Ohio History Journal




[The following article comprising the statement of facts, and the re-

print of the wording of the treaty, was prepared by Frazer E. Wilson of

Greenville, Ohio. The material is found largely in his little book, "The

Treaty of Greenville." The reproduction of the signatures and the symbol

signs inscribed by the chiefs to the treaty is from a photograph in exact

size taken from the treaty itself, now carefully preserved in the archives

at Washington, D. C. The photograph was taken by permission of the

government authorities for the purposes of exhibition at the celebration

of the hundredth anniversary of the treaty, held at Greenville, Ohio,

on August 3, 1895. This is the only time a photograph has been made

from the original and the photograph is now in the possession of Hon. A.

C. Robeson, Greenville, Ohio, by whose consent we have been able to

produce the fac similes of the signatures. - E. O. R.]

After the battle on the Maumee, the Indians of the North-

west still hesitated to seek peace. The British agents, Simcoe,

McKee, and Brant, stimulated them to continue hostilities.    They

strengthened their fort near the rapids, supplied the Indians

from their magazines, called a council, and urged the Indians

to propose a truce or suspension of hostilities until spring, in

order to deceive the Americans, that they might neglect to keep

sufficient troops to retain their position.  They also advised the

savages to convey their lands to the King in trust, so as to give

the British a pretext for assisting them, and, in case the Ameri-

cans refused to abandon all their posts and possessions on the

west side of the Ohio, to make a general attack and drive them

across that river. Brant also told them to keep a good heart;

that he would return home, for the present, with his warriors,

and come again in the spring, with a larger force, "to fight, kill

and pursue the Americans." He also "advised them to amuse

the Americans with a prospect of peace, until the tribes should

collect in force to fall upon them early in the spring, and when

least expected."

Notwithstanding all these preparations, the Indians began

to understand their critical condition, and to lose faith in the

British. Information was received from Kaskaskia, that they


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The Treaty of Greenville.             129


were crossing the Mississippi every day, and despaired of with-

standing the Americans.

The humane disposition of the victors, however, finally won

their confidence, and, on the 28th and 29th of December, the

chiefs of several tribes manifested their desire for peace to the

commandant at Fort Wayne. Proceeding to Fort Greene Ville,

representatives of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Sacs, Pottawattomies,

and Miamis entered, together with the Shawanese, Delawares, and

Wyandots, into preliminary articles with General Wayne on the

24th of January, 1795. The first article provided, "that, until

articles for a permanent peace shall be adjusted, agreed to, and

signed, all hostilities shall cease, and the aforesaid sachems, and

war chiefs, for and in behalf of the nations which they represent,

do agree to meet the above named plenipotentiary of the United

States, at Greene Ville, on or about the 15th day of June next,

with all the sachems and war chiefs of their nations, then and

there to consult and conclude upon such terms of amity and

peace as shall be for the interest and to the satisfaction of both

parties." Article two provided for the prompt report of any

meditated or attempted hostilities of any nation or tribe, against

any post or settlement, to the commander in chief, or to the officer

commanding troops of the United States at the nearest post,

should it come to the knowledge of the nations above mentioned.

Also, that the commander in chief, and his subordinate officers,

should do likewise on behalf of the said Indian Nations.

For the next few months prisoners were exchanged, and the

Indians were preparing to meet in June as agreed. Early in that

month a large number of Delawares, Ottawas, Pottawattomies,

and Eel River Indians, arrived at Greene Ville. These were

the chief men, the scions of many a proud and noted tribe. Some

had met in former treaties with the United States, many had

helped to rout the unfortunate army of St. Clair in 1791, and all

had suffered a telling defeat at the hands of the Americans the

summer previous. Let us picture to ourselves the scene and the

occasion and then listen to some of the words of the principal

participants. The council fire was kindled on the 16th of June

and around its sacred embers gathered a picturesque group of

frontier soldiers, scouts, spies, interpreters and officers. We note

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especially the faces of Wayne, and W. H. Harrison, his aide, of

