Civil War, scattered over the floor, where anyone going into the

room would walk on them. Go into the Governor's office and try

to find papers of the previous governors that have been in office.

If the State Historical Society could in some way get hold of those

records and safeguard them, I think it would be one of the great-

est advance steps they could take.

Iowa is a much younger state than ours, but her archives

are well preserved, and are being published. I would like to see a

man like Mr. Galbreath doing the same work in Ohio that Prof.

Stambaugh is doing in Iowa. There is not a better man that I

know of to put in charge of these valuable archives and make

them accessible by publication, than your worthy Secretary, Mr.

Galbreath.

I stand shoulder to shoulder with everyone here, willing to

do all I can to preserve the history of Ohio in Ohio for the world

at large.

I thank you.

Under the energetic administration of Mr. Cathcart,

the fine collection in the library of the Western Reserve

Historical Society has been greatly increased, the addi-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 473

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       473

tions in manuscripts, newspaper files and local history

being especially notable.

ADDRESS OF CHARLES T. GREVE

At the conclusion of Mr. Cathcart's address, which

was liberally applauded, Professor Siebert introduced

Mr. Charles T. Greve, Secretary of the Historical and

Philosophical Society of Ohio and well-known author,

who spoke as follows:

Mr. Chairman and Our Hosts: The Ohio State Archaeolog-

ical and Historical Society and fellow guests, representatives of

sister historical societies and libraries:

I come from the South bringing to you the greetings of

an elder sister, -- an elder sister born and bred in your midst

almost a century ago -- who departing seventy-seven years since

from the scenes of her youth, now returns to share in the reveren-

tial tribute to Ohio's sons, many the sons of the city of her home

by the beautiful river, and to add her felicitations upon the occa-

sion of this opening of new opportunities for cultivating the field

of Ohio history, -- the greetings and congratulations of the His-

torical and Philosophical Society of Ohio.

On behalf of that Society, afflicted as you, with a super-

abundance of name, betraying perhaps a common origin, -- a

family trait, -- I wish to extend thanks for your cordial reception

and appreciation of the warmth of your welcome to our home-

coming after so many years, -- an occasion of more than usual

significance to us who were here before you and who claim your

capital city as our own, -- our common mother consenting to share

with us her pride in her younger offspring.

Ninety-five years ago, on February 11, 1831, a charter was

issued to Benjamin Tappan, of Steubenville, S. P. Hildreth of

Marietta, Alfred Kelley of Columbus, James McBride of Butler

County, Ebenezer Lane of Huron and some twenty others, to or-

ganize The Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio. Among

the charter members for the city of Cincinnati were Nicholas

Longworth, John P. Foote and Timothy Flint. To anyone

familiar with the history of our state, the names of these empire

builders must awaken a thrill of enthusiasm, and the fact that men

of such standing should be sufficiently interested to take part in

such an organization should be a source of inspiration. The So-

ciety whose greetings I bear was organized on December 31, 1831,



474 Ohio Arch

474       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

at Columbus, and Benjamin Tappan was its first president. Sub-

sequent presidents during the Columbus period were Ebenezer

Lane, Judge Jacob Burnet and J. C. Wright, Burnet being re-

elected in 1844.

For the first dozen and a half years of its existence, the So-

ciety had its home in this capital city of Columbus, and its mem-

bership included persons from all parts of the state. Its first pub-

lication was issued in 1838 from this city. This included not only

the Act of Incorporation with lists of officers and the annual ad-

dresses by Tappan and J. H. James but papers which had been

read before the Society at its meetings, by Hildreth, Van Cleve,

James McBride, and others.

In the following year was published from this city what was

called a second part of the first volume, one of the most notable

contributions to our Ohio history.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 475

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      475

This included addresses by Judge Timothy Walker, James H.

Perkins, William Henry Harrison and others, and particularly

Judge Burnet's letters to Delafield concerning the settlement of

the Northwest Territory, afterwards expanded by the Judge into

his book, "Notes of the Northwest Territory."

The meetings of the Society were held in these earlier days

in the Representatives' Hall in the old State House, or at the old

Neil House, and the possessions of the Society were in a case kept

in the room of the Canal Commissioners.

In the meantime, there had been organized in the city of Cin-

cinnati in August, 1844, what was known as the Cincinnati His-

torical Society, with Mr. James H. Perkins as president, John P.

Foote and William D. Gallagher as vice-presidents, names equally

important in the history of the development of our community.

In 1847 Judge Este became president and was succeeded in the

following year by the poet Gallagher. In this year, Dr. Hildreth

presented to the earlier Society the manuscript of his "Pioneer

History," which was published in 1848 from Columbus. It is to

be regretted that the whereabouts of the manuscript are unknown

so far as the present speaker is concerned. Does any one here

confess to greater knowledge? As a result of the organization of

this later society, Mr. Randall, its librarian, at the annual meeting

in Columbus of the earlier Society, suggested the removal of the

organization to the city by the river and the turning over of its

papers and property to the new organization in the Queen City,

which suggestion was acceded to and the transfer of the Columbus

organization to Cincinnati took place in February 1849.

The first president of the old-new organization with the high

sounding name was William D. Gallagher and among its mem-

bers were James H. Perkins, E. D. Mansfield, Robert Buchanan,

A. Randall, John C. Wright, John P. Foote and Judge Este, all

names for Ohio people to conjure with. An admirable account of

this migration is given by Mr. Venable in his "Literary Culture in

the Ohio Valley."

In the revision of the constitution of the Society in 1850, its

primary object was announced to be "research in every depart-

ment of local history, the collection, preservation and diffusion of

whatever may relate to the history, biography, literature, philoso-

phy and antiquities of America -- more especially of the State of

Ohio, of the West and of the United States," certainly an ambi-

tious undertaking and one that has been at times attended with

more philosophy than activity.

Others who were very active in the offices of the Society were

George Graham, Peyton Symmes, John D. Caldwell, Osgood



476 Ohio Arch

476       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Mussey and Ainsworth R. Spofford, subsequently librarian of

Congress.

The books of the Society were first deposited in various

buildings more or less inaccessible to the public, and about 1860

were packed in boxes and deposited in the public library in the

Mechanics' Institute at Sixth and Vine Streets. This fact in-

dicates a period of inactivity during the Civil War, at the expira-

tion of which 'but four active members remained in Cincinnati,

Messrs. Robert Buchanan, George Graham, John D. Caldwell and

Manning F. Force. Due to the interest of three of the Society's

friends, who later were among its most valuable members, Julius

Dexter, Robert Clarke and Eugene F. Bliss, the Society was re-

organized in 1868, the library resurrected and placed in the rooms

of the Literary Club and the organization took on new life. Rob-

ert Buchanan became president, Judge Force and Charles Cist sec-

retaries and John D. Caldwell, librarian, all well known to history

students. The library at that time contained but seven hundred

bound volumes and 1250 pamphlets. Judge Force was president

from 1870 to 1889, to be succeeded in turn by Eugene F. Bliss and

some years later by the present incumbent, Mr. Joseph Wilby.

Mr. John M. Newton became the librarian in 1869 and was suc-

ceeded in 1870 by Julius Dexter, who held the position until 1880

when Miss Elizabeth Appleton was elected to that place, holding

it for six years, at which time she was succeeded by Mrs. C. W.

Lord. Miss Hamlin, the present librarian, succeeded Mrs. Lord

in 1905.

The duties of such an organization are collection, preserva-

tion and publication. In all probability the manuscript collections

of a Society of this character are its most valuable possessions and

our Cincinnati Society has been quite fortunate in this respect.

We have succeeded in acquiring a number of manuscripts, many of

which are of very great value. Among these are the collections made

by the indefatigable Robert Clarke, and the Cranch, Follett, Chal-

fant, Gano, Lawler, Stevenson, Pitcairn, Hatch, Susan Walker,

Todd, McBride, Greene, Foraker and Torrence papers, as well

as many books of miscellaneous manuscript letters, early tax lists,

pay-rolls, books of account and the like, in which constantly recur

the names of many of the most prominent residents of earlier

Cincinnati, such as Findlay, Harrison, Whitman, Longworth,

Taylor, Burnet, Storer, Kilgour, Yeatman, Ruffin, Baum, Carneal,

Kemper, Worthington, Short, Wright, Lytle, Drake and Ham-

mond.

A most valuable item in our collection is an almost complete

set of the earliest newspaper, The Centinel of the Northwest Ter-

ritory, beginning in November 1793 and extending to May 1796.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 477

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       477

I can testify from personal experience that this early news-

paper is both amusing and instructive to a degree quite unusual in

the case of many papers of more modern date. Our Society has

also been fortunate in the acquisition of numerous collections of

books with relation to the history of our state and neighborhood.

In these are included the Williamson Collection, that of Peter

Force, books of The New England Society, The Centennial Col-

lection presented to Sir Alfred T. Goshorn; The Robert Clarke

Collection and the Peter G. Thomson Collection, in itself a com-

plete library of Ohio and Northwestern History, consisting of 768

beautifully bound volumes and 11,063 pamphlets. Many fine be-

quests have given us a substantial endowment fund.

On the walls of our library hang many portraits of prominent

Cincinnati personages, as well as views of the city showing its

appearance at various times in its history.

As a result, the opportunities for historical study which are

offered to the public are quite unusual and have been taken ad-

vantage of by very many persons from all parts of the country in-

terested in historical research, as well as by students of our uni-

versity in whose library building our collection is housed for the

present.

It is usually regarded as one of the obligations of such or-

ganizations to make its treasures available to the public generally

and our Historical Society has attempted to do its share in ful-

filling this duty.

As already stated, in the early days several volumes of great

value were published, and in more recent years there have been

added to these publications others of equal interest. Among these

may be mentioned the Journal of Capt. John May and the Journal

of David Zeisberger translated from the German manuscript with

annotations by Eugene F. Bliss, and more particularly a publica-

tion just off the press, a cornerstone of history to use the phrase

of Mr. Fiske, "The Correspondence of John Cleves Symmes,"

the pioneer settler of the Miami neighborhood, edited with schol-

arly care by Professor Beverly W. Bond, Jr., of our university.

For a number of years we have published a quarterly, which

is made up very largely of selections from our manuscript papers.

From the Torrence papers have been selected eight numbers cov-

ering national politics of the Jacksonian era, office-holding under

Jackson, political career of William Henry Harrison, Transfer of

Louisiana and the Burr Conspiracy; Early Commercial Conditions

in the West; Early Illinois Politics, with many military papers,

muster-rolls, etc.

The Gallipolis papers cover the Scioto settlement; The Mc-

Bride papers deal with Miami University; The Oran Follett



478 Ohio Arch

478       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

papers with the political conditions of his time. The papers of

General Gano add much to our small stock of information as to

the War of 1812. Dr. Daniel Drake, one of the most remarkable

men of the West, gives his memoirs of the Miami Country. Gen.

