Ohio History Journal







N. B. C. LOVE, D. D.

O River, weird historic water,

What tales of bloody human slaughter

What scenes of hate, and tragic acts,

What woeful pictures, solemn facts,

Thou couldst before the world portray!

What greed and hate and wrong betray!

No subject claimed the attention of President Washington

more after the close of the War of the Revolution 1784 up to

his death 1799, than the settlement

and occupancy of the territory ceded

to the United States by England.

With that part of this territory

known as the Northwest, we are es-

pecially interested in when writing of

the life of Little Turtle, the great

Miami Chief. The scenes of his life

are  located  here. The    territory

known as the Maumee Basin, includes

Northwestern Ohio, Southern Michi-

gan and Northwestern Indiana. At

the ending of the 18th Century and

the beginning of the 19th, it was a

region of vast natural resources. Its

fertile soil, and natural drainage by

creeks and rivers, into the lakes, made it productive of vast for-

ests, wide prairies covered with nutritious grass, and valleys pro-

ducing, with little cultivation, immense crops. The streams and

lakes abounded in choice fish, and the forests in wild animals in

great variety and numbers. Wild nuts and fruits were plentiful

and could be laid by in store for winter use.


116 Ohio Arch

116      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


The Indians raised large quantities of corn, pumpkins and

beans. General Wayne reports continuous fields of corn along

the Auglaize, Maumee and St. Joseph rivers.

Huts of bark and poles were easily made, the bark of the

elm being a substitute for shingles and boards.

The skins of animals furnished clothing and bedding. Large

trees were shaped into canoes and pirogues.

After the French Traders penetrated these wilds the In-

dians sold them choice furs, taking in return trinkets, vessels

for cooking, axes, tomahawks, knives, guns and ammunition.

Also cotton and woolen goods for clothing.

The French and other trading posts were mostly on navi-

gable streams, that is to the canoe and larger craft.

Unfortunately, rum was a standard article of trade. The

Spanish, French, Dutch, English and American traders were

alike guilty, and then as now was a

prime cause of blood shedding and


At the close of the War of the

Revolution the English continued to

encourage the Indians in their hostili-

ties against the American settlers.

Gen. W. H. Harrison, who was a

member of Gen. Wayne's Staff, and

Commander of the American Army

in 1812-1814, witnesses to this effect,

but indeed we know of no historian

who denies it. And up to 1795 the

English urged the Indians to claim

the Ohio River as the boundary line

between them and the United States, which they perseveringly

did up to 1795.

During the seven years' war with England the Indians gen-

erally sided with that government. Of course, the borders of

the United States suffered greatly from the savage attacks. The

backwoodsmen were not slow at retaliation, and engaged some-

times in the promiscuous killing of Indians, men, women and

children, and how dreadful for men calling themselves Chris-

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.    117


tians to be perpetrators of foul murders, as the killing of Chief

Logan's family simply because they were Indians, and the large

number of Christian Indians at the Moravian Mission at Gnad-


Indians from birth were taught to cruelty and bloody re-

venge, but not so the whites. The Americans as a people de-

plored this at the time. The Indians were, as they understood

it, fighting for their homes. Many of the great chieftains de-

plored the killing of captives, and women and children. Little

Turtle, Blue Jacket, Tecumseh, Buck-on-ge-ha-las and Tarhe

were of the number. Among the white frontier squatters were

men very ignorant, children or grand-children of criminals, im-

ported to this country from Europe, charged with crimes, and

thus by heredity as well as environment, were ready when op-

portunity came to perform deeds of barbarism. Of course there

were Indians who, too, were blood-thirsty by inheritance, and

their sense of pity undeveloped.

The following named tribes lived in the great Maumee basin

during the Indian war period, 1783-1812: Wyandots, Delawares,

Shawnees, Miamis, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottowatomies, Kicka-

poos, Weas, Pinkeshanes, and Kaskaskias, and some smaller


One of the many evidences of the good intentions of Presi-

dent Washington and Congress toward the Indians was the

granting two of the first named tribes a thousand dollars each,

paid them in goods, and the other five hundred paid in the same

way, and this to be continued annually. The goods to be val-

ued at cost and first prices. Large portions of land were to be

held by them. Many other favors by him were proposed. One

was that of hunting on ceded lands, and they had authority to

arrest and report trespassers.

These conditions of peace were not fully endorsed by the

Indians until the treaty of Greenville, when in substance they

were agreed to.

The treaty of Paris seemed to be the end of war between

England and America, but it soon was evident England did not

mean to keep it. The boundary line was to be a central line

through the middle of the Great Lakes, and the Western bound-

118 Ohio Arch

118      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


ary the Mississippi River, but notwithstanding, the British did

not surrender the fortified posts along the chain of the lakes

from Niagara to Mackinac. The British were strong, and we

were weak, and had to, for the time, consent tacitly. For 15

years this violation of the treaty existed, and all this time the

unsurrendered posts were the rallying points of the Indian

Tribes; receiving their furs and other articles of trade, giving in

return clothes, utensils, guns, knives, tomahawks and ammuni-

tion. The emissaries of England had helped to formulate the

thoughts in  the   Eastern

States of opposition to the

expansion of the government

throughout the West.  They

said the West and Northwest

were not worth what it would

cost to make them inhabit-


When in 1790 Washing-

ton issued a call for volun-

teers but few responded, and

men were drafted in New

York and Pennsylvania for

St. Clair's army.

England set up the ex-

cuse for continued violation

of the treaty that the Ameri-

cans had not kept good the

treaty of 1784 by making good certain losses claimed by English-

men. This territory was organized as the "Northwest Terri-

tory" in 1787 with Gen. Arthur St. Clair as Governor.

Emigration set in from the east. Settlements sprung into

existence. Marietta and Cincinnati were founded. Lands were

surveyed, granted to companies and purchased. The Indians

became enraged; their hunting grounds were invaded. Some-

thing had to be done. The Indians could count on compara-

tively a large army of brave trained marksmen as soldiers, with

the source of supplies in the English Forts. Savages foraged

the borders of civilization to kill, plunder and burn. St. Clair

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.    119


called on Congress for help. Washington endorsed the call

and recommended Gen. Harrison as commander. The army

was organized.