Wells, Miller and Zane the scouts, and a coterie of French Cana-

dian interpreters. Without the council house and beyond the

artillery park and parade ground appear the long and regular

rows of soldier's cabins and beyond these, on all sides, the log

palisades and guarded bastions of the frontier fort. Gen. Wayne

has extended a cordial greeting in these words: "I have cleared

this ground of all brush and rubbish, and opened roads to the

east, to the west, to the north, and to the south, that all nations

may come in safety and ease to meet me. The ground on which

the council house stands is unstained with blood, and is as pure

as the heart of General Washington, the great chief of America,

and of his great council - as pure as my heart, which now wishes

for nothing so much as peace and brotherly love. I have this

day kindled the council fire of the United States; we will now

cover it up, and keep it alive, until the remainder of the different

tribes assemble, and form a full meeting and representation. I

now deliver to each tribe present a string of white wampum, to

serve as record of the friendship that is this day commenced be-

tween us."

For several weeks the chiefs and warriors kept dropping in,

a few at a time from their distant homes on the Wabash, the

Maumee, and the lake region farther north. They expressed

sentiments of peace and on the 15th of July, the general, after

explaining his commission urged the last treaty with St. Clair

at Ft. Harmar as a basis of lasting peace and advised them to

deliberate a few days. The fire was then raked up and the coun-

cil adjourned to the 18th. On that day the Little Turtle observed

that the treaty at Ft. Harmar "was effected altogether by the Six

Nations, who seduced some of our young men to attend it, to-

gether with a few of the Chippewas, Wyandots, Ottawas, Dela-

wares, and Pottawattomies," and "that he was entirely ignorant

of what was done at that treaty."  Mash-i-pi-nash-i-wish also

stated that he "knew nothing of the treaty in question" on account

of his remote situation on Lake Michigan. Tarke (or Crane), the

Wyandot chief, arose and remarked that he wished it to be de-

termined what nation should speak, and that a day be appointed

when all present, together with those on the way, should meet.

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The Treaty of Greenville.            131


The General answered that he had paid attention to their

remarks, and that he would endeavor to fully explain to them,

two days hence, the treaty of Muskingum, (Ft. Harmar), of

which so many plead ignorance. Also, that he would recall to

"the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawattomies,

and Sac nations, what they did at that treaty," and show the

names of those who witnessed it. Council adjourned to meet

on the 20th.

On the evening of the 18th, Blue Jacket and thirteen Shaw-

anese, and Massas with twenty Chippewas, arrived, and were

received into the council house. When the council opened on

the 20th, the Shawanese and Chippewas were present in addition

to the rest, and the General read to them his message to the

hostile Indians on the 13th of August, 1794. He also read and

explained the treaty of Fort Harmar,'and pointed out a number

of chiefs who were present and signed both that and the treaty

of Fort McIntosh, and asked them to consider seriously what he

had said, and upon their next meeting, make known their

thoughts. After Pe-ke-te-le-mund, a Delaware chief, and Mash-

i-pi-nash-i-wish had spoken, the council adjourned, and on the

21st Massas spoke in behalf of the Ottawas, Chippewas and Pot-

tawattomies. He spoke in favor of peace, and stated that the

Three Fires which he represented had poor interpreters at the

treaty of Muskingum, and that if their uncles, the Wyandots,

and grandfathers, the Delawares, had received presents and com-

pensation, they were never informed of it. Tarke, Mash-i-pi-

nash-i-wish, the General, and Massas then made some remarks.

On Wednesday, the 22nd, the tall and crafty Mishikinakwa, the

Little Turtle, chief of the Miamis, who had led in the attack on

St. Clair, arose and said: "General Wayne! I hope you will pay

attention to what I now say to you. I wish to inform you where

my younger brothers, the Miamis, live, and also the Pottawatto-

mies of St. Joseph, together with the Wabash Indians. You have

pointed out to us the boundary line between the Indians and the

United States; but I now take the liberty to inform you that that

line cuts off from the Indians a large portion of country which

has been enjoyed by my fore-fathers, time immemorial, without

molestation or dispute. The prints of my ancestor's houses are

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everywhere to be seen in this portion. I was a little astonished