Wm. Lytle's personal narrative of pioneer experiences and Peyton

Short's Tour to Mobile, etc., not only reflect to us the every-day

life of the early pioneers but read with the interest of a work of

fiction. We have also published the letters of Hiram Powers, our

sculptor, to Nicholas Longworth; letters of Thos. Corwin; the

Journals of Susan Walker and Francis Collins; documents with

relation to the Burr-Blennerhassett conspiracy and numerous let-

ters from people of more or less prominence in our early history.

Other publications include reproductions of such books as Dr.

Drake's Cincinnati in 181O; Worth's Recollections of Cincinnati;

Chidlaw's "Yr American" translated from the Welsh, as well as

reprints of various circulars and pamphlets of historical interest.

A few of the quarterlies include original contributions dis-

cussing such subjects as the "Ohio Conspiracy," "The Movement

of Ohio to Deport the Negro," and the "Relation of Southern

Ohio to the South during the decade preceding the Civil War."

It is almost impossible to avoid the appearance of a catalogue,

or index, in mentioning at such length these publications, but to

one familiar with our history, each name will recall a personality,

time and episode that contributed to the development of our com-

munity and our state.

The narrative of the struggles of such organizations and the

recounting of their achievements in the collection of books and

pamphlets and manuscripts and the recital of the publications

from time to time of the treasures of these collections, naturally

suggest the inquiry as to the end to be accomplished and its value.

Of the making of books there is no end, it is said, and this state-

ment is true of works of history and biography as well as of other

branches of literature. Whatever may be said as to the contribu-

tion of our country to the general literature of the world, there

can be no question that in the line of history writing our success

has been as great as, if not greater than, in any other branch of

literary workmanship. There is no need to mention the names

of our great historians and biographers and to suggest that they

occupy a position of preeminence unsurpassed by workers in sim-

ilar fields of other countries. In a great measure, this has been

brought about by collections, it is true, made in foreign countries

under governmental auspices as well as under similar conditions

in our own country but it is equally true that the work of the state

and local historical societies has in a great measure been of much

assistance. Many of the names that are familiar to those of us



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 479

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      479

 

interested in the life of our particular communities, are unfamiliar

beyond our own borders, and yet the country's strength lies in the

great body of citizens and is not dependent upon a few of national

prominence.

History, it has been said, is philosophy teaching by example

(the essence of many biographies); and the examples that teach

much of the philosophy and give an insight into the psychology of

a community must be drawn from the lives of the general body of

citizenry and not from the striking episodes in the careers of those

whom chance, or perhaps, more probably, greater gifts has pushed

more into the limelight of national or international renown.

Truth may be mighty and will undoubtedly prevail in the

end but the very prominence which gives us acquaintance with the

careers of our more celebrated men is apt to distort their person-

ality and give an imperfect impression of their character and abil-

ities. The advancement of civilization undoubtedly calls for great

achievements and great abilities but the advancement is not a real

one unless it is reflected not alone in the unusual but in the every-

day life of the community. The light that shines upon the throne

may be a brilliant one but its very brilliancy has a tendency to

make unreal the occupant of the throne.

There is no suggestion in this that our great personages are

not really great because they after all have the same feelings, de-

sires and ambitions as their fellow-beings; but there is a sugges-

tion that the lifting of our more prominent personalities from their

actual environment and duly idealizing them destroys to some

extent their value as examples from which we can learn a philos-

ophy of life. The truth as to any particular individual cannot

hurt if he be an individual worthy of study and emulation and if

he be unworthy, we should know the truth in order that the ex-

ample may not be a misleading one. It cannot in any way detract

from the greatness of Washington to learn, as we have all known

for many years, that he was a real person and not a bronze statue;

that Lincoln was a human being, developing to the highest type

of greatness by reason of the extraordinary demands made upon

his higher and broader qualities, and not a mere frivolous retailer

of light humor; that Chase was, it is true, an ambitious man, but

a most sincere and noble patriot.

These men were great because of the fact that they were not

superhuman but were the products of an heredity and an environ-

ment that made it possible for them to respond to the needs of a

people like themselves whose needs they could understand be-

cause they were a part of the people. To understand them we

must know that people.

It would seem that today there is greater need than ever be-



480 Ohio Arch

480       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

fore for a real history of the people themselves, a recounting of

the real life of the community and one that avoids the dangers of

history manufactured for a special purpose. Whenever history is

treated as propaganda, it becomes an element of danger. When-

ever a demand arises for presentations of the development of our

national life, as 1OO% American, or 100%  patriotic, or 100%

anything else, except truth, it is evident as today that the spirit

of intolerance which has ever been a menace to civilization, is once

more coming into greater activity.

It was a revolt against intolerance that drove the Puritans

and the Pilgrims into this country and although they were them-

selves intolerant in their turn, their reaction against the restric-

tions sought to be placed upon their daily life and conduct was an

advance in the direction of freer life. The more the historical

student, whether he be a pupil in our schools or a research scholar

in our universities, or a man devoting his life to historical work,

is enabled to come into contact with the daily life of the average

person of the time that he is studying, the more he is able to un-

derstand the events of that time and see their signifiance and con-

nection with the development of our nation and our community.

It is essential to the proper understanding of that development to

have our history uninfluenced by special pleading. Herein lies

the opportunity of our state and local organizations as distin-

guished from national or governmental collections.

Ohio, for reasons that may be given to us by some of our

speakers today, has from the outset occupied a position of unusual

importance in the history of our country and has given many

distinguished sons to the service of the nation, to such an extent

that today whenever some new personality emerges into promi-

nence we immediately begin to look for his Ohio connection, as in

the case of our principal speaker this morning. Our state has

been well called the first-fruit of the great ordinance of freedom,

and has always responded to the call for the defense of liberty of

action and liberty of thought. At times, for brief intervals, the

clouds of intolerance have hung over us, but the sober second

thought of our great mass of clean minded, straight thinking men

and women has been true to the spirit of our founders, a spirit

that is best preserved in their own records of daily life, in letters

and diaries and journals that reflect more fully and frankly than

any writings of the present the real thought and motive of the

writers. No surer and more efficient bulwark against any tem-

porary forgetfulness of the tolerance due to all the fundamental

principles of our national organization can be erected than the

simple annals of the past which form the valuable possessions of

our Societies. The men whom we are gathered to honor today



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 481

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      481

 

fought for freedom and tolerance and your Society with its new

facilities can do much to see that that fight was not in vain.

In this work which we think of great value, your elder sister

pledges you its constant and sincere help with the conviction

that the glory and achievement of one is that of all.

Mr. Greve is a graduate of Harvard and the Cin-

cinnati Law school, a prominent attorney of Cincinnati

and author of biographical and historical works includ-

ing the Centennial History of Cincinnati. His address

was of especial interest, showing, as it did very clearly,

the origin of the institution with which he is now con-

nected and set forth the collections of unusual interest

that have been gathered in the Historical and Philosoph-

ical Society of Ohio in recent years.

 

ADDRESS OF LUCY E. KEELER

Mr. Greve's address was followed by a paper from

Miss Lucy E. Keeler of Fremont which was read by

former State Senator A. E. Culbert of that city. Miss

Keeler spoke for Spiegel Grove, its beautiful park, the

Hayes residence and Memorial building and the rare

and valuable collection of Americana, left by the late

President Rutherford B. Hayes. Her paper follows:

The Hayes Memorial is my special theme, doubly appropriate

on this happy occasion because the very site of this newly dedi-

cated World War Memorial Building is a part of the noble tract

of land saved for the Ohio State University through the far-

sighted and vigorous policy of Rutherford B. Hayes during his

first term as Governor in 1868; after his two terms in Congress

just prior to which the land grant for colleges was authorized;

and because at the time of his death he was Chairman of the

Board of Trustees of the Ohio State University.  President

Hayes's last public service was in attendance as Chairman of the

Board of Trustees of the Ohio State University, returning from

which he was stricken while in the depot at Cleveland and reached

his home in Spiegel Grove only to die on January 17, 1893, fol-

Vol. XXXV -- 31.



(482)



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 483

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial           483

 

lowing his declaration that he would rather die in Spiegel Grove

than to continue to live anywhere else.

He had been for seven years president of the Ohio State

Archaeological and Historical Society, one of that galaxy of able

men who have served as president of this institution from its in-

corporation up to the present time, never excelled in Ohio --

Allen G. Thurman, Francis C. Sessions, Rutherford B. Hayes,

Roeliff Brinkerhoff, G. Frederick Wright, James E. Campbell, and

our presiding officer, Arthur C. Johnson.

Memorials, it is pertinent to remind ourselves and the public,

are memorable only for the memorials they conserve and the

service they initiate and maintain. How does the Hayes Memorial

meet this test? and indeed, what is the Hayes Memorial?

In a limited sense of the term it is the beautiful grey stone

building near the main entrance of Spiegel Grove, in Fremont,

Ohio, containing an interesting Museum, definitely limited in

scope and space; the large and valuable library of Americana

gathered through many years by Rutherford B. Hayes; and the

continuous expansion of this specialized library made possible

by the generous endowments of Colonel and Mrs. Webb C. Hayes.

In a truer sense, however, the Hayes Memorials comprise, as well,

the entire estate of Spiegel Grove--twenty-five acres of park and

woodland, and the fine ancestral homestead.

Soon after the death of President Hayes in 1893, his suc-

cessor, General Roeliff Brinkerhoff, sought ways and means to

secure for the Society not only the old home in Spiegel Grove, but

especially the vast volume of historical data and papers including

the library of Americana, and issued a confidential circular to the

friends of the Society, and especially to those interested in the

preservation of historical papers relating to Ohio and the North-

west Territory. This confidential circular contained copies of

letters most highly approving the proposition, from President

William McKinley and his Secretary of State, John Sherman.

It said:

The place known as Spiegel Grove is of great historical interest,

being located in the old Indian Reservation or Free Territory maintained

by the Indian Tribes at the Lower Rapids of the Sandusky River for a

long period prior to the Revolutionary War. Near the center of the Res-

ervation, Fort Stephenson was built just prior to the War of 1812, and

became famous by reason of its gallant defense by Major George Croghan

against the combined assaults of the land and naval forces of Great Britain

under Proctor, and Indians under Tecumseh on the 1st and 2nd of August,

1813. The old Harrison Trail, so-called, a military road leading from Fort

Stephenson to Fort Seneca, and then south, passes through the Grove and

is preserved as the principal drive-way.

Of all the homes of our twenty-four Presidents, covering a period

of one hundred and ten years, the only ones that have been preserved are



484 Ohio Arch

484        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

those of Washington, at Mt. Vernon; Jefferson, at Monticello; Madison,

at Montpelier; Jackson, at the Hermitage, and Lincoln's modest home in

the city of Springfield. All of these are now in the hands of private

societies, although in some instances assistance has been had from their

respective States. But in every case more or less time had elapsed before

the homes were secured and put in a state of preservation, and few or no

personal relics or memorials were secured. Spiegel Grove is now in a

perfect state of preservation, and all of the valuable historical effects of

President Hayes remain there intact. Unquestionably this is the largest

and most complete and perhaps most valuable collection of documents,

papers, and books, ever left by any of our Presidents. President Hayes

was a great reader and a man of scholarly tastes and attainments. He

acquired perhaps the finest library of American History owned by any

private individual, and during his public life he preserved all papers and

memoranda in an orderly and accessible form. All of this material will

be at the service of students and scholars if this plan of the Society can

be carried out. It is certainly a rare opportunity, such as seldom comes to

any State or organization. The citizens of Ohio, the friends of President

Hayes, and the students of American History cannot afford to do other-

wise than endorse and assist in this project of the Society and the family

of President Hayes.