Say not that those who chased the game

O'er hillsides and o'er plains,

For border wars were alone to blame,

And white hands free from stains.


Little Turtle was the head and war chief of the Miamis,

and in 1790, and on until after the Peace Treaty of Greenville

in 1795, the leader of the confederate forces of the Indians of

the North West Territory.

He, by his harassing of the white settlers by frequent in-

roads with small bands was hardly known, but in 179O he ap-

peared as the leading commander of the Indian forces.

Little Turtle's father was also head chief of the Miamis.

In 1760 he with the war chiefs of the six nations was invited by

Gen. George Washington to meet him in Philadelphia, Pa.,

which they did, and there adjusted some difficulties between

them and the Colonial government. The name of this chief was

Ke-qun-ac-quah. Washington gave him a parchment with an

inscription burned on it, expressive of good will toward the

Miamis. We have in history no other mention of this chief.

The Miamis during the period of which we write, I783-

1812, occupied the upper Maumee Valley and in part the Wa-


Not far from the site of Fort Wayne, Little Turtle was

born. Of course he was in evidence when a boy and young man.

His associations were with the French and English Traders as

well as with the Indians. He by some means had learned the

arts of European war. He tells that when a young man he ex-

celled in manufacturing Indian war implements. He became

head chief of his tribe while a young man.

In one of his expeditions into Kentucky he captured a boy

about eleven years old, by the name of William Wells, and after

a time, when married, he adopted him as a son.

Wells belonged to a good Kentucky family. While he

120 Ohio Arch

120      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


adopted Indian life readily, yet his blood told, for he was un-

like the Girtys, and Magee and other renegade white men, who,

no doubt, had inherited vile traits from their low down and

ignorant parents. As Wells grew up to manhood he won the

esteem and affection of Little Turtle and wife. In time he won

and married his adopted sister, Little Turtle's beautiful daugh-

ter, and thus Wells became in fact the son-in-law of Little Tur-

tle. He and his foster father became life-long friends.

Wells took a prominent part in the campaign against Har-

mar and St. Clair, and rendered valuable services. Also in the

Chief's associations with the English he was principal inter-


On the eve of the Battle of the Rapids, or "Fallen Tim-

bers," Captain Wells was satisfied from what he had learned of

the feeling of the American Government, the ability of Gen.

Wayne as a Commander, and the large and well organized army

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.     121


under him, that defeat of the confederated Indian army was

certain if a battle were fought. Therefore he had advised peace,

and had proposed to unite with the Americans. Little Turtle

was of the same mind.

Wells on a beautiful afternoon invited Little Turtle to take

a stroll with him, and they passed together to a promontory on

the Maumee, from which up and clown the river the picturesque

scenery could be seen in all its midsummer glory. There he

broke the news of his purpose to him, saying, "My father, we

have long been friends, but I now must leave you to return to

my people, and we will remain friends until the sun reaches its

midday height, and from that time on we will be enemies, and

if you wish to kill me you may, and if I wish to kill you I may."

They warmly embraced each other, and the large tears

coursed down the sun-bronzed cheeks of the chieftain, who was

unused to manifesting emotion. Both felt deeply as they sep-

arated. Each had his work to do, and there was no escape ex-

cept by performance. And what they afterwards respectively

did helped to shape the destiny of the American Nation, as well

as favoring the Indians, who were finally led to see that antag-

onizing the extension of it was to wipe out the Indian tribes.

Little Turtle was more than ever convinced of the futility

of war, but to be consistent he felt he must act with the Indians,

so as not lose his influence over them. In this he evinced the

greatness of his character. He would sooner take all the

chances of disaster than seem to be untrue to his people. In the

last council before the Battle of the Rapids he stood for armis-

tice, for one more effort for peace, for, as he said, he saw fear-

ful disaster if they ventured a battle. And further said: "We

have beaten the enemy twice under different commanders. We

cannot expect the same good fortune always to attend us. The

Americans are now led by a chief who never sleeps. The night

and the day are alike to him. During all the time he has been

marching on our villages. Notwithstanding the watchfulness of

our young men we have never been able to surprise him. Think

well of it. There is something whispers in my mind it would

be well to listen to his offers of peace." Blue Jacket, and other

chiefs were for the battle. Little Turtle then suggested a plan

122 Ohio Arch

122      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


that would, he thought, end in victory: it was with a part of

the Indian army to hold Wayne in check, but fall back. Let a

large part of the army that night quietly ford the river and

make forced marches for the rear and deposit of supplies.

Then join the army on the north side again. To all Little Turtle

proposed Blue Jacket vehemently objected, even calling Little

Turtle a coward. Little Turtle in his reserved but concise way

only replied: "Follow me!"

Of the battle the next day we shall speak later. The plan

of the fight for the next day was all arranged that night. Little

Turtle was in command. One authority that we know of,

among the older historians, says that Blue Jacket was in com-

mand. Another says Brant was, but all others say Little Turtle

was the Commander-in-Chief.

Little Turtle accepted Wayne's offer of peace after the bat-

tle, and the Indians' defeat. He was among the first. Wells'

knowledge of him, and confidence in him, and Wayne's knowl-

edge of Wells and his bravery and loyalty, were in Little Tur-

tle's favor, and his brave effort in the Battle of the Rapids, gave

him credit with the Indians. In the part he took at the Treaty

of Greenville, he was second to none. While he hesitatingly

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.      123


made concessions to Wayne, yet he was slow to accede to the

proposition to make the treaty ceding away to the Americans all

the North West Territory, but finally consented, but wanted a

lasting peace. Tarhe, The Crane, a great Wyandot chief, took

the same position. Finally all the representatives of the tribes

fell in line. Tecumseh, chief of the Shawnees, refused to sign

the treaty, but other representatives of his tribe did sign. Te-

cumseh fought valiantly at Fallen Timbers.

A careful study of the leading minds among the Indian

chieftains, we find that there were none in real statesmanship

superior to Little Turtle, and in clear discernment of the rela-

tions of the Americans and Indians he stood foremost.

Be it to the credit of the chiefs of this treaty that all who

signed it never rescinded their action. Although when the war

of 1812 was on, Little Turtle died, yet he had the desire to do

service for the American Government. He was loyal to the last.