at hearing you and my brothers who are now present, telling

each other what business you had transacted together, hereto-

fore, at Muskingum, concerning this country. It is well known

that my forefather kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence

he extended his lines to the headwaters of the Scioto; from thence

to its mouth; from thence down the Ohio to the mouth of the

Wabash; and from thence to Chicago, on Lake Michigan. At

this place I first saw my elder brothers, the Shawanese. I have

now informed you of the boundaries of the Miami nation, where

the great Spirit placed my forefather a long time ago and charged

him not to sell, or part with his lands, but to preserve them for

his posterity. This charge has been handed down to me. I was

much surprised to hear that my brothers differed so much from

me on this subject; for their conduct would lead me to suppose

that the Great Spirit, and their forefathers, had not given them

the same charge that was given to me; but on the contrary, had

directed them to sell their lands to any white man who wore a

hat, as soon as he should ask it of them. Now, elder brother,

your younger brothers, the Miamis, have pointed out to you

their country; and also to our brothers present. When I hear

your remarks and proposals on this subject, I will be ready to

give an answer. I came with an expectation of hearing you say

good things, but I have not yet heard what I expected.

"Brothers, the Indians! I expected, in this council that our

minds would have been made up, and that we should speak with

one voice. I am sorry to observe that you are rather unsettled

and hasty in your conduct."

The bare record of these words is scarcely sufficient to im-

press the reader as they must have impressed the council. We

must imagine them delivered with gestures similar to those used

lately by an old chief in the far northwest which a witness de-

scribes as follows: "With a sweep of his outstretched arm he

described the lands over which his forefathers had roamed; a

pinch of earth between his thumb and finger what was left to

him and his. A few kernels rattled in a pod typified the Indians

remaining; a cloud of white winged seed shaken upon the evening

breeze symbolized the coming race."

The Treaty of Greenville

The Treaty of Greenville.            133


After the great chief had spoken, Tarke, the Wyandot, arose

and said that the ground belonged to the Great Spirit above, and

that they all had an equal right to it; that he always considered

the treaty of Muskingum  (Ft. Harmar) as founded upon the

fairest principles, as being binding upon the Indians and the

United States alike; and that peace was now desired by all.

On the 23rd Blue Jacket, A-goosh-a-way, an Ottawa chief,

Massas, Mash-i-pi-nash-i-wish, and New Corn addressed the

council and showed a desire to bury the hatchet. On the 24th,

Blue Jacket opened the council and was followed by the General,

who addressed the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawattomies, the

claimants of the land sold to the United States at the last treaty,

for which they said that they had not been compensated. He

remarked that it was always the intention of the United States

"that the true owners of those lands should receive full compen-

sation for them;" that if they had not received a due proportion

of the goods delivered at that time, it was not the fault of the

United States; and, that notwithstanding these lands had been

twice paid for, once at Ft. McIntosh, and again at Ft. Harmar,

yet the United States would be liberal enough to pay for them

again. He then addressed the Miamis: "Brothers, the Miamis!

I have paid attention to what the Little Turtle said, two days

since, concerning the lands which he claims. He said his father

first kindled the fire at Detroit and stretched his line from thence

to the headwaters of the Scioto; thence down the same to the

Ohio; thence down that river to the mouth of the Wabash, and

from thence to Chicago, on the southwest end of lake Michigan;

and observed that his forefathers had enjoyed that country, un-

disturbed, from time immemorial.

"Brothers! These boundaries enclose a very large space of

country indeed; they embrace, if I mistake not, all the lands on

which all the nations now present live, as well as those which have

been ceded to the United States. The lands which have been

ceded have within these three days been acknowledged by the

Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawattomies, Wyandots, Delawares, and

Shawanese. The little Turtle says the prints of his forefathers'

houses are everywhere to be seen within these boundaries.

Younger brother! it is true these prints are to be observed, but

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at the same time we discover the marks of French possessions

throughout this country, which were established long before we

were born. These have since been in the possession of the British,

who must, in their turn, relinquish them to the United States,

when they, the French and the Indians, will be all as one people.

