Ohio History Journal





[The celebration of the Centennial of the State has led to much dis-

cussion regarding the ethnological history of Ohio. As a contribution to

this subject, we present the address delivered by W. H. Hunter, of Chilli-

cothe, at a banquet given in Philadelphia several years ago by the Penn-

sylvania Scotch-Irish society, which has for its object the preservation of

historical data. - E. O. R.]

THE PRESIDENT AND GENTLEMEN: - While in attendance at

the Harrisburg session of the Scotch-Irish Society of America

last summer, I was thrilled by the eloquence of your honorable

Past President, Dr. McCook, who then delivered one of the most

impressive addresses I ever heard - beautiful in diction, eloquent

in presentation--his subject being "The Scotch-Irish Pioneer

Women."    Among the accomplishments of those noble women

described was the manufacture of mush and milk; or rather, I

should say, Pioneer Porridge, the piece de resistance on the table

of the fathers. His panegyric was so eloquent and his descrip-

tion of the process was so real one could close his eyes and hear

the mush splutter as it was stirred in the pot, could see the par-

ticles fly over the brim and smell the odor of burning meal as

the globules fell upon the fire. When I think back to the old

homestead in Eastern Ohio I run against the fact that I did not

like mush and milk any more than I loved the catechism, which

we had together at our house eight evenings in the week. I

recall it now as the one cloud over the sunshine of happy boyhood

days; but Dr. McCook's eloquence made such an impression on

me that all my early repugnance for mush and milk has left me;

I have never been so fortunate as to hear him on the catechism.

Through the kindness of my good friend, Colonel McIlhenney,

I am here to enjoy with you the food of our ancestors. I prom-

ised him when he gave me the opportunity to break mush and

milk with the Society, I would endeavor to partly pay my way

with a story of the influence of the Scotch-Irish of Pennsylvania


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in Ohio. Just as I was about to plunge into a mass of data in

preparation of an elaborate address, he wrote me that I must

keep in mind that this being a Scotch-Irish gathering, it would

a gabfest; that there would be a good many folks waiting to make

speeches, and that no one would be allowed to say all that was in

his mind. However, I feel that I should make my contribution

to this interesting subject and if I weary you pull my coat tail.

My great grandfathers having been among the early settlers of

the western part of the state and the founders of Old Unity, the

first Presbyterian church west of the mountains, and one of them

in the disastrous Lochry expedition during the Revolutionary

War, I feel strongly moved to the task. My sainted mother also

was reared to young womanhood in this city and it was through

her influence that Bishop Simpson, when a young man in Ohio,

was induced to adopt the ministry as his calling - the eloquent

bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church who made Philadelphia

his seat and whose erudition, whose fertile genius, wonderful per-

ception, and pushing enterprise gave his church much of its

power in America.

When John Randolph said that Pennsylvania had produced

but two great men - Benjamin Franklin, of Massachusetts, and

Albert Gallatin, of Switzerland - he possibly did not know that

the best blood of his own State was that of the Scotch-Irish

people who went down from Pennsylvania and settled in the

Valley. He likely did not know that the great and good Dr.