R. BRINKERHOFF,                                E. 0. RANDALL,

President.                                      Secretary.

 

Owing to the War with Spain the bequest lapsed under its

time limit and Spiegel Grove and the personal collections became

the property of Webb C. Hayes in the settlement of the estate in

1899 for cash advanced to the estate.

The desire of the Society was ever in the foreground, and

in 1909 General Brinkerhoff's successor, Dr. George Frederick

Wright, secured from Colonel Hayes the transfer of the Spiegel

Grove property in three separate deeds to the State of Ohio, as a

free gift, with the following three simple conditions: The con-

struction of the Harrison Trail and other drives as Park Drives; a

suitable enclosure from the public highway and around the Knoll;

and the marking of the trees with their common and scientific

names to make them interesting and instructive to visitors.

Under the administration of Gov. Judson Harmon, the Leg-

islature of Ohio made an appropriation of $50,000 toward the

erection of the fireproof building, $10,000 of which was later used

for paving the streets on the three sides of the Spiegel Grove

State Park. Although it had been Colonel Hayes's announced

intention to devote his bequest solely to the purchase of historical

books, relying on the Society and State to maintain in full the

conditions of the deeds, nevertheless he advanced to the Society

some sixty thousand dollars required to erect and equip the orig-

inal Hayes Memorial Building, in 1914, and about $100,000 ad-

ditional prior to the Centenary Celebration of 1922 for the com-

pletion of the six split boulder and cannon gateways and for the



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 485

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial               485

 

Library and Museum Annex, out of his intended book purchase

bequest.

The dedication of the original building was deferred on ac-

count of the engagements of President Wilson owing to the com-

plications of the pending World War, and it was not till the 30th

of May, 1916, that the formal ceremonies occurred, the Hon.

Newton D. Baker representing the President of the United States.

President Wright in his opening address said:

As pilgrims come to this sacred spot from far and near they cannot

fail to be impressed with the importance of the historical events which are

here commemorated, and with the debt which we owe to the heroic men

who did so much here both to obtain and to preserve the liberties of our

country.

At the grave of President Hayes and in this memorial building a

flood of memories will come as they recall his gallantry on the field of

battle, his wise administration of the government of his native State, and

the transcendent service which he rendered in the face of violent oppo-

sition and abuse as President of the United States to restore that loyalty

and good feeling which we now witness in such full degree between the

warring sections of fifty years ago. All these are monuments to remind

us of the extreme and unselfish devotion of private interests to the public

good which are shown only by soldiers and statesmen of the highest rank.

Here may we come in increasing numbers to devote ourselves anew to

the service of our country and our common humanity.

The ninety-eighth anniversary of the birth of Rutherford B.

Hayes was opened with ceremonies of unusual interest on Oct. 4,

1920. The parade reviewed by the distinguished guests formed

in front of the Hayes Memorial, on the northern wall of which

was placed the artistic Memorial Tablet presented by Col. Webb

C. Hayes, M. H., in memory of his eighty comrades of San-

dusky County who died in the service of their country in the War

with Spain, the insurrection in the Philippines, China, the Mexi-

can Border and in the World War. Mrs. Webb C. Hayes, in the

costume of the Y. M. C. A., in which she had served in France as

Hostess and Librarian at the Soldiers' American Leave Areas at

Aix-les-Bains and Nice, unveiled the beautiful bronze tablet.

The Hon. James E. Campbell, president of the Society, in his

opening address, said:

No part of the work of this Society has been more important or

more valuable to the historical collections of the State than the acquisition

of Spiegel Grove with the precious personal property connected therewith.

Through the generous filial devotion and patriotic spirit of Colonel Hayes,

this tract was offered, without cost, to the State as a public park in memory

of both of his parents, by deeds dated March 20, 1909 and March 10, 1910.

The conditions upon which Colonel Hayes donated this property to the

State of Ohio simply require its maintenance as a State park, with the

further condition that the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society

should secure the erection of a suitable fireproof building for the purpose



486 Ohio Arch

486        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

of preserving and forever keeping in Spiegel Grove all papers, books and

manuscripts left by the said Rutherford B. Hayes.

Thus there was given to the nation and to the State a heritage of

which both can well be proud, and I take this occasion on behalf of the

Society which I represent, and on behalf of the State which is represented

by the Society, to express the fullest appreciation and deepest sense of obli-

gation. The expressions also extend to the noble and generous wife of

Colonel Hayes who has joined him in making this spot one of historic

beauty as well as patriotic monument.

In all the years since Colonel Hayes executed his first deed to this

property, the public has been left in ignorance of the magnitude of his

contributions; of his self-sacrifice; and of his generous patriotism. He

has arrived at the age (and so have I) at which the truth can be told

without the suspicion of flattery or adulation, and at which it can be re-

ceived without undue inflation. Therefore I take it upon myself, as pres-

ident of this Society, to relate publicly and in detail what Colonel Hayes

has contributed to this great patriotic monument, aside from the property

itself; and these facts are due historically not only to Colonel Hayes, but

to the Society and to the people of Ohio.

On July 1st of last year Colonel Hayes placed $100,000 in trust to

be used in the maintenance and upbuilding of this patriotic memorial. I

am within a conservative estimate when I state that Colonel Hayes has

disposed, for the benefit of posterity, in the form of the beautiful and at-

tractive property which you see before you, of at least $500,000; $250,000 in

cash and securities for endowment funds, and $250,000 in real estate and

personal property including the library of Americana and collections.

Again on the occasion of the Centenary of the birth of Ruth-

erford B. Hayes, Oct. 4, 1922, exercises were held and addresses

delivered by the leading men of the State and formal letters read

from President Harding who, owing to the illness of his wife, was

unable to be present, and Chief Justice Taft.

Archbishop O'Connell, reading the printed report of the

Centenary, took occasion to write to Col. Hayes that not long be-

fore the death of Cardinal Gibbons -- a keen observer of men --

they were discussing the relative merits of the various presidents,

and the Cardinal said:

I have known them all intimately and well from Lincoln un-

til now, and to my mind the most scholarly and refined of them all

was President Hayes.

Almost fifty years ago (1877) President Hayes, accompanied

by his cabinet and his son Webb, made an official visit to search

for and mark the almost forgotten birthplace of George Washing-

ton, at which time the son, hardly more than a youth, conceived

the idea of making the much-beloved family home at Spiegel

Grove the nucleus of a memorial to his parents. Until the present

hour of accomplishment the idea has never been far from his

thoughts and he has worked toward his goal with a zeal and per-

severance undaunted by obstacles.

The Hayes Memorial includes properly, also, seven substan-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 487

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       487

 

tial volumes issued as the Hayes Series: the two volume "Life of

Rutherford B. Hayes," by Dr. Charles R. Williams, of Princeton;

and the more recent volumes of the diary and letters of Ruther-

ford B. Hayes, edited by Dr. Williams, and published by the

State of Ohio. The six appendices of great historical value, cov-

ering all the source material relative to the obsequies and official

testimonials to President Hayes, and pictures of the tree-enclosed

Knoll where he lies beside his wife; the buildings, with elaborate

catalogues of their contents and all deeds, trust agreements and

endowments of the Spiegel Grove estate in relation to the State.

The twelve years of President Hayes's life following his re-

tirement from the Presidency were devoted to philanthropy in

many phases, and the demands upon his purse -- always gener-

ously met -- were constant and enormous. To cope with the

financial situation which President Hayes knew would follow his

death, I myself heard him advise his son to divide Spiegel Grove

into residence tracts for sale. Instead, thanks to filial devotion,

this superb estate, one of the few unspoiled natural beauty spots

and one of the most notable historic landmarks of Ohio has been

preserved intact for the benefit of the people. Visitors resort

hither, often hundreds daily, walking and resting under the mam-

moth trees which stand guard over so many memories; driving

over the very trackways used by the Indians and their captives,

explorers and missionaries, French, British, Colonial and local

troops; standing reverently at the gate of the Knoll; browsing

about the delightful library and museum -- the register showing

names from every State of the Union and from foreign lands.

Owing to the apparent lack of interest in historical matters

on the part of our Society and a devotion to the very worthy

archaeological and museum features, and the culmination of the

efforts of the Society in the present magnificent World War Me-

morial Wing, to all of which we are glad to own our individual

interest and allegiance as members of the Society, nevertheless

many of us believed it necessary to revive the interest in historical

matters in Ohio, using as a nucleus the magnificent Memorials

in honor of Rutherford B. Hayes; to accord also with the ex-

pressed desire of Mrs. Webb C. Hayes to devote a considerable

sum to be added to Colonel Hayes's bequests as a historical library

in the Hayes Memorial Library in the Spiegel Grove State Park,

conditional only on sufficient interest being shown by the State

or Society to complete the equipment and maintain the library

and museum in a creditable manner, which latter bequest was in

great danger of being lost through the lack of interest in historical

matters.

In furtherance of this, the budget committee of the Spiegel



488 Ohio Arch

488       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Grove Committee, after conference with Dr. W. O. Thompson,

President of the Ohio State University and Trustee of the So-

ciety, and Prof. A. S. Root, the distinguished librarian of Oberlin

College, issued a call for a conference of persons, societies and

librarians interested in the collection, preservation and publication

of the records and histories of Ohio and the Northwest Territory

in the nine northern counties of Ohio contiguous to Spiegel Grove,

including the Western Reserve Historical Society of Cleveland, the

Firelands Pioneer and Historical Society of Norwalk, and the

Maumee Valley Historical Society of Toledo, and the professors

of history in the colleges of that territory, to be held at Spiegel

Grove, Sept. 27, 1924. Great interest and enthusiasm were dis-

played by those present at the meeting.

A second historical Conference was held on Oct. 4, I925, the

anniversary of the birth of Rutherford B. Hayes, in the Hayes

Homestead in Spiegel Grove, which was attended by the chair-

man of Spiegel Grove Committee, Dr. W. O. Thompson, with

Mrs. Thompson; the recently elected president of the Archaeolog-

ical Society, the Hon. Arthur C. Johnson, with Mrs. Johnson; Dr.

Chas. R. Williams, of Princeton, author of the Life and editor

of the "Diary and Letters" of Rutherford B. Hayes, with Mrs.