"I will point out to you a few places where I discover strong

traces of these establishments; and first of all, I find at Detroit,

a very strong print, where the fire was first kindled by your fore-

fathers; next at Vincennes on the Wabash; again at Musquiton,

on the same river; a little higher up on that stream, they are to

be seen at Quitanon. I discover another strong trace at Chicago;

another on the St. Joseph's, of Lake Michigan. I have seen

quite distinctly, the prints of a French and of a British post, at

the Miami villages, and of a British post at the foot of the Rapids,

now in their possession. Prints, very conspicuous, are on the

Great Miami, which were possessed by the French, forty-five

years ago; and another trace, is very distinctly to be seen at


"It appears to me, that if the Great Spirit, as you say,

charged your fore-fathers to preserve their lands entire, for their

posterity, they have paid very little regard to the sacred injunc-

tion, for I see they have parted with those lands to your fathers

the French - and the English are now, or have been, in posses-

sion of them all: therefore, I think the charge urged against the

Ottawas, Chippewas and other Indians, comes with a bad grace

indeed from the very people who perhaps, set them the example,

The English and French both wore hats; and yet your fore-

fathers sold them, at various times, portions of your lands. How-

ever, as I have already observed, you shall now receive from the

United States further valuable compensation for the lands you

have ceded to them by former treaties.

"Younger brothers! I will now inform you who it was who

gave us these lands in the first instance;- it was your fathers the

British, who did not discover that care for your interests which

you ought to have experienced. This is the treaty of peace, made

between the United States of America and Great Britain, twelve

years ago, at the end of a long and bloody war, when the French

and Americans proved too powerful for the British; on these

The Treaty of Greenville

The Treaty of Greenville.            135


terms they obtained peace. (Here part of the treaty of 1783

was read.)

"Here you perceive, that all the country south of the great

lakes has been given up to America; but the United States never

intended to take that advantage of you, which the British placed

in their hands; they wish you to enjoy your just rights, without

interruption, and to promote your happiness. The British stipu-

lated to surrender to us all the posts on this side of the boundary

agreed on. I told you some days ago, that treaties should ever

be sacredly fulfilled by those who make them; but the British,

on their part, did not find it convenient to relinquish those posts

as soon as they should have done; however, they now find it so,

and a precise period is fixed for their delivery. I have now in

my hands the copy of a treaty, made eight months since, between

them and us, of which I shall read you a little. (First and second

articles of Mr. Jay's treaty read.)

"By this solemn agreement they promise to retire from Mich-

ilimackinac, Fort St. Clair, Detroit, Niagara, and all other places

on this side of the lakes, and leave the same to the full and quiet

possession of the United States.

"Brothers! All nations present, now listen to me!

"Having now explained those matters to you and informed

you of all things I judged necessary for your information, we

have nothing to do but to bury the hatchet, and draw a veil over

past misfortunes. As you have buried our dead with the con-

cern of brothers, so I now collect the bones of your slain warriors,

put them into a deep pit which I have dug, and cover them

carefully over with this large belt, there to remain undisturbed.

I also dry the tears from your eyes, and wipe the blood from your

bodies, with this soft, white linen. No bloody traces will ever

lead to the graves of your departed heroes; with this I wipe all

such away. I deliver it to your uncle, the Wyandot, who will

send it round amongst you. (A large belt, with a white string


"I now take the hatchet out of your hands, and with a strong

arm, throw it into the centre of the great ocean, where no mortal

can ever find it; and I now deliver to you the wide and straight

path to the fifteen fires, to be used by you and your posterity,

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forever. So long as you continue to follow this road, so long

will you continue to be a happy people. You see it is straight

and wide, and they will be blind indeed, who deviate from it.

I place it also in your uncle's hands, for you. (A large road


"I will, the day after to-morrow, show you the cessions which

you have made to the United States, and point out to you the

lines which may, for the future, divide your lands from theirs;

and as you will have to-morrow to rest, I will order you a double

allowance of drink, because we have now buried the hatchet and

performed every necessary ceremony, to render propitious, our

renovated friendship."

Discussion and explanation continued until the 3rd of August.