Tarhe, the Wyandot chief, an old man more than seventy,

at Gen. Harrison's request, went at the head of his Wyandot

warriors to see a part of the tribe in Canada to have them side

with the Americans.

Some of the younger chieftains of the treaty of 1795 took

an active part for our country in the War of 1812.

Mr. Mansfield, when a boy, 1798, saw Little Turtle at Cum-

minsville, Cincinnati, he says:

"One day a dark man with swarthy countenance, riding a

very fine horse, dismounted at our house and went into my

father's office. I wanted to go in and see him, but for some rea-

son I was not permitted. After some time I saw him come out

and mount his horse and rapidly ride away. I was struck with

the appearance of the man and said, who is that, Ma? She said

it was Little Turtle, the Great Indian Chief."

Col. John Johnson, Indian Agent, in his personal recollec-

tions published many years ago, says: "Little Turtle was a

man of great wit, humor and vivacity, fond of the company of

gentlemen, and delighted in good eating. This great chief died

in 1812. He was buried with military honors by the troops of

the United States. He used to entertain us with war stories

124 Ohio Arch

124      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


and adventures, and would laugh heartily with us at the recital

of them."

He said a Kentuckian, a prisoner of the Miamis for some

years, had sought permission to accompany a raiding war party

but was refused, but' at last he gained the opportunity, and went

in a company commanded by Little Turtle. Reaching the bor-

der of a settlement in Kentucky, in the early hours of the morn-

ing they stealthily approached a large hewed log house occupied

by a number of Americans.  A11 was quiet and the Indians were

crawling on their hands and knees, and the Kentuckian, ahead

of the rest, when he suddenly arose and shouting, "Indians! In-

dians!" ran into the house, while the Indians retreated. From

that day on Little Turtle never trusted a white man in conflict

with his own people.

He was a generous and humane chief. Schoolcraft, the

historian, says: "He was alike courageous and humane, pos-

sessing great wisdom. There have been few individuals among

the aborigines that have done so much to abolish the rites of

human sacrifice. The grave of this noted warrior is shown to

visitors near Ft. Wayne. It is frequently visited by Indians in

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah; or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah; or Little Turtle.   125


this part of the country, by whom his memory is cherished, with

greatest respect and veneration. He was opposed to burning

captives and did much to abolish the practice. After the peace

of 1795 he devoted much of his time in trying to improve the

condition of the Indians and encouraged them in efforts at civ-

ilization. He went east, visiting Philadelphia and other cities,

dressed in American costume. He met Volney in that city and

with him had a long interview which is recorded. Among many

things said by the French writer was, "Do you not think that

the Indians descended from the Tartars?" Little Turtle re-

plied: "Why not think the Tartars descended from the Indians

if they look so much alike?"

Little Turtle had the honor of visiting the President Wash-

ington, and never forgot the kindness shown him by "The Great


While east, in Philadelphia, he met the great Kosciusko, the

Polish patriot, who presented him with a brace of valuable pis-

tols he had used in contests in Poland. They were prized highly

by Little Turtle.

It is said of Little Turtle that he never was intoxicated,

and did all he could to keep his people from drink. He urged

his Indians to avoid it and set them a good example. This can-

not be said of Gen. Harmar, who on September 3rd, 1790, was

remonstrated with by Secretary of War Knox, for drunkenness.

His defeat may have been in some measure attributed to his


Rum, alas, was sold to the Indians by Spaniards, French,

Dutch, English and Americans, and many of the most cruel

deeds were intensified by it, whether perpetrated by red or white

men. The great wonder is that greater injury was not done by

drunken backwoodsmen, and the Indians when under its influ-


The moderate use of liquors was thought right and impor-

tant in the early American armies. Gen. Wayne in his journal

complains bitterly of the small amounts of liquor sent to him

to give as part of the daily rations. As an article of traffic there

was no depreciation of its value. The loneliness of the sick or

126 Ohio Arch

126      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


wounded soldier was driven away by its use, so thought the

commanders of that day.

More battles were fought, more people were killed, more

peace councils held in the Maumee Valley, from the time of the

French occupancy up to 1795 than elsewhere in the great Cen-

tral West and Northwest. The history of the Indian Councils

held, and of the treaties signed, would make a large volume.

And from 1783 on to the death of the "Father of his country,"

it was his continual desire to protect and treat justly the Indians.

To this end did Washington time and again instruct special

agents sent to the Indians, and the Generals in command of the

armies, not only to protect the border citizens, but urge them

to seek the good will of the Indians. Especially did he, through

Gen. Wayne, try to negotiate peace and secure a better under-

standing with them. In this work the aid of the Chieftain Brant

was sought, but declined, and after the defeat of the Indians at

the Rapids Little Turtle was much in evidence as the friend of

peace and fair adjustment of all difficulties without shedding of


During all this period the British were active sowing the

seeds of discord among the tribes, and giving encouragement

and sanction to the murderous attacks upon the American fron-


After the great defeat in 1794 Tecumseh, entering into ma-

ture manhood, and being the inveterate foe of the Americans,

commenced an aggressive career, which only ended with his

death at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.

Sir John Johnson, the representative of the English in

Canada, wanted the border wars to continue, so the emigrants of

the colonies instead of going westward would go to Canada.

All these efforts of the British and the Indians under their

influence were contrary to the Treaty of Paris 1784. Generals

Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne were under instructions from the

President to exhaust all their resources in repeated endeavors

for peace.

In 1798 Washington employed Antoine Gamelin, of Vin-

cennes, who was commissioned by Major John Hamptramck, to

visit and conciliate the Indians of the Northwest, but he was un-

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.      127


successful. He had hardly returned from his trip when word

came that an American captive had been roasted and eaten by

the Indians at the headwaters of the Maumee. Also that all the

Indian Tribes had sent war parties to massacre the invaders of

Indian territories, and even to attack settlements south and east

of the Ohio.

This threw a damper upon peace efforts, and the border

whites under Generals Scott and Wilkinson, and others, paid the

Indians back in their own coin.