Archibald Alexander, the founder of Liberty Hall, now Washing-

ton and Lee University (so much loved by Washington), the very

seat of culture and power of the Shenandoah and James, the

greatest factor of the State's prowess, was a Pennsylvanian. He

possibly did not know that Dr. Graham, the first president of this

institution, was from Old Paxtang; that many of the families

whose names are in the pantheon of Old Dominion achievement,

the families that give Virginia her prominence in the sisterhood

of States, had their American origin in Pennsylvania- in the

Scotch-Irish reservoir of the Cumberland Valley - the McDow-

ells, the Pattersons, the McCormacks, Ewings, McCorcles, Pres-

tons, McCunes, Craigs, McColloughs, Simpsons, Stewarts, Mof-

fats, Irwins, Hunters, Blairs, Elders, Grahams, Finleys, Trim-

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.        289


bles, Rankins, and hundreds of others, whose achievements mark

the pathway of the world's progress. John Randolph possibly

did not know that the first Declaration of Independence by the

American patriots was issued by the members of Hanover Church

out there in Dauphin county, when on June 4th, 1774, they de-

clared "that in the event of Great Britain attempting to force

unjust laws upon us by the strength of arms, our cause we leave

to heaven and our rifles." This declaration was certainly carried

to Mecklenburg to give the sturdy people of that region inspira-

tion for the strong document issued by them a year later, and

which gave Jefferson a basis for the Declaration of 1776. There

was much moving from Pennsylvania into Virginia and North

Carolina before the Revolution, and Hanover Presbytery in the

Valley was largely made up of people from Pennsylvania, whose

petition of ten thousand names for a free church in a free land,

made in 1785, was the force back of Jefferson's bill for religious

tolerance, a triumph for freedom that has always been considered

a Presbyterian victory by the Scotch-Irish of America.

To him who has the inclination and the time for the task,

there can be no more interesting and instructive study than to

follow the trail of the Scotch-Irish from Pennsylvania to Ohio

through Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky; and had John Ran-

dolph taken up this task he would have found men of Pennsyl-

vania blood, who, in scholarship, in statesmanship, in patriotism,

in genius, in skill at arms, were as great as the two who occurred

to his mind when he was sneering at the position of the great


We know that Dr. Sankey of Hanover Church was a minis-

ter in Hanover Presbytery, and that he was followed into Vir-

ginia by large numbers of the Hanover congregation, who kept

up a constant stream into the Valley. By the way, two settle-

ments were made by this congregation in Ohio. Col. Rogers,

Gov. Bushnell's secretary, derives his descent from them. The

population of North Carolina at the outbreak of the Revolution

was largely made up of Scotch-Irish immigrants from Pennsyl-

vania and the Virginia Valley who had a public school system

before the war. These were the people who stood with the Rev.

David Caldwell on the banks of the Alamance May 16th, 1771,

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and received the first volley of shot fired in the contest for inde-

pendence. This same blood coursed the veins of the patriot

army with Lewis at Point Pleasant, the first battle of the Revolu-

tionary War, fought October 11, 1774, Lord Dunmore having no

doubt planned the attack by the Indians to discourage the Amer-

icans from further agitation of the then pending demand for fair

treatment of the American Colonies at the hands of Great Brit-

ain. It was this blood that coursed the veins of those courageous

people who, having survived the Kerr's creek massacre, were

carried to a Shawnese village in Ohio, and on being bantered

to sing by the Indians in their cruel sport, sang Rouse's version

of one of the Psalms. "Unappalled by the bloody scene," says

the Augusta historian, "through which they had already passed,

and the fearful tortures awaiting them, within the dark wilderness

of forest, when all hope of rescue seemed forbidden; undaunted

by the fiendish revelings of their savage captors, they sang aloud

with the most pious fervor-

"On Babel's stream we sat and wept when Zion we thought on,

In midst thereof we hanged our harps the willow trees among,

For then a song required they who did us captive bring,

Our spoilers called for mirth and said, a song of Zion sing."

It was this blood that fought the battle of King's Mountain,

which victory gave the patriots the courage that is always in

hope; it was the winning force at Cowpens, at Guilford, where

Rev. Samuel Houston discharged his rifle fourteen times, once

for each ten minutes of the battle. These brave hearts were in

every battle of the Revolution, from Point Pleasant in 1774 to the

victory of Wayne at the Maumee Rapids twenty years later, for

the War of Independence continued in the Ohio country after the

treaty of peace. And yet, after all this awful struggle to gain

and hold for America the very heart of the Republic, one of the

gentlemen referred to by Mr. Randolph wrote pamphlets in which

he derided as murderers the courageous settlers of our blood on

the occasions they felt it necessary to "remove" Indians with their

long rifles. After all the struggle, he too would have made an

arrangement with England by which the Ohio river would have

been the boundary line.