On that day the council assembled to sign the treaty. Gen-

eral Wayne again read his commissions and explained his author-

ity for holding the same, said that he had fulfilled his instructions,

and then read for the third time the articles of the treaty which

had been engrossed. The chiefs then signed and were informed

that one part should be delivered to the Wyandots for preser-

vation, the other, to the Great Chief, General Washington, and

that in addition each nation should receive one copy; also, that

the goods to be given them would now be apportioned and de-

livered in a few days.

The Indians remained a few   days at Greene Ville for

the distribution of presents; speeches were delivered and the

calumet of peace was finally passed to those who had not yet

smoked it. Thus was consummated a treaty of far reaching

importance concerning the effectiveness of which Rufus King,

the historian, testifies-"Never after that treaty, to their honor

be it remembered, did the Indian nations violate the limits which

it established. It was a grand tribute to General Wayne that

no chief or warrior who gave him the hand at Greene Ville ever

after 'lifted the hatchet' against the United States. There were

malcontents on the Wabash and Lake Michigan who took sides

with Tecumseh and the Prophet in the war of 1812, perhaps for

good cause, but the tribes and their chiefs sat still."

The number of the different nations at and parties to the

treaty were as follows: Wyandots, 180; Delawares, 381; Shaw-

The Treaty of Greenville

The Treaty of Greenville.            137


anese, 143; Ottawas, 45; Chippewas, 46; Pottawattomies, 240;

Miamis, and Eel Rivers, 73; Weas and Piankeshaws, 12; Kicka-

poos and Kaskaskias, 1O; making a total of 1130.

The treaty was neatly engrossed on three pieces of parchment

26 inches wide and from 25 to 31 inches long. It reads as





To all to whom these presents shall come- Greeting.

WHEREAS, a Treaty of peace and friendship between the

United States of America and the tribes of Indians called the

Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanoes, Ottawas, Chippewas, Putawa-

tames, Miamis, Eel River, Weea's, Kickapoos, Piankashaws and

Kaskaskias was made and concluded on the third day of August

one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five by Anthony Wayne,

Major-General commanding the Army of the United States, duly

authorized thereto, on the one part, and the Sachems and war

chiefs of the beforementioned Nations and Tribes of Indians

whose names are thereunto signed on the other part which Treaty

is in the form and words following, viz:


ICA and the Tribes of INDIANS called the Wyandots, Delawares,

Shawanoes, Ottowas, Chippewas, Putawatimes, Miamis, Eel

River, Weea's Kickapoos, Piankashaws and Kaskaskias.

To put an end to a destructive war to settle all controver-

sies and to restore harmony and a friendly intercourse between

the said United States and Indian Tribes, Anthony Wayne,

Major-General commanding the Army of the United States and

sole Commissioner for the good purposes above mentioned, and

the said tribes of Indians, by their Sachems, Chiefs and Warriors

met together at Greene Ville the Head Quarters of the said Army

have agreed on the following Articles, which when ratified by the

President with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United

States shall be binding on them and the said Indian Tribes.

"ARTICLE 1ST. Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace

is hereby established, and shall be perpetual; and a friendly inter-

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course shall take place between the said United States and In-

dian Tribes.

"ARTICLE 2ND. All prisoners shall, on both sides, be re-

stored. The Indians, prisoners to the United States, shall be im-

mediately set at liberty. The people of the United States, still re-

maining prisoners among the Indians, shall be delivered up in

ninety days from the date hereof, to the General or commanding

officer at Greene Ville, Fort Wayne, or Fort Defiance; and ten

chiefs of said tribes shall remain at Greene Ville as hostages until

the delivery of the prisoners shall be effected.