During this period Little Turtle was a recognized leader

and adviser in war movements among the aborigines. After the

Treaty of Greenville, border wars

ceased until Tecumseh and his

brother undertook the formation of

an Indian confederacy to drive the

white men back. His plans em-

braced a battle line of a thousand

miles, extending from the Lakes of

the North to the Gulf. It was

largely a failure. The distance was

too great and communication too

slow. His brother, The Prophet,

precipitated the war in 1811. Har-

rison defeated him at Tippecanoe,

Indiana. The influence of Little

Turtle and other prominent chief-

tains were against this war. They had not forgotten Wayne's


We must not forget the fact that the Indian Tribes as such,

were divided in their adherence to the whites. The largest num-

ber were for peace, and were true to the American Government.

These "friendly Indians" Harrison trusted and controlled dur-

ing peace, before the war of 1812, and during the war, and after-

wards. The others, who had been inspired by Brant and Blue

Jacket to hate the Americans, had a fitting successor in the brave

ardent Tecumseh, who was idolized by his braves, petted and

liberally paid by the English. Of him we need not write. His

complete life has been written at different times and authors,

128 Ohio Arch

128      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


and fully portrayed by the historians of the last century and the

present. In each battle in which he fought he holds in the his-

torical records a more prominent place than any other Indian

chieftain. The same is true as to the treaty councils in which he

figured. He was an orator, and dressed up to the highest con-

ception of the Indian thought of great magnificence; at times

wearing the costume of an English Brigadier General. Nor did

any white general of His Majesty's army look more imposing.

He was spectacular and yet great, a natural leader of men.

Little Turtle, we think, was a greater chieftain than Te-

cumseh. The latter was more imposing in appearance. Little

Turtle was six feet high, but slender and muscular and not


Tecumseh evinced upon his countenance his emotions. Not

so Little Turtle. He could smile and yet feel angry. He was

said to be cunning, but was simply a diplomat. He had com-

plete control of himself at all times. He was able, fluent, earn-

est, logical and consecutive in his speeches.

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.     129


Tecumseh undertook establishing a confederacy of all the

Indian tribes of the South, West, and North, and East of the

Mississippi, but failed.

Little Turtle, aided by Blue Jacket and Buch-on-ge-ha-las,

undertook to confederate the tribes of the Northwest Territory,

and succeeded.

Tecumseh never gained a great battle, but Little Turtle

gained two complete victories over two great armies and their

ablest generals. Back of these generals and armies was the

great General Washington, and the great War Secretary Knox.

The President was surprised at the defeat of his armies

under Harmar and St. Clair. Both these generals were retired

in turn after their defeat. They had proven themselves able

and worthy in the War of the Revolution, and Washington had

the utmost confidence in them. He did not know of Little Tur-

tle and his ability. He called upon "Mad" Anthony Wayne to

raise an army, and to well organize and equip it before he ven-

tured into the Indian country. He told him not to underesti-

mate the power of the Indians now elated with victory, and to

beware of surprises. He knew that the leaders of the western

Indian army were crafty and had generalship.

E. D. Mansfield, in his personal memoirs published in 1879,

says: "The figure that stands out on the historical canvas in

bold relief is Me-she-kun-nogh-qua, the Little Turtle Chief of

the Miamis." We could give other statements concerning his

pre-eminence but space forbids.

Little Turtle foresaw the victory of Wayne, but all the

chiefs, young and old, were against him. Tecumseh, although

young, must have been of the opposing number.

After defeat he was the first chieftain to surrender of his

own mind and enter into an effort for a general peace confer-

ence. He saw the only hope of the American Indian was the

triumph of the American government.

Tecumseh believed that ultimate victory would be with


Little Turtle, in the vision of prophecy, saw the American

Eagle soaring on this continent over the English Lion. He,

like our great President, was first in peace, and first in war. He

Vol. XVIII-9.

180 Ohio Arch

180      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


established a home, a permanent home, on the Maumee near Ft.

Wayne, and there attempted a civilized life, planting a field and

rearing domestic animals, but his wild Indian neighbors killed

his animals and tried to make life unpleasant, yet in his retire-

ment he was respected by Indians and white men, the English

and French being among the number.

Tecumseh delighted in war, and brave chieftain as he was,

died in the front of the battle.

It is said by only one writer we have consulted that Little

Turtle had at the same time two wives, one about 50 and the

other 18. This was about 1807. Let this be as it may, he was

a heathen, and had not been the subject of missionary instruc-

tion. The writer thinks the historian that made this statement

was misinformed. Mr. Wolcott had

never heard of it. Little Turtle's

grand-daughter, now 98, says noth-

ing about it.

The money given him for ser-

vices, and the large quantity of land,

by Congress, made him comfortable.

He had a good plain building fur-

nished up to pioneer style, and a

farm cultivated so that he had bread

and meat.

Mr. J. M. Wolcott is the last de-

scendant of the great chieftain in

the lower Maumee. It is claimed by

one history of the Maumee Valley

that there are several people descend-

ants of his about Ft. Wayne, other

than the old lady, Kill-so-quah.

Mr. Wolcott is married but has no children. He has been

recently Mayor of Maumee City, and for several years Trustee

of the Maumee Memorial Association, through which the grand

granite monument now stands on old Fort Meigs, at an expense

of $25,000, besides what was paid for thirty-five acres including

the Fort. The monument and all the land was paid for by the

State, excepting eight acres paid for by the Association.

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.    131


Mr. Wolcott is satisfied that he, as a direct and legal heir,

is entitled to a large tract of land near Ft. Wayne. Mr. Wol-

cott has a Government Patent that was issued for the land, and

upon record at Washington, discovered by his attorney, Hon.

Gen. I. R. Sherwood, member of Congress from the Ninth Ohio

District. The suit is pending and will no doubt, to a great ex-

tent, be in favor of Mr. Wolcott. Gen. Sherwood also found

an old affidavit given by Gen. John E. Hunt, who located in

Maumee in 1815. He was a Major General and Commander at

the time of his death, of the 18th Division of the Ohio militia.

The writer knew Gen. Hunt, and he was an honest reliable

man. The historical

account he gives of

Little Turtle and

family he swore to

before Mr. D. R.

Austin, notary public,

in and for the County

of Lucas, the 29th

day of October, 1870.

It was witnessed by

Victor Keen, clerk of

the Court of Com-

mon Pleas. Gen.