Williams; H. L. Peake, of Oberlin College, with Mrs. Root;

Prof. C. C. Kohl, of Bowling Green State Normal College, with

Mrs. Kohl; Mr. A. R. Culbert, of Fremont, with Mrs. Culbert;

Mr. H. D. Messick, of the Union Trust Company, Cleveland, with

Mrs. Messick; Mr. Birchard A. Hayes of Toledo, and Miss Lucy

E. Keeler of Fremont.

The tentative plan for the organization of the Hayes Historical

Society was suggested as follows: A Board of Trustees, consist-

ing of twelve ex-officio trustees, nine of whom are successors in

positions formerly held by Rutherford B. Hayes as Governor of

the State of Ohio or as president of the board of Trustees of

Ohio educational institutions or of Ohio historical societies with

which he had been affiliated during the latter years of his life,

five incorporating trustees for life, whose successors shall be

elected by the Trustees of the Hayes Historical Society and six

elective trustees to be elected annually at the meeting of the trus-

tees of the Hayes Historical Society in the Spiegel Grove State

Park, Fremont, Ohio, on October fourth.

12 ex-offcio Trustees, as follows:--

13 Ohio State Officers:--

The Governor of the State of Ohio -- Hon. A. V. Donahey of

New Philadelphia, Ohio



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 489

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       489

The Speaker of the Ohio House of Representatives -- Hon. H.

S. Silver of Eaton, Ohio

The Superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio -- Hon. V. M.

Riegel.

8 Presidents of Ohio institutions of learning and Ohio His-

torical Societies:--

The President of the Ohio State University -- Dr. W. O. Thomp-

son of Columbus, Ohio.

The President of the Western Reserve University -- Dr. R. E.

Vinson of Cleveland, Ohio.

The President of the Ohio Wesleyan University -- Dr. J. W.

Hoffman of Delaware, Ohio.

The President of Kenyon College -- Dr. W. F. Peirce of Gam-

bier, Ohio.

The President of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical

Society -- Hon. A. C. Johnson of Columbus, Ohio.

The President of the Western Reserve Historical Society -- Hon.

W. P. Palmer of Cleveland, Ohio.

The President of the Firelands Pioneer and Historical Society --

Hon. H. L. Peake of Sandusky, Ohio.

The President of the Maumee Valley Historical Society.

The Occupant of the Hayes Homestead in Spiegel Grove --

Colonel Webb C. Hayes of Fremont, Ohio.

Colonel and Mrs. Hayes were deeply gratified at the cordial

response to the invitation to act as incorporators by five of Ohio's

most distinguished men of today in the persons of:--

Dr. W. O. Thompson of Columbus, President emeritus of the Ohio

State University.

The Hon. John H. Clarke of Youngstown, late Associate Justice

of the United States Supreme Court.

The Hon. Newton D. Baker of Cleveland, late Secretary of War

during the World War.

The Hon. Theodore E. Burton of Cleveland, late United States

Senator.

The Hon. Myron T. Herrick of Cleveland, Ambassador to

France.

The Hayes Historical Society was incorporated and its officers

elected at a meeting of the incorporators held at Cleveland, Janu-

ary 8, 1926, at which time Dr. W. O. Thompson was elected presi-

dent; the Hon. Newton D. Baker, Vice-president; Prof. A. S.

Root of Oberlin, Secretary; and H. D. Messick, Esq., of Cleve-

land, Treasurer.



490 Ohio Arch

490       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

The incorporating trustees together with Dr. R. E. Vinson,

President of the Western Reserve University; Dr. W. F. Peirce,

President of Kenyon College, and Col. Webb C. Hayes, the oc-

cupant of the Hayes Homestead, were elected the executive com-

mittee of the Board of Trustees with full power to control the

affairs of announcement made of the prospective endowment of

the Hayes Historical Society by Mrs. Mary Miller Hayes.

I trust that I have, in this summary, shown you some bright

pictures of Spiegel Grove, expressed something of the historic

interest, charm and refinement of an American home of the 19th

century before the old order changed; drawn some portraits of

the personages living there whose foresight, courage and stead-

fastness to beneficent aims strengthen one's faith in humanity.

I hope to have shown you how the Hayes Memorial is not

only conserving rich treasures and memories of a local and per-

sonal past, but initiating and ensuring a rich service for the fu-

ture.

At the close of the reading of Miss Keeler's paper,

the conference adjourned for luncheon, after which

Doctor William C. Mills, director of the Ohio State

Archaeological and Historical Society, through whose

industry and zeal, chiefly, its collections have been

brought together, conducted the party of guests and

friends through the rooms of the Museum, pointing out

the leading objects of interest, and answering questions

in regard especially to the recent notable finds in the

Ohio mounds.

Following the inspection, the memorial bronzes in

the rotunda and at the Fifteenth Avenue entrance to the

building were unveiled. The direction of this ceremony

was under Mr. Herbert B. Briggs, the State Architect.

In introducing the sculptor, Bruce Saville, Mr. Briggs

said:

There was born in Massachusetts some years ago a baby --

I almost said a man -- who has had a very interesting career. I

do not know whether it is quite proper for me to use the word

which General Orton told me characterizes the character or con-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 491

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial          491

duct of that boy during school; but the General said he did some-

thing like raising -- well that's all right -- but he did find later

something that he liked. It was his opportunity to study with

some of the best sculptors of Boston. It was his further oppor-

tunity a little later to start a studio for himself.

In 1916, when France and England and the other leading

countries were in the throes of the World War, he heard the call

and joined the French Ambulance Corps. From this branch of

the service he went to a special motor transport division organized

by the French and saw service up at the front with the motor

transports. Nine years ago, the United States declared war. Al-

most immediately after that, this man heard there was to be or-

ganized in Paris an American Camouflage Regiment, and he made

it a point to connect himself with that. That regiment was the



(492)



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 493

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      493

 

40th Engineers, the only Camouflage Regiment connected with

our troops. I hope you may pardon the personal reference, for

the man of whom I am speaking was a comrade in arms with my

son, in the same regiment and in the same company, and it is a

pleasure to present to you Mr. Bruce Wilder Saville, sculptor of

these panels and of The Victorious Soldier. (Applause.)

In introducing Mr. Saville, Mr. Briggs said:

Mr. Saville says quietly to me, "I don't think I shall say

anything." I want to say this: I believe that what you will see

will speak for Mr. Saville.

To Governor Campbell, I understand, goes the chief credit

for this memorial wing, these memorial panels and the statue of

the Victorious Soldier, outside.

It is very fitting that four of the outstanding features of the

service of the United States in this war have been selected as sub-

jects for these panels.

On April 6, 1917, the American mind was prepared for war

It is a question whether, if war had been declared prior to that

time, the American mind would have been prepared for it, but

when the American mind is prepared to do anything the American

mind can accomplish its purposes quickly.

The subjects of these panels are: The Draft, The Training,

The Voyage and The Advance.

Here is an indication of the preparation of the American

mind, for had the American mind not been prepared it would

have been utterly impossible to pass a selective draft. It would

have been impossible to pick out of civil life almost five thousand

men, who became recruiting officers, and recruited an army of

men such as the world has never known nor seen.

In the selection of the particular part of the draft for this

panel, the physical examination was chosen, and as the panel is

unveiled you will notice the cosmopolitan character of the men

depicted. It shows that some of them were physically fit and

others, perhaps, not up to the standard. To those who have had

the opportunity of seeing these ideas grow from mere sugges-

tions, from small, scanty models to the finished products, it has

been a wonderful opportunity, and it is my pleasure to ask that

the panel of The Draft now be unveiled.

(The Panel was unveiled by Miss Edith Tallant.) (Ap-

plause.)

The text under this panel is:

For the first time, America's Young Men, Ten Million of

Them, Torn Betwixt Hope and Fear, Stripped for the Test--

Fit or Unfit, Which Would It Be?



(494)



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 495

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      495

 

The next panel is entitled The Training. Almost over night,

thirty-two cantonments or encampments were organized, and built

to receive the men who were sent into these training camps through

the selective service. The words under this panel are:

In Thirty-Two Cantonments of Forty Thousand Each, Un-

ceasing Drill hardened the Bodies and Steeled the Souls of Men

for the Grim Task of War.

(The Panel was then unveiled by Miss Mary Louise Long.)

(Applause.)

The next outstanding picture in this war, or part of it shows

again that the American mind was prepared, and the American

mind overcame through ships and otherwise the great problem

of the transportation of these millions of men. (The panel was

then unveiled by Miss Edythe W. Hall.)

In the development of this subject Mr. Saville has picked

out the actions of a gun squad on one of the transports. To me,

and also from the standpoint of the sculptor, it is one of the best

panels. It is very difficult, when they are all so wonderful, to pick

out the best. On this side of the panel you will see the officer of

the squad and you can almost see the movement of the arm and

hand of the man sighting the gun. The reading under the panel

is:

The Navy, with Untiring Vigilance, Convoyed through

Deadly Mines and Lurking Submarines, our Fleets of Troop-

Ships, in Safety, Carrying Two Million Men to France. (Ap-

plause.)

The last of the panels represents The Advance. (At this

period Miss Margaret Knight stepped forward and unveiled the

panel.)

It may be of interest to know that of the actual scenes de-

picted by these three panels that we have seen, Mr. Saville had

no personal contact, unless it be this one, because he was fighting

for France when we declared war. He knew nothing directly

about the selective service work, nor did he have the opportunity

of a training in the camps, but he did know from personal ex-

perience the subject of the last panel. He did know what it meant

to be under fire. He did know in that camouflage work up very

near the front what it was to receive the German bombs from

the machines up in the air.

This panel is inscribed: Through a Ruined and Stricken

Land, Scarred by Trenches, Blasted by Shell Fire, Pestilent with

Gas and the Reek of Carnage, Our Troops Pushed on to Victory.

(Applause.)



(496)



(497)

Vol. XXXV -32.



498 Ohio Arch

498       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

General Edward Orton, Jr., here stepped forward

and made the following announcement:

Ladies and Gentlemen: On account of the weather, it has

been necessary to call off the military parade, and it has been

necessary to bring the exercises for the afternoon inside of

the building. The arrangements involve, of course, a very sud-

den and drastic shifting. It is necessary, therefore, that we shall

conduct, immediately following this, the unveiling of the statue

on the front steps, which should have been toward the latter part

of the afternoon. The Governor and military authorities and the

unveiling party will come to this door and proceed onto the plat-

form, and those of you who wish to witness this part of the pro-

gram may come out on the steps and see the last part of the un-

veiling, after which, come back into the building, and the 2:30

dedication exercises which were to have been in the open will be

in the Auditorium.

(The crowd then proceeded outside, where the statue, The

Victorious Soldier, was unveiled by Mrs. Elizabeth L. Clark.)

A writer in the June number of The Ohio State Uni-

versity Monthly thus describes the unveiling of the Vic-

torious Soldier:

At the conclusion of the dedication of the panels, the Gov-

ernor, officers, speakers and distinguished guests filed out from

the rotunda to the outside platform, a bugle sounded, a battery

of 75's roared out their salute, and in the breathless silence which

followed, Mrs. Elizabeth L. Clark of Steubenville, Ohio, presi-

dent of the American Legion Auxiliary of Ohio, assisted by the

four ladies: who had officiated inside the rotunda, unveiled the

heroic figure of the "Victorious Soldier". This statue, nine feet

tall, standing on a pedestal five feet high, impresses everyone

with its action, its virility and confident power.