"ARTICLE 3RD. The general boundary line, between the

lands of the United States and the lands of the said Indian tribes,

shall begin at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and run thence

up the same, to the portage between that and the Tuscarawas

branch of the Muskingum; thence, down that branch to the cross-

ing place, above Fort Lawrence; thence Westerly, to a fork of

that branch of the Great Miami River running into the Ohio, at

or near which fork stood Loramie's store, and where commences

the portage between the Miami of the Ohio, and St. Mary's

River, which is a branch of the Miami, which runs into Lake

Erie; thence, a westerly course to Fort Recovery, which stands

on a branch of the Wabash; thence, South Westerly in a direct

line to the Ohio, so as to intersect that river, opposite the mouth

of the Kentucke, or Cuttawa river. And in consideration of the

peace now established, of the goods formerly received from the

United States, of those now to be delivered, and of the yearly

delivery of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter, and to

indemnify the United States for the injuries and expences they

have sustained during the War, the said Indian tribes do here-

by cede and relinquish forever, all their claims to the lands lying

Eastwardly and Southwardly of the general boundary line, now

described; and these lands, or any part of them, shall never here-

after be made a cause or pretence, on the part of said Indian

Tribes, or any of them, of war or injury to the United States, or

any of the people thereof.

"And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the

returning friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence

in the United States, and desire to provide for their accommoda-

The Treaty of Greenville

The Treaty of Greenville.           139


tion, and for that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial

to both parties, the said Indian tribes do also Cede to the United

States, the following pieces of land, to wit: 1. One piece of

land, six miles square, at or near Loramie's store; before men-

tioned. 2. One piece two miles square, at the head of the navig-

able water or landing on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's Town.

3. One piece six miles square, at the head of the navigable

water of the Au Glaize River. 4. One piece six miles square,

at the confluence of the Au Glaize and Miami Rivers, where Fort

Defiance now stands. 5. One piece six miles square, at or near

the confluence of the Rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where

Fort Wayne now stands, or near it. 6. One piece two miles

square, on the Wabash river, at the end of the portage from the

Miami of the Lake, and about eight miles westward from Fort

Wayne. 7. One piece six miles square, at the Ouiatenon, or

old Wee'a Towns, on the Wabash river. 8. One piece twelve

miles square, at the British fort, on the Miami of the Lake, at

the foot of the rapids. 9. One pice six miles square, at the

mouth of the said River, where it empties into the Lake. 10. One

piece six miles square upon Sandusky Lake where a Fort formerly

stood. 11. One piece two miles square at the lower rapids of

Sandusky River. 12. The Post of Detroit, and all the lands to

the North, the West, and the South of it, of which the Indian

title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or

English Governments; and so much more land, to be annexed to

the district of Detroit, as shall be comprehended between the

River Rosine, on the South, Lake St. Clair, on the North, and a

line, the general course whereof shall be six miles distant from

the West end of Lake Erie and Detroit river. 13. The Post

of Michilimackinac, and all the land on the Island on which

that Post stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the Indian

title has been extinguished by Gifts or grants to the French or

English Governments; and a piece of land on the main, to the

north of the Island, to measure six miles on Lake Huron, or the

Streight between Lake Huron and Michigan, and to extend three

miles back from the water of the Lake or Streight; and, also the

Island de Bois Blanc, being an extra and Voluntary gift of the

3 Vol. XI --2

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Chippewa Nation. 14. One piece of land six miles square, at

the mouth of the Chikago River, emptying into the South West

end of Lake Michigan where a Fort formerly stood. 15. One

piece twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the Illinois

River, emptying into the Mississippi. 16. One piece six miles

square, at the old Piorias fort and Village, near the South end

of the Illinois Lake, on said Illinois River. And whenever the

United States shall think proper to survey and mark the boun-

daries of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give

timely notice thereof to the said Tribes of Indians, that they may

appoint some of their wise chiefs, to attend and see that the lines

are run according to the terms of this treaty.

"And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the

United States, a free passage by land and by Water, as one and

the other shall be found convenient thro their Country, along

the chain of Posts herein before mentioned; that is to say, from

the commencement of the portage aforesaid, at or near Loramie's

store, thence along said portage to the St. Mary's, and down the

same to Fort Wayne, and then down the Miami to Lake Erie-

again, from the commencement of the portage at or near Lora-

mie's store, along the portage from thence to the river Au Glaize,

and down the same to its junction with the Miami at Fort Defi-

ance; again, from the commencement of the portage aforesaid,

to Sandusky River, and down the same to Sandusky bay and

Lake Erie, and from Sandusky to the post which shall be taken

at or near the foot of the rapids of the Miami of the Lake; and

from thence to Detroit-again, from the mouth of the Chikago,

to the commencement of the portage, between that River and the

Illinois, and down the Illinois River to the Mississippi-also, from

Fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which leads to the

Wabash, and then down the Wabash to the Ohio-and the said

Indian tribes will, also, allow to the people of the United States,

the free use of the harbours and mouths of Rivers along the Lakes

adjoining the Indian lands, for sheltering Vessels and boats, and

liberty to land their cargoes where necessary for their Safety.