Hunt was only about

nine or ten years of

age when he had

knowledge of the things he swore to in 1870. We knew him in

1870 and he was in his right mind then.

In 1807 General Hunt resided in Ft. Wayne, Indiana, and

during his residence became well acquainted with the celebrated

Indian Chief, Little Turtle, of the Miami Tribe of Indians,

whose name was Me-she-kun-nogh-quah. General Hunt, up to

his death knew the living members of Little Turtle's family.

Little Turtle had an adopted son, William Wells, who was after-

wards killed at the Indian massacre at Chicago in 1812. Wells

married the daughter of Little Turtle, whose name was Wan-

mau-ga-pith, or Sweet Breeze.

132 Ohio Arch

132       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


The following is the chronological table as given and sworn

to by Gen. Hunt:

CAPTAIN WILLIAM WELLS (Wau-mau-goh-pith).

Children: -

Ann Wells, or Au-piz-a-quah

Married Mr. Turner.

Rebecca Wells, or Tes-ma-soh-quh

Married Hackley.

Mary Wells, or Au-mau-quah-zah-quah

Married Judge James Wolcott.

William Wayne Wells, or Wau-me-mor-gah

Who died August 1832, without marriage.

Mary Wells and James Wolcott resided in Maumee City

1828. Mary Wolcott died at Maumee 1843. Was well ac-

quainted with her and her family during the time of her resi-

dence here.

By her husband she had the following children, towit:

Mary Ann Wolcott, 1848, married Smith Gilbert.

Henry C. Wolcott. Dead since.

Fredrick A. Wolcott. Killed in Rebellion 1864.

James M. Wolcott. Resides in Maumee City. Has no children.

List of Smith Gilbert's children living in Maumee in 1870:

Fredrick E. Gilbert,

Albert W. Gilbert,

Smith W. Gilbert.


Captain William Wells did grand service as an Indian scout

for Wayne in his campaigns and battles with the Indians. He

was true to Wayne, as he had been to the Indians. After the

battle he did much to induce the Indians to make peace with

Wayne, and he was the friend of every Indian who was for

peace. The high esteem in which he was held by Wayne was a

great help to his father-in-law, Little Turtle, who had surren-

dered. For the years between 1795 and 1812 he lived a neigh-

bor of Little Turtle near Ft. Wayne. He was a sober, honest,

loyal citizen, respected by the Americans and Indians. He had,

about 1812, gone to Ft. Dearborn, Chicago. Mrs. Held, the

wife of the Commander at Ft. Dearborn at this time, was the

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.     133


daughter of Col. Samuel Wells, brother of Captain William


Col. Wells was in the American Army under Wayne. Cap-

tain Held was in charge of Ft. Dearborn, where Chicago now

stands. He was advised by a friendly chief, Win-ni-mac, to

evacuate and go to Ft. Wayne. William Wells, with twelve

men, had been sent to assist in the retreat. The head chief of

the Pottawatomies, the tribe in that locality, was a bitter enemy

of Captain Wells. His name was Black Bird. His coming ex-

asperated him. Col. John Johnson says, that he had often

spoken of Wells to him in the most bitter terms. Johnson had

been agent there. On the 14th of August a council was held

between the officers and chiefs, and agreed that the whole gar-

rison with their arms and ammunition sufficient for the journey,

and clothing, retire unmolested to Ft. Wayne, and the garrison

and all it contained should be delivered up to the Indians. The

night preceding the evacuation all the powder and whiskey were

134 Ohio Arch

134      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


thrown into the canal leading from the garrison to the Chicago

river. The powder floated out and revealed the deception to

the Indians. This exasperated them and brought matters to a

crisis. The 15th of August the troops marched out to commence

their journey, and had gone but a short distance when they were

attacked by the Indians. Wells, seeing all was lost, and not

wishing to fall into their hands, as he knew in that case a lin-

gering and painful death awaited him, wetted powder and black-

ened his face as a token of defiance, and commenced addressing

the Indians in opprobrious and insulting language he could

think of. His purpose was to have them dispatch him forth-

with. His object was accomplished as they became so enraged

with his taunts and jeers that one of them shot him off his

horse, and immediately pouncing upon him cut his body open,

took out his heart and ate it. Most of the troops were massa-

cred. The commanding officer and wife were saved. Mrs.

Held fought bravely, but was made prisoner with her husband.

Another account states that the most of the women and

children were murdered. Twelve little children sheltered in a

wagon were tomahawked. It was said by historians that Te-

cumseh had much to do with intensifying the hatred of the

Pottawatomies against the garrison.

Little Turtle's death was in his own home about the same


* * * * *


There are other descendants of Little Turtle. One of these

is a grand-daughter. Of her we learned in an article in the To-

ledo Blade a year since, by H. L. Askew, Blade correspondent.

We quote from this article the following in substance:

Her name is Kil-so-quh. She is now 98 years of age. Her

home is near Roanoke, Ind., 16 miles west on a few acres of the

original reservation. Only a short time ago she posed for a

photo at the request of the Blade reporter which is here repro-

duced. She is the last of the full blooded Miamis. She was

born in the month of May, 1810. Her birthplace was an island

at the forks of the Wabash River just west of the present city

of Huntington, Ind., and the tract is now known as Miami Park.

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.   135


Her mother was one of the best Miami maidens. The land

she lived on was given her by her mother, who received it from

her father, a chief, Wak-shin-gah, who gave land in Ohio for it.

In 1830 Kilsoquah became the bride of a Miami, John Owl,

but he soon died, and a few years later the grand-daughter of

the great chief married Anthony Revarre, a half-blood Indian

who was known as Shoop-in-au-wah, or Thunder Storm. Re-

varre died in 1849, and his remains are buried on the Reserva-

tion. Here was an Indian burying ground, but all has been

plowed over and the location of the graves lost. Her son, An-

thony Revarre, is now fifty-nine years old, and has charge of the

little farm, and provides well for his

royal  mother,  Kill-so-quah.  He

speaks English well and has a com-

mon English education.

Her husband and she lived in a

log house, but long ago it burned and

was replaced by the little frame

building now standing.