Owing to the snow and rain, the draperies did not fall in-

stantly, and their gradual release of the head, the shoulders, the

bust, and finally the whole figure, added a dramatic touch to a

tense moment. As he stood unveiled, the band played the "Star

Spangled Banner" while the crowd stood motionless, with eyes

devouring the artist's embodiment of patriotic American man-

hood.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 499

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       499

 

PUBLIC DEDICATION EXERCISES

Promptly at 2:30 P. M., the President of the Ohio

State Archaeological and Historical Society, Mr. Arthur

C. Johnson, called the meeting together with these intro-

ductory words:

Ladies and Gentlemen: Speaking on behalf of the Ohio

State Archaeological and Historical Society, it is particularly

pleasing to us that, in spite of the inclement weather, we are able

to have such a happy indoor party. After having witnessed the

impressive ceremonies of the unveiling, the time has now come to

begin the speaking program.

May I call upon the Chaplain of the I35th Field Artillery,

37th Division, A. E. F., the Reverend Father William P. O'Con-

nor, to invoke the Divine blessing upon this assembly.

Rev. Father O'Connor led in prayer:

Our Father who art in Heaven, we are gathered here today

to ask Thy blessing and Thy strength upon our State, and upon

her soldiers and her citizens. We are now enjoying the blessings

of Thy great feast, of Easter Sunday, the resurrection of the

Lord, as we gathered with pious women and disciples and went for-

ward to the tomb to throw back the stone and to have the Saviour

come forth, and as we prayed, in seeing that stone rolled back

and thereby the Lord risen, with the recompense of his strength

and his glory, we gather here today, O Blessed Lord, and as we

have unveiled, thrown back the veil of The Victorious Soldier,

we pray again, that Thy heavenly strength may be imbued into

us all; that out of the unveiling and rolling back of the veil of

the Victorious Soldier, we may gather strength from this mighty

form, and we may gather grace from those mighty thoughts por-

trayed in the panels, that honor our Divine Saviour in His resur-

rection, that honor our country in its resurrection; to portray the

soldier thought and patriotism, may this unveiling ever be our

strength and guide, in Christ Jesus our Lord. Amen.

 

ADDRESS OF GOVERNOR VIC DONAHEY

In presenting Governor Donahey, President Johnson

said:



(500)



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 501

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial        501

It is particularly appropriate that the address of welcome

with which the program proper is to begin should be delivered

by His Excellency, the Governor of Ohio, that staunch friend of

the Society, neighbor and fellow-citizen, Vic Donahey. May I

present the Governor of Ohio?

The audience rose and extended a very cordial greet-

ing to Governor Donahey. When the applause con-

cluded, he spoke as follows:

Mr. Chairman, Fellow-Citizens, Ladies and Gentlemen: It

is with a deep feeling of gratification that I welcome so many

sons and daughters of Ohio to the dedication of this Memorial

to the veterans of the World War, the first to be erected by our

state for such a purpose. This structure is not in any sense to

be considered as pertaining to a locality, it belongs to all of the

people of our great state; that this is realized is evidenced by the

many distinguished guests from within as well as without its

borders.

I have sometimes heard it said that our country rises to the

most fervent heights of patriotism during the war, and relapses

into indifference to its defenders once the emergency has passed;

this I have never believed. It is my opinion that reverence and

affection for the defenders of our country are deeply rooted in

the souls of our people, and I point to this beautiful structure and

reverent assembly as a visible evidence of my belief.

We have a group of citizens whose duty and whose pleasure

it is to perpetuate the glorious records of our state and country.

The Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society is to all intents

and purposes a functioning agency of the state; it is governed

by a Board of Trustees, composed of men and women actuated

by sincere and ardent resolve, whose enthusiastic efforts and pa-

triotic ideals are at all times engaged in perfecting the historical

records, and preserving the historic objects which are interwoven

with our daily life. This Society is dedicated to the service of our

people and has no other purpose.

At this time, I wish to refer to a noble patriot, a public leader

and a sage of his generation, long a hard-working and valued

member of this Society, former Governor James E. Campbell, to

whose vision and enthusiasm more than to those of any other one

man this completed edifice owes its birth, -- a veteran of that

most momentous of all our struggles, the Civil War, in which

as a mere lad he served his country as a sailor. It was his in-

terest which imbued others with the idea of this memorial, which



502 Ohio Arch

502       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

later was, by action of the General Assembly of Ohio, brought

from the realms of vision to fruition in the form of a tangible

monument.

Man has an instinct for preserving the records of his life;

even the prehistoric cave-dwellers etched in rude paints the pic-

tures of the beasts and other perils of their day upon the walls

of their habitations, and crude histories of our primitive peoples

have passed through many generations by word of mouth, from

father to son in the form of superstition, legend or verse; but it

is a significant fact that those races and peoples which have

achieved most progress in spiritual, moral and material directions

are the peoples in whom was most deeply developed the instinct

of perpetuating their records. This is not to be wondered at, as



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 503

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial        503

 

it is only by the study of the past, we are able to gauge the future.

It is only by a realization of errors, that we are able to prevent

their future occurrence. To an individual or nation the careful

study of past events is of vital importance in guiding along the

paths yet to be trodden, and happy is the man who or the country

which can profit in this manner.

As every stream has its long quiet stretches, broken ever

and anon by the turbulent water of rapids, so in the course of a

nation's destiny will it have its periods of peace and prosperity,

broken at times by the dread shadows of war, pestilence or

famine, and these become the peaks of the mountains of history.

Six great wars have fallen upon our people in the one hundred

and fifty years of our national existence, or a war for every

quarter century; each of these wars was unsought, and was fought

in defense of, or in furtherance of, a great moral principle. God

being with us, we have prevailed in each of those great conflicts,

although assailed many times by doubts and fears as to the out-

come. It is my fond hope that humanity shall never again engage

in war, but perhaps the realization of this is far in the distance.

There remains then to us the obligation, in the future as in the

past, to refuse to unsheath the sword except in a just cause, but

in such a cause to defend the right to the death.

Of the veterans of the first three of our great national strug-

gles none remain, but their graves are sanctuaries of our love,

and a grateful nation has accorded them reverence, respect and

devotion. But few of that gallant band, who preserved the in-

tegrity of the Union in '61-'65, remain to receive our homage;

most of their comrades have completed their tasks and have gone

to their reward, but their deeds are forever enshrined in our mem-

ories. The veterans of '98, now in middle age, and at the peak

of their service, are entitled to and receive the appreciation due

them, not only for their valor as soldiers, but for their public

spirit as citizens.

And now we have a new generation of veterans, the gradu-

ates of the last and greatest school of war since the dawn of his-

tory; these are now for the most part young men and women, but

many years ago the soldiers of these previous wars were just as

young. The passage of time has sent the veterans of other wars

to their last resting place, or has sprinkled the snow of advancing

age upon their heads, and just as surely will it mete out the same

fate to the heroes of our last war. It is therefore but fitting that

proper recognition be paid to these soldiers while they still rec-

ognize and appreciate it. It is proper to strew them with flowers

while living, rather than to withhold such floral offering for their

graves. The deeds they have done, the lives they have lived and



504 Ohio Arch

504       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

the sacrifices they have made, are here recorded, that our people

of the future may receive anew, the inspiration necessary to carry

them through a similar dark period, if God in his wisdom shall

inflict it upon them.

This afternoon, in dedicating this Memorial we are creating

history; let every soul rejoice that the past has provided the

type of men and women who are here being memorialized, and let

every mind resolve that the days to come will still behold our

country rich in that most valuable of all assets, a courageous,

loyal and true citizenry. (Applause.)

 

ADDRESS OF RALPH D. COLE

Mr. Johnson introduced the next speaker, Honorable

Ralph D. Cole, as follows:

In the next speaker on the program, we have the happy com-

bination of war veteran and historian, Honorable Ralph D. Cole,

Lieutenant Colonel of the 145th Infantry, A. E. F., and Historian

of the 37th Division of Ohio Troops, who has been assigned the

subject "Ohio's War Memorial." Mr. Cole, who is a distin-

guished son of Ohio, needs no further introduction and will now

be presented. (Applause.)

Colonel Cole stepped forward and delivered the fol-

lowing eloquent address:

Mr. Chairman, Governor Donahey, Distinguished Guests, and

my Fellow Citizens: A generation of men and women that

makes a record worthy of the emulation of mankind is charged

with the responsibility of its preservation. Nations will build

memorials to their immortals after the lapse of centuries, but the

record of the rank and file must be written into history, perpetu-

ated in bronze and marble, memorialized in painting and sculp-

ture, by the generation that wrought the achievement. If we fail

in the discharge of this duty, it will never be properly fulfilled.

This generation has wrought so nobly in a cause so just, that

it deserves and will receive a prominent place in the annals of

time. The history of man is much like the geological eras of the

earth. The record of the rocks declares that centuries roll by and

the form and structure of the earth remain stationary; then comes

a mighty convulsion of physical forces; new continents are thrown

aloft, crowned by majestic mountains that separate the waters

of the deep into new oceans. So it is in the history of man.



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 505

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       505

Ages roll by in warless monotony, then comes a mighty convulsion

of spiritual forces, empires are unmanned, kingdoms are over-

thrown, new nations arise out of their ruin and strange races as-

sert dominion over the affairs of men. We live in an epoch of

time characterized by the flagrant action of great spiritual forces.

The world was in a conflict between the forces of freedom and

autocracy; between the power of despotism and the ideals of de-

mocracy, and it was in such a generation, thrown aloft into the

mountains of the centuries, that you and I have had the honor

to live and discharge our duty. I thank God for the privilege,

as you doubtless do, of being able to live and discharge my duty

with such a generation.

But it has been said only recently, both at home and abroad,



506 Ohio Arch

506       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

that America did not discharge her full duty during the world

war. We deny that charge, and we assert that America dis-

charged every obligation which she sustained to the civilization of

the world, during that titanic conflict. They said we should have

entered the World War earlier. I listened a few moments ago to

the gentleman, [Mr. Briggs], who spoke at the unveiling of the

memorials, and he said that the American mind was not pre-

pared for war until 1917, and it is true that the character of that

conflict had to be stamped indelibly upon the mind and upon the

heart and conscience of the American people, before we were

justified in entering the war. Is it the duty of America to assist,

in a military way, every people -- alien people struggling for

their freedom against autocratic government? No, that is no

part of the duty of an American citizen. An American citizen

pledges allegiance to the flag of the United States, and the flag

of his country alone. The President of the United States is

charged with the duty of upholding and defending the Consti-

tution of the United States alone. This government under its

constitution, has no power to draft an American citizen into the

military service of the country, to die for another people, unless

American interests are involved, and American interests did be-

come involved, and we had a just cause for war.