"ARTICLE 4TH. In consideration of the peace, now estab-

lished, and of the cessions and relinquishments of lands made in

the preceding article by the said tribes of Indians, and to manifest

The Treaty of Greenville

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the liberality of the United States, as the great means of render-

ing this peace strong and perpetual, the United States relinquish

their claims to all other Indian lands, Northward of the river

Ohio, eastward of the Mississippi, and westward and southward

of the Great Lakes, and the waters uniting them; according to the

boundary line agreed on by the United States and King of Great

Britain, in the treaty of peace, made between them in the Year

1783. But, from this relinquishment by the United States, the

following tracts of land are explicitly excepted. 1st. The Tract

of One hundred and fifty thousand acres, near the rapids of the

Ohio, which has been assigned to General Clark, for the use of

himself and his Warriors. 2d. The post of St. Vincennes, on the

river Wabash, and the lands adjacent, of which the Indian title

has been extinguished. 3rd. The lands at all other places in

possession of the French people, and other white Settlers among

them, of which the Indian title has been extinguished, as men-

tioned in the 3rd Article. And 4th, the Post of Fort Massac, to-

words the mouth of the Ohio. To which several parcels of lands,

so excepted, the said tribes relinquish all the title and Claim which

they or any of them may have.

"And for the same considerations, and with the same Views

as above mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said

Indian tribes, a quantity of goods, to the value of Twenty thou-

sand Dollars, the receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge;

and henceforth, every year, forever, the United States will deliver,

at some convenient place northward of the river Ohio, like use-

ful goods, suited to the circumstances of the Indians, of the value

of nine thousand five hundred dollars; reckoning that value at

the first cost of the Goods in the city or place, in the United States,

where they shall be procured. The tribes to which these goods

are to be annually delivered, and the proportions in which they

are to be delivered, are the following: 1st. To the Wyandots,

the amount of one thousand dollars. 2nd. To the Delawares,

the amount of one thousand dollars. 3rd. To the Shawanoes,

the amount of one thousand dollars. 4th. To the Miamis, the

amount of one thousand dollars. 5th. To the Ottawas, the

amount of one thousand dollars. 6th. To the Chippewas, the

amount of one thousand dollars.  7th. To the Putawatimes,,

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the amount of one thousand dollars. 8th. And to the Kicka-

poo, Weea, Eel River, Piankashaw, and Kaskaskias tribes, the

amount of five hundred dollars, each. Provided, that if either

of the said tribes shall, hereafter, at an annual delivery of their

share of the goods aforesaid, desire that a part of their annuity

should be furnished in domestic animals, implements of hus-

bandry, and other Utensils convenient for them, and in compen-

sation to useful artificers, who may reside with, or near them,

and be employed for their benefit, the same shall, at the subse-

quent annual deliveries, be furnished accordingly.

"ARTICLE 5TH. To prevent any misunderstanding about the

Indian lands relinquished by the United States in the fourth

article, it is now explicitly declared, that the meaning of that

relinquishment is this: The Indian tribes who have a right to

those lands, are to quietly enjoy them, hunting, planting and dwell-

ing thereon, so long as they please, without molestation from the

United States; but when those tribes, or any of them, shall be

disposed to sell their lands, or any part of them, they are to

be sold only to the United States; and until such sale, the United

States will protect all the said Indian tribes in the quiet enjoy-

ment of their lands, against all Citizens of the United States, and

against all other white persons who intrude upon the same. And

the said Indian tribes, again acknowledge themselves to be under

the protection of the Said United States, and no other power


"ARTICLE 6TH. If any Citizen of the United States, or any

other white person or persons, shall presume to settle upon the

lands, now relinquished by the United States, such citizen or

other person shall be out of the protection of the United States;

and the Indian tribe, on whose land the Settlement shall be made,

may drive off the Settler, or punish him in such manner as they

shall think fit; and because such settlements, made without the

consent of the United States, will be injurious to them, as well

as to the Indians; the United States shall be at liberty to break

them up, and remove and punish the settlers as they shall think

proper, and so effect that protection of the Indian lands here-

inbefore stipulated.