Kill-so-quah a few years ago,

after much entreaty, attended a pio-

neer meeting at Ft. Wayne, and en-

joyed it. Still later, going in an au-

tomobile, she attended one at Co-

lumbia City. She was carried to and

fro in charge of a committee, her son

enjoying her honors. It was a great treat on both occasions to

the almost centenarian, the last full-blooded Indian of the North-

west Territory living in the Wabash and Maumee Valleys; and

no less a pleasure to the thousands who gazed upon her.

She is a large fleshy woman and walks with difficulty. Ex-

cepting the infirmities of age she has never been sick. She, like

most Indians of the Valley, has been an immune to malaria. She

lived close to Nature, and Nature has been a kind mother to her.

Her knowledge of Christianity is limited, but she trusts in the

Great Spirit. Living up to the best light received, she is look-

ing for the "Happy Hunting Grounds" of her forefathers.

136 Ohio Arch

136      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.





In 1760 the English captured from the French Ft. Miami

at the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's rivers. The

French had held it for fifty years. Three years afterwards

Pontiac took it from the English and the Indians held the posi-

tion for thirty years. During this period it was the scene of

savage and barbarous government. The glory and power of

the Miamis was unchecked until the advent of Wayne.

In 1780 a Frenchman living at Vincennes, conceived the

idea of the surprise and capture of Detroit, which was held by

the English. Vincennes was then

under American rule. Three years

before the intrepid George Rogers

Clark had captured this place from

the British without firing a gun or

shedding blood. No doubt this gave

the thought to Le Balm, a wealthy

Frenchman, of undertaking the sur-

prise and capture of Detroit. His

motive was plunder, but his pretext

was to aid the Americans in their

struggle for liberty. Le Balm quiet-

ly enlisted a hundred men, mostly

Frenchmen. Two French traders

took stock in the enterprise furnish-

ing the sinews of war, money, arms and ammunition.

It was a freebooting expedition without the knowledge or

sanction of the governor of Vincennes. Starting on their jour-

ney these men planned for the capture, first of Ft. Miami. This

they did. No resistance was made by the Indians and French

and English traders, as all were taken by surprise. The victors

tarried but for a day, and went away only a few miles distant.

The French traders were not in favor of pursuing, but a few

young Miamis with Little Turtle, not yet a chief, by the unani-

mous voice of the young braves, was put in command. In turn,

after few nights, Le Balm and his party were taken by sur-

prise by the Miamis, who killed the majority, the others taking

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.      137


flight. The particulars of this expedition of Le Balm and the

attack of Little Turtle's band, if known, it would to the lovers

of heroic adventure be interesting.



Flowing onward swift and free,

Through tangled forest gloom,

Many sought and found in thee

Sweet rest midst lillies bloom.

O calm, O gentle moving stream,

O fair Miami of the Lake,

Is human kindness all a dream?

Is there no balm for hearts that ache?

The most important events connected with the history of the

West, from 1790 to 1795, were the Indian wars. The Indians,

in their depredations after the close of the War of the Revolu-

tion, were not alone prompted by a desire to shed blood, but to

prevent the settlement of what they claimed to be their lands.

They had sold only to the French small tracts about their trad-

ing posts, so that in the treaty between the English and French

in 1763, in Paris, the latter only transferred to the English these

tracts about Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, etc. Then followed

Pontiac's war and defeat. Then the grant by the Iroquois at

Ft. Stanwix in 1768 of the land south of the Ohio, and even

this deal was not respected by the Indians, who continued to

hunt in the Ohio country. Then came Dunmore's war in 1774,

without any transfer of land to the. whites, when at the close of

the Revolution in 1783 the British could turn over to the United

States only the small grants about the forts and the land south

of the Ohio.

In justice the Indians were the owners of the Northwest

Territory. As to the Miamis, Delawares, Shawnees, Wyandots

and tribes still further north and west, England transferred

nothing, not having owned it.

In October, 1784, the United States held a council with the

Iroquois at Fort Stanwix, and secured from them the title to all

their claims in western lands.

Then came a treaty with the Wyandot, Delaware, Chippewa

138 Ohio Arch

138      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


and Ottawa Nations, but the council of sixteen tribes, 1793, of

the Northwestern Indians objected to this treaty, and that of

Fort Stanwix in 1784 as having been brought about by intimi-

dation. This was the last general Indian council before 1795.

The Miamis, Chippewas, Ottawas, Kickapoos, Weas, Pinke-

shaws, Pottawatomies, Kaskaskias, and Eel River Indians,

claimed they had not been through their head chiefs bound by

treaties and councils. The Miamis, with their leaders, Little

Turtle and Le Gris, were at the head of this sentiment.

Washington in 1790 hesitated about offensive war on these

tribes until all peaceful means were exhausted. After this re-

peated efforts were made for peace with these tribes, but with-

out avail. There were those who thought it unwise not to make

a persevering effort with the Indians and secure a final adjust-


The government decided upon immediate aggressive move-

ments. To delay was only to encourage the Indians in their

obstinancy, and the British in their unscrupulous work of feed-

ing, clothing, and equipping the Indians for the depredatory in-

cursions against Americans.

The first army in this Indian war, organized by the general

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.     139


government, was placed under Major General Josiah Harmar.

In the Revolutionary struggle he had as a Colonel distinguished

himself. At this time he was Commander-in-Chief of the

United States forces.

The army of invasion under his command was composed of

320 Regulars from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and 1,133

drafted men from Pennsylvania and Kentucky. A company of

artillery with three brass cannons. Majors Wyily and Doughty

had charge of the Regulars; Col. Hardin, of Kentucky, the Mili-

tia, with Cols. Trotter and Paul, and Majors Hall and McMil-

len as subordinate commanders.

December 29th, 1789, he arrived at Cincinnati. For several

months previous he had been at the mouth of the Muskingum

waiting for the militia and supplies from the upper country,

and the completion of Fort Washington. He continued his

preparations until the 30th of December, 1790. No doubt the

Indians were aware of his plans and movements.

Harmar's arrangements were all made and he started that

day with the Regulars, the Militia under Col. Hardin having

started a few days before. His general course was to the North-

west by slow matching. The third day the Militia were over-

taken and passed. It would be interesting to give an account of

the daily march, but space forbids.