The freedom of the seas was an issue in the World War.

The lives and liberty of American citizens had been taken. No

nation can murder American citizens and not suffer the conse-

quences. We were justified in entering the war when we en-

tered, and after we did enter, we discharged our duty in a full

measure. In one year's time this country became organized for

war. We equipped and organized an army of four million men;

two million of those men were taken across the seas, and Ameri-

can troops participated in the batltes of Vimy Ridge and Chateau

Thierry, the first struggles in which the tide of battle was turned

and in which the future destiny of the earth was determined.

We have boys in Ohio who were in that awful conflict when

civilization was at stake and the mighty forces of the air were in

mortal battle. Ohio men were there, and I thank God for the

privilege of standing upon a platform with one of those noble

men, one of the greatest citizens of Ohio, one of the most gallant

soldiers that ever drew the flames of battle, an eminent jurist of

Ohio, Colonel Benson W. Hough. (Applause.)

Ohio as well as the nation discharged her duty. She organ-

ized the 37th Division, 30,000 of us, and the 83rd Division. Both

of these divisions were on the other side and rendered service

on the firing line. They hit the Hindenburg Line in the St.

Mihiel Sector -- listen to the historical names -- St. Mihiel,



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 507

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       507

 

Chateau Thierry, Belleau Woods, the Argonne, Alsace-Lorraine,

Flanders Fields. As long as the English language shall live,

those names shall be remembered. It is fitting now that their

glory and historical achievement should be written upon these

tablets of bronze, and oh, how beautiful they are--how beau-

tiful! I was in Europe last year and looked at much of the

sculpture over there and I saw nothing to surpass the beauty of

the bronzes that were unveiled to our vision this afternoon, and

especially of that magnificent soldier-boy standing out there to-

day, tomorrow, and through the years to come, reflecting a noon-

day sun, and standing guard at night under the stars; there he

shall stand forever, the embodiment of the spirit of the noble

boys that served Ohio during the World War.

So, Mr. Chairman, as the representative of the soldiers of

Ohio, for whom, with my comrade General Hough, I am author-

ized to speak this afternoon; for them I want to thank you and

your co-workers in preparing this beautiful memorial building, in

the sculpturing that has been wrought in these memorials. They

rightly deserve the recognition that you have accorded them and

you shall have their undying gratitude for the service that you

have rendered to the veterans of the World War. It is an obli-

gation we owe to the dead to perpetuate their memory. They

were only boys. Do you remember them? They were only

boys. We live, mantled in the majesty of manhood, in the full

possession of our ennobling faculties, greeting the glorious oppor-

tunity of American life, reaping the splendors of a civilization

they helped to save.

They are gone. In the bloom of boyhood, in the unveiling

miracle of the morning of life, they died. Many of them were

just free from school when the war clouds lowered, but they

dropped their books and pens and plows and picks and seized the

rifle and manned the mighty guns, and with the courage and spirit

of America saved the civilization of the earth. A strange dispen-

sation of Providence that places upon the boys the greatest re-

sponsibility of citizenship. Men of maturity would break under

the burden of battle that boys will bear in triumph.

So, my friends, we owe it to their memory today to erect

these memorials and preserve their record, and as long as we

manifest such a spirit, that for which they have died shall endure.

Our poor words shall perish but their work shall endure, and

wherever among men hearts shall be found that beat and throb

to the transports of freedom, their highest aspiration shall be to

claim kindred with these boys. Thank God for these boys. They

have saved for us a noble government. They have made secure

for us the future of this Republic, for this Republic must live,



508 Ohio Arch

508       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

It will not be disturbed by wars and revolutions, but it will tower

sublime, while monarchies totter and fall; it will stand majestic,

immutable, the American Republic. (Applause.)

 

ADDRESS OF THEODORE E. BURTON

Following the address of Colonel Cole, President

Johnson said:

I wish I might possess some of this inspiring oratory of the

last speaker in making these introductions. However, my limi-

tations leave me only the power to say in simple way that one of

the world's greatest statesmen, a man full of years and honors,

who is today rendering the greatest service of his career to his

state and his country, has left his busy life in Washington that

he may come here to witness these unveilings and make an ad-

dress. I shall introduce to you a man, who, trite as the saying

may seem, needs no introduction, nevertheless we will present

Honorable Theodore E. Burton, who will address you on the

subject, "The World War and Its Lessons." (Applause.)

When the last echoes of the generous applause that

greeted Congressman Burton had died away, he ad-

vanced to the speakers' stand and spoke as follows:

It is most unfortunate that the faithful labor of those who

organized for this occasion should be marred by the inclement

weather. We cannot say that Winter is lingering in the lap of

Spring, for Spring has not yet appeared upon the scene. And

yet, let us not forget how much darker were the skies, how much

more gloomy were the days when our soldiers were battling

abroad. The dough-boys went down into the trenches, slimy,

damp, and dark, not to protect themselves against the elements,

but that they might not be slain by the murderous shells of the

foe.

It is for us, by such memorials as this and by the more sub-

stantial tributes of our gratitude and affection, to remember those

who fought in the late war. Let not the voice of the living or

the dead be able to say to us, "Are we then so soon forgot?"

My friends, the late World War, from 19I4 to 1918, was the

most frightful conflict in the world's history. Absorbed in the

busy whirl of the present, with its excitements, we do not realize



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 509

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       509

 

its magnitude or importance. Maybe those who come after us

will have a better grasp upon its significance. In that awful con-

test more than ten million of the bravest and best marched

through the dark valley of the shadow of death to certain de-

struction, and deeply engraven on a multitude of hearts are the

records of grief, rendering homes which might otherwise be alive

with happiness and joy, abodes of suffering and sorrow. The

number disabled by wounds or sickness can scarcely be enumer-

ated. The material loss in that awful contest was more than two

hundred and fifty billions of dollars. The stored up savings of

the ages, more in amount than the combined wealth of any four

of the leading countries originally involved in the struggle, were

burnt up in the waste and destruction of war. And yet, when

we contemplate the aftermath, the spiritual and moral legacies

of hatred and vindictiveness may be more disastrous than the

material damage.

What was America's part in this great struggle? Nine years

ago today the declaration against the rulers of Germany went

forth to the world. Then there was an uprising such as no nation

has ever seen. By material assistance, by sending two million

soldiers across the sea, and by the readiness of many millions

more, America threw the weight of her might into the contest,

sustaining those who were worn and weary; and turned doubt

and defeat into victory. Whatever our critics may say at home

or abroad, I shall always maintain that our entrance into the war

was largely dictated by a spirit of altruism and by a desire to

preserve liberty and free government. Our nation's strength was

exerted for the supremacy of right over might, for justice and

with a hope, -- a burning hope, -- that the terrible struggle might

be the last and peace might follow.

Our participation in the war was not unanticipated, and when

the tocsin of alarm sounded, millions of soldiers were gathered

from far off Texas, from California, from where roll the waters

of the Oregon, from across the mountains and on to the plains,

and clear on to the Atlantic shore. We saw the well-trained, well-

equipped soldier made out of the raw recruit. We saw them say

farewell to kindred and friends, and go down to the ocean side

to sail for the field of battle. They were waving a last farewell

to us as they sailed forth, looking back on their native land per-

haps for the last time.

"Sailing, sailing, over the bounding sea," in danger from

the torpedo and the submarine, until their eyes rested upon the

farther shore, a strange land indeed. And when they landed in

France they needed no martial music, but with strength and

brawn, with vigor and confidence, they marched through the



510 Ohio Arch

510       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

streets; and the population of Brest, the women and children, for

the men had gone, climbed up to roofs and towers, shouting, "The

Americans have come, the Americans have come, to save France

and to save the world." And later, in the awful clash of battle

were their efforts known, and American soldiers never knew re-

treat. We have never engaged in a war but what triumph rested

upon our banners. Such were the achievements of the men who

fought on the land, in the air, and on the sea, -- let not our tri-

umphs on the sea be forgotten. Let not our tribute of mourning

and praise be withheld from those carried not by tender hands

to the cemetery but lost in the deep. Of them we may say:

The waves became their winding sheet,

The waters were their tomb;

But for their fame, the ocean sea

Was not sufficient room.

It is especially fitting that we should gather here today in

the presence of the Governor, who has spoken, and of Colonel

Cole, and General Hough, who will address you. Around us is

a throng of young men who took part in the struggle. Here also

are the women who did their part as nurses and otherwise, min-

istering to the wants of the wounded and dying. And I see all

around me that throng of those who, at home, with the deepest

anxiety but with devotion to the cause, saw their kindred and

friends go forth to be, if necessary, a sacrifice on the altar of

patriotism.

What was Ohio's part in this great contest? For country

and for the rule of justice the state of Ohio between the declara-

tion, April 6, 1917, and the Armistice, November 11, 1918, con-

tributed two hundred and two thousand enlisted men, beside some

eleven or twelve thousand officers, -- two hundred thirteen or

fourteen thousand engaged directly in the service, to which must

be added the very considerable number of those who enlisted as

marines, in the navy, and in the regular army. Ohio, as in all

great crises of the past, responded to the call.

There was the 27th Division recruited from Ohio, which did

service in the Argonne and St. Mihiel and other bloody battlefields

of France. There was the 83rd and part of the 84th which also

fought bravely. Then there was the 166th Regiment, represented,

I believe, by General Hough, which performed most notable

service; and although some are wont to look with despite upon

that humble class, I cannot help but recall the 9th Battalion,

made up of the descendants of freedmen, who fought so well. I

would mention also the 332nd Regiment, part, I believe, of the

83rd Division. That was the only regiment which went to Italy,



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 511

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial      511

and following examples that have been given in duplication and

multiplication, they moved from sector to sector, and conveyed the

impression that a large share of the American Army was there.

Although there were only 3600, they rendered a most efficient

service.

You who fought in the war, you who took part as men and

women, occupy a unique position. Napoleon marched over the

Alps to the plains of Italy, and when he sought to inspire his

troops, he gave an address in which he said, "When you are old

and feeble, the young and the beautiful will point to you and say,

'There goes one who served in the Army of Italy.' " How much

more appropriately can the young and beautiful of the future

point to you who in the time of your country's perils, risked your

lives in the great World War from 1914 to 1918.

Now you have duties as citizens, and if you fought for your

country in time of war, you must be ready to serve it and strive

for it in time of peace. I wish I had time to give some of those

injunctions which one long in public life could give to a young

citizen. I shall mention only a few.

Bear in mind the perils which confront your country in these

piping days of peace, -- the excitement, the hysteria, the super-

ficial grasp on public questions, participation in things which thrill.

Though I do not wish to be regarded as unusually conservative,

I think sometimes it would be better if invention would cease now

with its last great product, perhaps the radio, and we should

utilize those which we have, before seeking other inventions which

may turn us aside from the more sober and deliberate duties of

life.