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"ARTICLE 7TH. The said tribes of Indians, parties to this

Treaty, shall be at liberty to hunt within the territory and lands

which they have now ceded to the United States, without hind-

rance or molestation, so long as they demean themselves peace-

ably, and offer no injury to the people of the United States.

"ARTICLE 8TH. Trade shall be opened with the said Indian

tribes; and they do hereby respectively engage to afford protec-

tion to such persons, with their property, as shall be duly licensed

to reside among them, for the purpose of trade, and to their

Agents and Servants; but no person shall be permitted to reside

at any of their towns or hunting camps, as a trader, who is not

furnished with a license for that purpose, under the hand and

seal of the superintendent of the Department northwest of the

Ohio, or such other person as the President of the United.States

shall authorize to grant such licenses, to the end that the said In-

dians may not be imposed on in their trade. And, if any licensed

trader shall abuse his privilege by unfair dealing, upon complaint

and proof thereof, his license shall be taken from him, and he

shall be further punished according to the laws of the United

States. And if any person shall intrude himself as a trader, with-

out such license, the said Indians shall take and bring him before

the superintendent, or his deputy, to be dealt with according to

law; and, to prevent impositions by forged licenses, the said In-

dians shall at least once a year, give information to the superin-

tendent, or his deputies, of the names of the traders residing

among them.

"ARTICLE 9TH. Lest the firm peace and friendship now

established should be interrupted by the misconduct of individu-

als, the United States and the said Indian tribes agree that for

injuries done by individuals, on either side, no private revenge

or retaliation shall take place; but, instead thereof, complaint

shall be made by the party injured, to the other, by the said

Indian tribes, or any of them, to the President of the United

States, or the Superintendent by him appointed; and by the

Superintendent or other person appointed by the President,

to the principle chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or of the tribe to

which the offender belongs, and such prudent measures shall then

be pursued, as shall be necessary to prserve the said peace and

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friendship unbroken, until the Legislature (or Great Council) of

the United States shall make other equitable provision in the case,

to the satisfaction of both parties-should any Indian tribes

meditate a War against the United States, or either of them and

the same shall come to the knowledge of the before mentioned

tribes or either of them they do hereby engage to give immediate

notice thereof to the General or Officer commanding the troops

of the United States, at the nearest post. And should any tribe,

with hostile intentions against the United States, or either of

them, attempt to pass through their country, they will endeavor to

prevent the same, and in like manner give information of such

attempt, to the general, of officer commanding, as soon as pis-

sible, that all causes of Mistrust and Suspicion may be avoided

between them and the United States. In like manner, the United

States shall give notice to the said Indian tribes of any harm

that may be meditated against them, or either of them, that shall

come to their knowledge, and do all in their power to hinder and

prevent the same, that the Friendship between them may be Un-


"ARTICLE 1OTH. All other Treaties heretofore made between

the United States and the said Indian tribes, or any of them,

since the treaty of 1783, between the United States and Great

Britain, that come within the purview of this treaty, shall hence-

forth cease, and become Void.

"In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the

Sachems and War Chiefs of the before mentioned nations and

tribes of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and affixed their


"Done at Greene Ville, in the Territory of the United States

northwest of the River Ohio, on the third day of August, one

thousand seven hundred and ninety-five.

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Now KNOW YE, That I having seen and considered the said

Treaty do by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of

the United States, accept, ratify, and confirm the same and every

article and clause thereof. In testimony whereof I have caused

the seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed and signed

the same with my hand. Given at the city of Philadelphia the

twenty-second day of December in the year of our Lord One

thousand seven hundred and ninety-five and in the twentieth year

of the sovereignty and independence of the United States.