October 11th the army passed an old French trading post

called Twigtwees, or Miamis. The next day passed Loramie's

Creek and across to the head waters of the Auglaize. Keeping

on to the northwest without seeing the enemy, on the 14th day

of October Col. Hardin was detached with one company of

Regulars and six hundred of the Militia in advance, being

charged with the destruction of towns at the forks of the Mau-

mee. They found the towns deserted, and the best one burned.

At this Maumee village the main body arrived in two days. The

Indians had seven villages.

The 17th of October, search was made and there was found

a large quantity of corn buried. The army burned all the houses

in all the villages and destroyed at least 20,000 bushels of corn.

On the 18th search was made for the Indians. Col. Har-

din's detachment was given this work. He met the Indians in

140 Ohio Arch

140      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


good position, and after a brief fight the Militia fled. The

enemy pursued. One sergeant and twenty-one regulars were

killed. There were in a brief time one hundred Americans killed

and many wounded.

Harmar's other forces had commenced a retreat, but hear-

ing of a body of Indians at one of the burned towns, Harmar

sent Col. Hardin with a strong force to meet them. An en-

gagement ensued. The Indians fought with desperation, rush-

ing on the whites in a hand to hand encounter. During this

time, Indian sharpshooters were picking off the officers. Ma-

jors Fountain and Wyily fell, the former with eighteen bullets.

Fifty-one of the regulars shared the same fate. There was a

total of one hundred and eighty killed and wounded that day.

The officers and troops were brave, but they lacked generalship.

The army should have kept together. There was abundant evi-

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.      141


dence of these things with the enemy having plenty of arms and

ammunition, good generalship and intense patriotism. Gen.

Harmar felt the defeat. He retired to private life and died in

obscurity in 1803.

This defeat showed the government that a stronger force

was needed, and the best commanding general. Little Turtle

commanded the Indians, and had the distinguished Blue Jacket

the first in command under him.

Harmar's defeat caused sorrow throughout the States. It

was a great source of grief to the President and Congress.

Washington's idea of a string of military posts was to be

carried out, and first of all, the key to the whole situation must

be won by establishing a post where Fort Wayne after this time

was built.

St. Clair was appointed Major General and in person had

chief command of the frontier forces. Of course he acted un-

der the general direction of President Washington, as did Har-

mar before and Gen. Wayne after the defeat of St. Clair.




Orators, with each passing year

Have made the multitudes to hear

The glorious valor of thy dead,

Patriots who for their hearth stone bled.


Washington was authorized by Congress to raise an army

of three thousand men.

The command was given to St. Clair. This number was

needed. The Indians were elated after the defeat of General

Harmar. Little Turtle had the aid and counsel of Blue Jacket

and Buck-on-ge-ha-las, Chief of the Delawares. The warriors

were informed of St. Clair's army and approach, and were pre-

paring for the fray. Washington had learned of Little Turtle's

ability when he cautioned St. Clair to beware of surprises. He

urged this. No doubt he remembered Braddock's defeat.

One object of St. Clair's expedition was to establish a

strong fort at the junction of the St. Mary and St. Joseph Riv-

ers, and he wanted to strike a blow at the Indians they would

142 Ohio Arch

142      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


not soon forget. St. Clair's army built Fort Washington at

Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept. 6th, 1791, advanced twenty miles and

built Fort Hamilton on the east bank of the Great Miami. This

fort was to be headquarters for supplies.

All the spring and summer he had been drilling and equip-

ping his army. While what were offered as reasons for his de-

feat, such as raw soldiers poorly equipped, poor ammunition and

poor arms, when we remember how much time and money was

used to prepare for the battle, lose much of their weight. St.

Clair was out-generaled. He had two thousand four hundred

men, and had this army been kept together, duly picketed by

experienced scouts; had he not di-

vided his army on the eve of battle;

had he thrown up breastworks bullet

proof; had Gen. Butler reported the

vicinity of the Indians the night be-

fore, the defeat might have been


Little Turtle, as the details of

the battle show, had the plan of at-

tack well arranged, and carried it out

to perfection. St. Clair's army was

panic stricken. At dawn the Indians

began the attack with deadly volleys

and frightful yells, which, by their

nearness and numbers were terrific.

St. Clair, though sick, rallied his forces and again and again

drove the enemy back, but the Indians returned as fierce as ever.

In the meantime, sheltered behind and in trees, the sharpshooters

picked off the officers and artillerymen. St. Clair was brave;

four horses were shot under him. For three hours the battle

raged, when a retreat was ordered. An opening was made in

the Indian lines by Col. Drake and a company of the best men.

Through this the army retreated, St. Clair on a pack-horse. The

Indians only followed a short distance and returned to the bat-

tlefield to secure part of the booty.

The rout continued until the army reached Fort Jefferson,

forty miles distant. Nearly seven hundred were dead, thirty of

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.   143


these were women, and three hundred wounded lay on the field.

Among the prominent officers killed were General Richard But-

ler, Major Ferguson, Colonel Oldham, Major Clark and Major

Hart. Among the wounded were Colonel Sargeant and Lieut.

Col. Gibson, Major Thomas Butler and Viscount Malartie, aide-

de-camp of St. Clair.

The Indian loss is reported one hundred and fifty killed and

a few wounded. The probability is the Indians had two thou-

sand or more engaged, while the Americans had not more than

fifteen hundred. A thousand troops had been sent back. This,

no doubt, Little Turtle knew, and improved his opportunity to

overcome the invading army.

The whole land mourned. It was an awful defeat! The

exposed backwoods-

men along the border

had  greater  dread

than ever. Emigra-

tion by land and wa-

ter ceased. Many peo-

ple  fled  eastward,

leaving their homes.

Washington at first

news was in a rage.

"Why didn't St. Clair

take my advice and

avoid a surprise," he

said. After a while he said, "I will wait and hear it all."

St. Clair was tried, and exonerated from all blame.

The Indians were arrogant, and the British of Canada were

happy. The Indians increased their depredations in 1792 and

1793. They knew the war was not ended, for they would not

submit to the terms of the Americans.

Had it been known to Congress and the people what St.