I would say to you, you should have some part in trying to

stay the extraordinary wave of crime which has overspread the

country. Some say it is due to the war. I do not think so. There

is always a degree of restlessness after a war, but in several of

the countries which participated, crime has since very much di-

minished. It is due in far larger measure to the lax administra-

tion of justice, and to the efforts of the flimsy sentimentalist, who

weeps for the guilty criminal, but has no tears for his victim who

lies buried in the cemetery.

And again, as to the quality of our citizens, I would say a

word to you. Let us not have any Bolshevists or Communists in

this country. There is one country across the sea that is ruled

by them, and there is a large sprinkling in others. They are ob-

taining a foothold in China and, I fear, in Mexico. Let us say

to those who wish to establish here a Bolshevik or a Communist

regime, -- "The ocean lies there, broad and open. You cannot

sail away too soon."



512 Ohio Arch

512       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Now what are the lessons of the World War? When we

survey its events we cannot be altogether satisfied with its results.

There is still antagonism, and hatred, and militarism among the

nations of Europe. Most fortunately we have been free from

the accumulated antagonisms of centuries. We had no deep-

seated animosity to the German people, but we knew that there

was an element in control led by a Kaiser who believed in the

mailed fist and the rattling sabre. There was a worship of brutal

force, which was a constant threat to the peace of the world.

But as far as the East is from the West, so far were we removed

from any spirit of revenge.

In a spirit of amity and with willingness to forget, we should

construct our policy for the future. But first, let us note a few

practical considerations. I have a certain admiration for those

who would outlaw war. That is the goal to which we should

all bend our efforts. That is the millennium of the future, but

until there is some substitute for war we cannot do away with it.

Disarmament, except in a limited degree, is perilous unless there

is assurance of security. We do not have for our young men

the compulsory military training in vogue in most of the nations

of Europe, because it is contrary to our ideals and we do not

feel that any necessity exists for it. We are fortunate in our

isolation, and across the border no armed forces threaten our

tranquility; but to say that we can never be in any danger is

most hazardous. Preparedness is necessary, and military train-

ing, voluntary and even compulsory in colleges receiving support

from the government, is most desirable.

In his first Annual Message, January 8, 1790, President

Washington said, "To be prepared for war is one of the most

effectual means of preserving peace. A free people ought not

only to be armed but disciplined", and in the responsive address,

-- in those days when the Senate and the House sent an address

in response, they said, "We are persuaded that one of the most

effectual means of preserving peace is to be prepared for war."

Some twenty years later, President Madison, the scholar of the

formative period of our country, said, "Nor can the occasion fail

to remind you of the importance of those training seminaries",

that is, training schools. We may pass by the more militant ex-

pressions of President Roosevelt and of those men in the mili-

tary service and elsewhere who are constantly conjuring up danger

of war with Japan and other countries. But until a new order is

established in the world, our country with its vast resources must

not be left defenseless.

Every good citizen should be ready to respond with his

substance, his service, and even with his life if his country is in



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 513

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial        513

 

danger. That is the condition under which we enjoy the political

society of this wonderful country of ours. Indeed I would go

further. I think it extremely desirable that legislation should be

enacted, such as that proposed by the American Legion, and which

I had the honor to suggest in a keynote speech in 1924, under

which, in time of war, all forces, economic as well as man power,

be mobilized for defense. When the nation is in peril there should

be room neither for the slacker nor the profiteer.

But if practical considerations dictate preparedness, surely

our general policy should be one which looks to lasting peace.

If there is one universal desire among the more humane and

enlightened, it is for peace. Moral and intellectual forces have

been aroused as never before over the horrible sufferings of the

late war, and the threat that another combat would be even more

terribly destructive than the last. Such a combat might even

destroy the most precious achievements of civilization. It is well

to begin with that quality of restraint which makes for good-will

in our domestic affairs, as in the relations between employer and

employee, between whom there is frequent conflict to the equal

injury of each and in the avoidance of sectional strife. In olden

days when state was arrayed against state, repulsion was the

dominant spirit, and in a lesser degree this feeling still survives.

Let us consider a present day illustration, -- the bitter recrimina-

tions between the advocates of prohibition and its opponents.

Let there be no bandying of epithets but a calm and dispassionate

weighing of arguments pro and con, never forgetting that our

chief duty is to respect the established law of the land. If we

maintain among ourselves an attitude of composure and self-

possession rather than one of acrimony, our influence abroad will

be greatly strengthened.

What are some of the discouragements which face those who

seek for better relations between nations? In the first place there

are some who believe that war is the natural condition of man-

kind; that contests, bloody contests, are inevitable; even more, --

that the field of battle is essential for the maintenance of profi-

ciency, discipline and courage; and that war is a part of the life

of the country the same as any of the other various activities of

society. With that I cannot agree, and I believe their number

is diminishing. There are myriads, countless myriads of those who

have fought, who have seen bloodshed, who have gone through

the hardships of war on the battlefields. Leave it to them. Do

they desire another war? Leave it to the women and children.

Do they wish war? Leave it to the humanitarians. Leave it to

the Christian church; -- and I wish to impress the responsibility

of the Christian church in this regard. Devotion to the ideals

Vol. XXXV -- 33.



514 Ohio Arch

514       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

of the Master would put an end to wars. You all remember the

story of Mary and Martha and Lazarus; just like many a home

in Ohio; two maiden sisters and a brother. One day Lazarus

sickened and died, and while the mourners were coming to com-

fort Mary and Martha, the Master came, and Mary said to him,

"Master, if Thou hadst been here my brother would not have

died." As one looks over that broad expanse stretching as it does

from morning till evening, with the crosses, the government monu-

ments, the battlefields and cemeteries in France where hundreds

of thousands lie buried, can we not say, "If Thou hadst been

here, these myriads would not have died"?

Then there is an exaggerated and selfish nationalism in the

way of peace. As the different portions of the earth come more

and more into contact, there arises a pride in race which pro-

motes unreasonable claims under the guise of a false patriotism,

and which demands that each country take a more aggressive

position. Then the people of each nation begin to think that they

have all the knowledge and all the good things of this world, and

national pride is exaggerated. Different races as well as differ-

ent people have different capabilities. One person may be a great

orator and another a great musician, and all cumbine in making

up society. We must realize that peoples with a different genius

from ours are entitled to our respect.

There is another obstacle in the way of peace, and it is

serious, -- the coming to the front of other races. I regret to

say that in my time there has been an increase of race repulsion.

True, we have indulged in a sentimental liking for many peoples.

When we have seen them at a distance we have not only been tol-

erant but appreciative of their virtues. But when we come in

closer touch we recognize a lack of entire congeniality. We per-

ceive that they have different ambitions and different ideals. We

thought when we considered the nations of Asia that they were

of little political importance, and we had the idea that we would

be dominant for all time; but we find that they resent this atti-

tude, and are beginning to say among themselves, "The ravages

of war have so impaired the strength of the white race that maybe

the time will come when we will put the Caucasian to bed."

Then, beyond all this, are the deeply-rooted feelings and an-

tagonisms which have grown out of this recent war, and the recol-

lection of former wrongs. These can be dissipated only by the

lapse of many years, for only time, patience, and a disposition

to smooth away asperities can cure the hatreds which have devel-

oped. These hatreds are heightened by new alignments and boun-

daries, the permanence of which I question. The forces of civili-



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 515

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       515

 

zation are not static. They do not keep nations in the same con-

dition.

New boundaries were created in the treaties after the war in

which nations of superior civilization were put under inferior;

burdens unduly harsh were imposed upon the vanquished. New

countries without experience in government were sent forth as it

were upon uncharted seas without a compass. We love the idea

of popular government and democracy, but I must candidly say

I doubt whether it is a panacea for all conditions. The motto,

"Make the world safe for democracy" really means in some situ-

ations, "Make the world safe for stupidity", -- make the world

safe for that which tends downwards rather than upward.

I have dwelt on the factors which make for war, for its con-

tinuance, and for its unnatural miseries. Now, what are the

methods to prevent war? First of all, it is desirable to have a

great, august court for the whole world, to which all nations,

weak and small as well as great, may submit their differences, just

as individuals and states of this Union submit their controversies

to the Supreme Court of the United States, which is a proper

model; and where, in the splendid language of Chief Justice

Marshall a hundred years ago, "Russia and Geneva shall be re-

ceived with equal consideration". It is the aim of those who ad-

vocate this idea that international law shall be rescued from

vagueness and uncertainty; that new principles be established, and

that there be the same method of settlement between nations as

between individuals.

But there is a more immediate means to promote peace and

that is by education, -- education which teaches that the world

is becoming one great commercial republic and that there is a

community of interest, the importance of which increases with

the years. In that education the first and foremost need is to

build up an international mind and a rational public opinion. On

that subject one of our great statesmen, Senator Root, has said,

"There is but one power on earth that can preserve the law for

the protection of the poor, the weak and the humble; there is but

one power on earth that can preserve the law for the maintenance

of civilization and humanity, and that is the power, the mighty

power of the public opinion of mankind. More than the sheriff,

more than the constable, more than the state's prison, is the citi-

zen's fear of the condemnation of the community in which he

lives, and in international affairs the respective countries fear

more than anything else the condemnation of the rest of the

world." Germany sincerely thought that she had the greatest

military organization the world had ever seen, and she had. Why

was it she did not succeed? It was because the public judgment



516 Ohio Arch

516       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

and the public opinion of America was against her and her ruth-

less methods that she met defeat. Our own President Coolidge

has said on this subject, "World peace, a world affair, stands or

falls by world opinion. If we are to have world peace, we must

have the necessary world opinion to support it."

In movements for peace, what country has the opportunity

which our own possesses? We are the mightiest in resources; we

are greatest in potential military force; we have in a very excep-

tional degree the confidence of all. Let our part be that of jus-

tice, with a spirit of fairness to all, and with a realization that in

foreign relations, as between individuals, neither can have his

own way, but that concession and a spirit of amity are necessary

in order that nations may live in peace. At present there is some

little friction in regard to debts to the United States. Foreigners

are saying very generally, "Uncle Samuel ought not to insist on

payment of the debts." I think all due leniency should be exer-

cised, though the sacredness of financial obligations between coun-

tries should be preserved. We ought to treat Italy and France

and all the rest with forbearance and good-will. I sincerely hope

that the proposed debt settlement with Italy approved by the Debt

Commission and the President will be confirmed by the Congress

in a few days. Let us bear in mind that these debts were largely

for supplies sent from our own country when prices were very

high; and let us bear in mind also that these loans were made in

time of war for the carrying on of war, -- largely for the work

of destruction, and not for any productive enterprise which would

yield a return.

Let us, by example, show that we are fair. We have stood

as a friend to all; we are ready with our good offices to prevent

quarrels. Let us feel that our glory is not so much in battles

won as in wars prevented. We have extended aid by the hun-

dreds of millions of dollars, and the kindness with which it has

been done is more than the money. We have been deeply moved

by the suffering of Europe and of all countries. We have fed the

hungry and starving, we have furnished shelter for the homeless.