Clair had to meet in the Wilderness far away from supplies; and

the opposition of Gen. Butler next in command; the inferiority

in numbers and arms of his army; the insubordination of drafted

men, and especially that he had to meet the greatest army of In-

dians ever assembled, under the command of the great Little

144 Ohio Arch

144       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


Turtle, and his staff-an army fully equipped with English

arms, there would have been more sympathy for St. Clair. The

government let this hero of liberty, who gave his time, talent

and fortune to the Republic, live in a log cabin in Alleghany

mountains on the summit of Chestnut Ridge, live forsaken until

a short time before he died in 1818, when Congress gave him a

pension of $60 per month and $2,000 for back pay.




O deep and wide and rapid river,

O rough and dark and icy stream,

Who filled with death the red man's quiver?

Who bade his deadly arrow gleam?

Thy face has known a crimson blush,

Thy spray a bloody rain,

Thy waves have heaved with death's mad rush,

Thy depths been gorged with slain.


November, 1793, the Indians made a raid south of Fort

Jefferson, and meeting a company of Kentuckians, killed six and

wounded more. This occurred near

Fort St. Clair in the vicinity of the

town of Eaton. Little Turtle was in

command. This was a convincing

object lesson to Wayne, and he in-

creased his efforts for a decisive con-


The autumn of this year Wayne

brought his army to Fort Greenville,

where it was drilled and fully pre-

pared for the campaign of 1794.

The 28th of July of this year the

army commenced its march for the

Maumee River. The Indian spies

were on the alert, and called Wayne

when reporting to Little Turtle, the "Black Snake," and "Wild

Wind," suggestive of his impetuosity and tact.

August ist the army crossed the level of Ohio and was mov-

ng as rapidly as possible toward the Indian villages. It made a

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.    145


halt of a few days on the site of old Fort Loramie. Then pro-

ceeding northward came to the scene of St. Clair's defeat, where

a fort was at once built, armed and furnished, and named Fort

Recovery. Then northeast to Girty's town, St. Marys; thence

up that stream as if intending to surprise the Miami villages.

Then crossing, turned back toward the east, then proceeded

across the Auglaize and thence down to the junction with the


This devious route deceived the Indians, but not entirely,

for they had no time to gather the golden corn from many miles

of fields skirting the Auglaize. A stockade at the confluence of

the Maumee and Auglaize Rivers was erected and called Fort


At this time Anthony Wayne offered to the Indians "over-

tures of peace, as they have everything that is dear and inter-

esting at stake, I have reason to expect that they will listen

to the proposition in the enclosed copy of the address, dispatched

yesterday by a special flag which I sent under circumstances that

will ensure the safe return of the bearer, and which may eventu-

ally spare the effusion of much blood. But if war be their

choice that blood be on their own heads. America shall no

longer be insulted with impunity. To an all-powerful and just

God I therefore commit myself and gallant army."

The bearer returned with the message that "if Wayne would

wait ten days at (Grand Glaze) Defiance, the Indians would

decide for peace or war."

Wayne would wait no longer. On the 20th day of August

the army moved down the north bank, leaving in a small Fort

Deposit all extra baggage.

In reporting the engagement General Wayne says:

"It is with infinite pleasure that I announce to you the bril-

liant success of the Federal Army under my command irr a gen-

eral action with the combined forces of the hostile Indians, and

a considerable number of volunteers and militia of Detroit, on

the 20th inst., on the banks of the Miami in the vicinity of the

British post and garrison at the foot of the Rapids."

This is the sum of the whole battle. Only one thousand

Vol. XVIII-10.

146 Ohio Arch

146      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


two hundred Americans were in the battle, while there were two

thousand Indians.

The Delawares had 500 warriors in the battle; 200 Miamis;

300 Shawnees; 250 Tewas; 300 Wyandots; 200 militia from

Fort Miami, and other Indians of weaker tribes. Fort Miami

after the defeat kept its gates closed against the Indians. This

fact led the Indians to see they had nothing to hope for from

the English and led to the treaty of Greenville.

The Indian loss was heavy. There were twelve leading

Wyandot chiefs in the battle, and eleven of them were killed.

Many leading war chiefs would not retire or surrender, and

hence died in the fight. Turkey Foot, a brave chief, fell

wounded, near a great bowlder at the northeast end of the bat-

tlefield. On this bowlder are engraved turket feet, and it is

said before the warrior died he engraved the first one. "Tur-

key Foot Rock," as it is called, remains in place to this day.

This battle was an object lesson to the Indians of the im-

possibility of coping with the American Government and stop-

ping the incoming of the white people. They realized that their

only hope was in submission.

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle

Me-she-kun-nogh-quah, or Little Turtle.     147


General Wayne and most of his army remained on the bat-

tlefield several days. At the close of the engagement he recon-

noitered Fort Miami. He had it in mind to attack the fort, but

prudence prevailed. A brisk correspondence occurred between

the commander, Capt. Campbell, of the British Army and Gen-

eral Wayne. Wayne suggested the propriety of his getting on

British territory to the nearest British post. Campbell replied

he would await the orders of his superiors. Wayne sent out

his cavalry and burned the Indian villages, and then repaired to

Fort Defiance, which he strengthened.

Wonderful results followed the defeat of the Indians by

Wayne's army. These we may not more fully describe as all

are well known. The principal one was the abiding friendship

of the majority of the Indians of the Northwest Territory. Also

the adjustment of territorial lines and the opening of the west

and northwest to civilization.

Monuments should be erected to commemorate the battle-

fields in Ohio of Gen. Anthony Wayne and his brave officers and

men, and second Little Turtle and brave Blue Jacket and their

associated chiefs. We are as a nation under obligation to these

noble Generals Washington, Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne, and

their coadjutors for their great patriotic efforts, even after they

had passed the meridian of human life, - for the extended es-

tablishment of a free government, giving security to homes, and

happiness to all the people. May the time soon come when

rising in marble above each battlefield of Ohio these monuments

shall arise to remind the generations yet to come of the heroism

148 Ohio Arch

148      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


of our pioneer fathers! And why not to the great Ohio Indians.

We only have one such monument, that to Leatherlips. While

the exact spots of the resting places of the great red men are not

known, why not erect monuments for Tarhe of the Wyandots,

Pontiac of the Ottawas, Logan of the Mingoes, Tecumseh, Black

Hoof, and Blue Jacket of the Shawnees, and Little Turtle of

the Miamis?