We have given succor to the sick and the dying, we have lifted

up the heads of the broken-hearted; and in this as much as in

military achievement rests the glory of the American name.

It should be our most earnest hope that our country may not

be guided by those motives of imperialism and selfishness which

have dominated so many other lands, -- that our policy should

not be one of greed. Thus the prophecy may be fulfilled that

"westward the star of empire takes its way" and that this great

experiment in government shall be the best.

My friends, let me say in closing, this memorial will endure,



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 517

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial     517

 

as we trust, for centuries to come. How massive are these pillars

and foundation stones. Here we see the beauty of the sculptor's

art, a monument to the skill of the architect. And as these pillars

stand out in the darkness and the light, each pillar may seem to

say to the mortal passing by, "When you are dead and gone I

shall remain, for I speak for that which is eternal. Here we will

stand, mightier in strength than the fabled Atlas bearing the

round globe upon his shoulders, with no muscles to grow weary

and with no heart to faint." And yet, when this building

crumbles, as in the ages to come it must, that which this build-

ing commemorates will be immortal, for it is the symbol of an

event and of an idea. That event was the world's colossal

struggle, in which the sons and daughters of Ohio, with abun-

dant heroism and sacrifice, bore a splendid part; and that idea

was liberty, humanity, the everlasting triumph of truth and

justice, the might of our own United States.

Mr. Burton spoke most effectively. His established

fame as an eminent Ohio statesman, his position on

the Committee on Foreign Affairs in the National House

of Representatives, his membership on the World War

Foreign Debt Commission and the Executive Committee

of the American group of Inter-Parliamentary Union

and his chairmanship of the U. S. Delegation of the

1925 Geneva Conference for Control of International

Traffic in Arms peculiarly qualified him to speak on

"The World War and Its Lessons." The audience with

rapt attention caught every word of his noble address.

At a few points the tense silence was broken by applause

and at the conclusion of the peroration the audience

arose and manifested its enthusiastic approval by long-

continued applause. A number of persons present who

had frequently listened to Mr. Burton on other occasions

declared that they had never before heard him speak so

impressively. His address will long be cherished as a

classic of patriotic oratory.



518 Ohio Arch

518       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

Following Mr. Burton's address, President Johnson

said:

We may well hope that a million radio listeners, scattered

from lakes to gulf and from coast to coast, have been sitting at

their instruments, listening to these lessons of truth and mag-

netism. We are greatly indebted to Mr. Burton for the message

which he has brought us.  I am sure you will all join in a vote

of thanks to him for coming to Columbus and appearing before

this assembly. Mr. Burton has made arrangements to return

to Washington on the 4:50 Pennsylvania train; so if it becomes

necessary for him to leave before the conclusion of the pro-

gram, you will understand the reason why.

Had the inclemency of the weather not driven us to a change

of program, we would now be proceeding to the unveiling of The

Victorious Soldier. In the arrangement of this program we

sought to pay a tribute of love and respect to the War Mothers

of Ohio, and for that reason there was chosen to represent them,

Mrs. Elizabeth L. Clark, the President of the Department of Ohio,

Women's Auxiliary of the American Legion. The last speaker

on the program will represent the service men and women of

Ohio. In order that Mrs. Clark, and the War Mothers she rep-

resents, may not be deprived of their rightful place on this pro-

gram, I am going to ask you to rise and be presented to Mrs.

Elizabeth L. Clark. (Applause.)

 

ADDRESS OF MRS. ELIZABETH L. CLARK

Mrs. Clark came forward and spoke briefly and feel-

ingly as follows:

Mr. President and Friends: When the Congressman was

speaking, I, as a mother, could not help thinking of a day when

under that golden dome in Washington was gathered together a

body of men who held in their hands the destinies of this nation.

On one side sat the members of Congress, above them in silent

dignity sat the Supreme Court, on the other side were the envoys

of foreign nations. Back here sat your War President, on one

side the Vice-President, and on the other the Secretary of War,

and outside the nation waited.

And you women know how we felt when we heard those

words, "We are at War". I shall not take time to go over the

things you know, but I saw those Ohio men go overseas, I saw

them in England and France and Italy and Belgium, and you

know their coming home, but over there they left precious



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 519

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       519

shrines of America where side by side sleep Catholic and Prot-

estant, Jew and Gentile, black and white, and while they slumber

on foreign ground, they are protected by the flag of this country

and it will keep them. Let the people of America keep the faith

we have today. As women, we want peace, and no woman wants

it more than I; but we want that peace with an ample army, Mr.

Congressman, with an adequate navy; not to bring on unjust and

unwarranted wars, but to insure us everlasting and abiding peace.

Mr. President, that statue that was unveiled today will bring to

the women of the state a kindlier thought in their minds, a ten-

derer tone in their voices, and a warmer throb in their hearts,

because, while we want peace, we love peace, these men for whom

it stands love it more, because they know war. We love that flag,



520 Ohio Arch

520       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

but they love it more because they have seen its crimson colors

reproduced in the blood of America. We love this country, but

they love it more, because they have seen the sacrifices which have

made it what it is, and while we hope that we will have peace,

we are going to claim our right and recognize our right under

any circumstance, at any time, to protect our homes, our loved

ones, our country, and our flag, to maintain American institutions

and to preserve American traditions. I thank you. (Applause.)

 

ADDRESS OF MAJOR-GENERAL BENSON W. HOUGH

President Johnson next presented Major-General

Hough, who in behalf of the service men and women of

Ohio thanked the Society for its manifestation of inter-

est and the interest of the great state of Ohio in the

erection of the Memorial this day dedicated. President

Johnson spoke as follows:

Now, we have come to the last of the addresses of the day.

It is to be made by one of our own, Late Colonel of the 166th

Infantry of Ohio, 42nd Division of A. E. F., who recently re-

ceived a deserved recognition and honor, appointment to the Fed-

eral Judgeship of the Southern District of Ohio. I have the honor

to present Major-General Benson W. Hough, who will give a

response on behalf of the Service Men and Women of Ohio.

Judge Hough responded as follows:

Mr. President, Senator Burton, My Comrades, Friends, La-

dies and Gentlemen: It is no insignificant duty to be called upon

to state the congratulations and sentiment of more than a quarter

of a million Ohio service men. It is no small task, either, to tell

this Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, in adequate

terms, of the appreciation that is due that society for and in be-

half of this their splendid permanent Memorial. It is my belief

that this should be approached in modesty and humility, in a spirit

of thankfulness, for what has been accomplished, in a spirit of

thankfulness that the occurrences of 1918 have terminated and

with the voice of hope that those times may never be reenacted.

The man who conceived the idea of this project must have been

a patriot. To James E. Campbell and his associates, whose

thoughts developed into plans, and whose plans through effort

finally developed into this completed enterprise, all thanks must



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 521

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial        521

cheerfully be given. I am sure it is the hope of the speaker and

of those men whom he represents, that future wars may be ob-

viated, and I agree with the Senator that the best guarantee for

the obviation of future war is preparedness, adequate, at least,

for protection and defense.

The people of this country will make a serious error, if now

or in the future they fail to use their efforts, their funds and their

services in developing and making the National Defense act that

is on the statute books of the United States a continued and ulti-

mate success. With that in view, we haven't much fear for the

future.

In 1918, that splendid one-armed French General said to his

troops, "The assault is coming, the armament of the enemy is



522 Ohio Arch

522       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications

 

formidable, their numbers are legion, and they are selected from

the cream of the German Army, but you are prepared, your

armament is formidable, you have had time to develop your plans,

and more than all, there beat in your troops, both French and

American, the hearts of patriots, and when the attack comes, your

General says to you, 'You will stop that attack'." The faith of

that General was borne forth in success and those troops did stop

and turn back that great German drive of July 14, 1918, and it

was because of the faith that he had in the patriotism of his Army

that that thing became a possibility.

The State of Ohio contributed to the World War two hun-

dred and sixty-odd thousand soldiers of the Army, Navy and

Marine Corps; one-sixteenth of the entire American forces, more

than six per cent of the four million men that served during the

World War. Ohio participation, not only in numbers, but in re-

sults, bespeaks honor to the State of Ohio.

Seven thousand of those boys went to France and did not

return alive. Their bodies came back for the most part in wooden

boxes and caskets. Upon arrival, those bodies and caskets were

placed in the pier building at Hoboken, six or eight thousand at a

time. One night, just after the arrival of a fleet carrying the dead

bodies of our American soldiers, a fire broke out, and the next

morning down on those piers it was plainly noticeable that two

of the pier buildings had burned to the ground, and to the as-

tonishment of the spectators the next two buildings were un-

harmed. And why? Those other two buildings were filled to

capacity with the wooden boxes which were brought by the Amer-

ican fleet with the American dead, but there the Leviathan lay

across the way, and its great steel sides loomed up a hundred

feet from the water. Those sides burned and seared, with the

paint off, and that fire had come down in that direction and those

great steel sides had effectively stopped the flame from reaching

the dead bodies of our comrades. I say, with all the mishaps to

that great ship and all the history that is behind it, whatever the

cost to the Government of the United States may be, for keeping

that ship in service it is money well spent, and I thank God for

the Leviathan.

The Service Men and Women of the State of Ohio sincerely

and earnestly thank the President of this organization and his

associates living and dead, for the manifestation of their interest

and of the interest of the great State of Ohio, which we all love,

for the development and final completion of a memorial here to

the soldiers, both living and dead, as long as time may last.

Mr. Chairman, I congratulate you and again thank you on

behalf of all our boys. (Applause.)



Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial 523

Dedication of Ohio's World War Memorial       523

President Johnson thanked Judge Hough for his

words of appreciation and paid merited tribute to Gen-

eral Orton, Chairman of the Building and Dedication

Committees:

The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society appre-

ciates these expressions from the War Veterans' representatives

who have spoken here today, but I want to digress for just a

moment to say that the Society as such cannot accept all of that

credit, without a word of explanation. We believe that it is

proper to give credit where credit is due, and while this work,

this Memorial, was erected under the auspices of this organiza-

tion, and its officers and many of its members, the yeoman work

in the development of the idea and in bringing it to completion;

I wish to explain, the burden of this labor and the development

of the idea and plan of the dedication fell upon the shoulders of

one stalwart in our organization. I refer to General Edward

Orton. (Applause.)

Benediction.

The program concluded with the benediction by the

Chaplain of the Second Field Battalion, First Division,

A: E. F., Rev. Dr. Arthur H. Limouze:

Almighty God, by whose favor we have come to this day,

wherein in humility and gratitude we have remembered the sac-

rifices of our sons and daughters, and wherein Thou hast privi-

leged us to erect this Memorial as a constant reminder to our State

and our Republic of the sacrifices of the past, be pleased, we pray,

to accept our pledge given to the world in the spirit of those who

laid down their lives, that they shall not have made their sacri-

fice in vain; and help us to pledge ourselves anew to the unfin-

ished task which with failing hands they passed on to us, from

Flanders Fields where they lie asleep, and may the grace of our

Lord Jesus Christ be with us always. Amen.