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Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.        291


There were giants along that trail-physical and mental

giants. The pioneer fathers were men of force and enterprise,

and it is to these characteristics that we are indebted for the

results that came to us as a heritage. They were not cradled in

the lap of luxury, hence a physical prowess that was never bent

by enervation; a sterling quality of mind that was ever alert, made

keen by the exigencies met on every hand. They were broadened

in mental scope and disciplined in habits of action and thought

by the responsibilities of home making, not only for themselves

but an empire of homes for posterity. Their traits of manhood

were of the highest order of God's creation. They were without

physical fear. They had no fear save that of God, for religion

was their strongest impulse. They were self-reliant, having won-

derful perception and continuity of purpose withal, the distin-

guishing traits that mark their descendants, who are ever in the

forerank of the army whose triumph is the advancement of the

world's civilization.

Did it ever occur to you, Mr. President and gentlemen, that

the brave men of the South who met death in the awful Bloody

Angle at Gettysburg died almost within sight of the graves of

their ancestors in the church yards of the Valley? Only recently

I was shown by Dr. Egle in Old Paxtang Cemetery the stone

that marks the last earthly resting place of the forebears of

Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, whose cavalry was largely composed of

descendants of others whose dust lies in the Pennsylvania church

yards. The men with Pickett from Virginia, from North Car-

olina, from Tennessee and Kentucky, in that stubborn charge

across the open plain and up the mountain displayed the physical

courage of their Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish ancestors, who never

faltered on the field of carnage.

I spoke of Rev. Mr. Sanky, who went from Hanover Church

into Hanover Presbytery in the Virginia Valley in 1760. He

taught and preached, and the boys of his congregation after

going through his blessed hands were sent to Liberty Hall and

from there into the West and South in after years, where they

founded the families that give character to many states, filling

the highest stations of usefulness and fame. The prominent

families of Tennessee, Kentucky and of Ohio had their origin

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in the Scotch-Irish reservoirs of the Cumberland and Virginia

Valleys. The father of Ephraim McDowell went from Penn-

sylvania to Virginia and peopled Burden's grant with Scotch-

Irish from Pennsylvania. Dr. McDowell was the greatest of

the pioneer surgeons, being the first surgeon in the world to

undertake ovariotomy, which successful operation distinguished

him in Europe as in America. Many of the trustees of Liberty

Hall were from Pennsylvania, including Rev. Carrick, Samuel

Houston, and James Mitchell. President Junkins of Washing-

ton and Lee was also a Pennsylvanian, having established schools

in this state before going into Virginia; and he followed the

trail of the fathers into Ohio, where for years he was president

of the Miami University, which has given to Ohio many of its

brightest minds. He wrote a pamphlet in defense of slavery

which John C. Calhoun, whose father went to North Carolina

from Pennsylvania, characterized as the ablest defense of the

institution he had ever read. George Rogers Clark, who won

the Northwest Territory and gave to the Republic the five states

of Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana and Michigan, drew from

the Valley the men with the fortitude arid endurance, bravery

and patriotism, all men of Scotch-Irish Pennsylvania blood, to

undertake and carry to success the complete conquest of the

Northwest. George Rogers Clark may well be called the Han-

nibal of the West. President Thompson told us to-night that

Anthony Wayne is neglected by the historian. George Rogers

Clark, too, is neglected. While every schoolboy knows of

Wayne's achievements, not one in a hundred ever heard of

George Rogers Clark. This being true in Ohio what must be

the knowledge of Clark in Massachusetts!

I have thus, in this rambling way, tried to establish that

the Virginia Scotch-Irish were from Pennsylvania, with a view

to impressing the fact that the Scotch-Irish who were among

the first settlers of Ohio were of Pennsylvania blood, no matter

whether they came into the state from  the South or directly

through the gateway to the boundless West at the meeting of

the rivers. The establishment of this claim is more important

than many appreciate. There are Virginia Scotch-Irish in a

certain part of Ohio who lay great store in the belief that be-

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.         293

cause their forefathers came from Virginia they descended from

the Cavaliers.

The Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish came into Ohio in parts of

congregations and in families, many of them previous to Wayne's

treaty with the Indians at Greenville in 1795, up to which time

no progress had been made by the settlers. No one was safe

from the outrages of the Indians, incited as they were to the

most diabolical deeds by the British, who continued the war in

the Ohio country through their savage allies with hope of forc-

ing the settlers to give up all attempts to hold the territory

won by Clark, and thus rid the country of the sturdy men,

already discouraged in the fact that it seemed almost impossible

to erect a home in peace. The British inflamed the Indians

with liquor and furnished them with arms with the hope that

the continued outrages of the savages would force final aban-

donment of the Republic's claim to the treaty boundary. It

was well that the pioneers were characterized by unyielding

firmness, for the East, not having proper appreciation of the

importance of the boundary or else being jealous of the power

that might be divided by increase of territory, was willing to

give up the contest for the Clark claim; but strong petitions

from the sturdy women whose children had been torn from

their breasts and murdered before their eyes by the savages,

brought the East to a realization of the awful condition of the

settlers. Then came Anthony Wayne, the historian tells us,

crashing through the forest like a behemoth. The achievement

of Clark and the victory of Wayne mark the two most notable

epochs in the annals of the West.

While it is true that the first settlement noted in the his-

tories was made by forty-eight Puritans at Marietta, in 1788,

there were Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish settlements previous to

that time, notably at the mouth of the Scioto river in 1785 by

four families from the Redstone Presbytery, while at the same

time there was a larger settlement at what is now called Mar-

tins Ferry, a few miles above Wheeling, where a government

had been organized with two justices in office. The father of

John McDonald, the famous Indian fighter, and companion of

Clark, Simon Kenton, Duncan McArthur and J. B. Finley, whose

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294       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


historical notes preserve the brave deeds of daring times, with

his stalwart sons from Northumberland county, settled on the

Mingo bottom previous to 1780. The great majority of the

Indian fighters who fought and suffered as no men in history

fought and suffered before, that the Ohio country might be made

a home of peace and plenty, were from Pennsylvania and of

the royal blood-Generals Wilkinson, Butler, Irvine, Findley,

Hickson, Finley, John and Thomas McDonald, the Lewises, the

McCulloughs, Col. Richard Johnson, who killed Tecumseh; Col.

Crawford, whose awful death at the stake fills one with horror

even to this day when the mind reverts to it; Col. Robert Pat-

terson, one of the founders of Cincinnati; Col. Williamson, of

Gnadenhutten fame; Samuel Brady, the Marion of the West;

and Andrew and Adam Poe, who killed the big Indian, and

Simon Girty-you all know without me telling you that Simon

Girty, the renegade, was contributed to Ohio by Pennsylvania,

likewise McGee and Elliot, all traitors. As wicked as Simon

Girty was, as hated as he was, because of his diabolical char-

acter, he did one good turn for the pioneer settlers of Ohio

-he saved the life of Simon Kenton when this life was needed,

which he could not have done had he not been with and of

the Indians; and if we are good Presbyterians we must believe

that he was a renegade for this very purpose. The Pennsyl-

vania Scotch-Irish Indian fighters were very much in evidence

in the Ohio country, and their daring exploits are the most

thrilling chapters in the history of the Northwest Territory.

They were men of iron frame, whose resolution never winced

at danger, and with the endurance to bear pain with the forti-

tude of stoics. These men were created, and no one who fol-

lows the trail of blood that is the pathway to their achieve-

ment, can believe otherwise, to found this great empire of the

Northwest. They have never been given the full measure of

honor due them, nor do those who enjoy the fruits of their

victories appreciate the sacrifices they made and the hardships

they endured. It is well that there were giants in those days.

There is a disposition among the people of the present

day to even cast the reproach of murder upon the brave hearts

whose every movement was constantly filled with apprehension

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.         295


of awful outrages by Indians.   General Williamson and his

Scotch-Irish soldiers from Pennsylvania have had their mem-

ories clouded by even those who should defend, or at least ex-

cuse, the massacre of the Moravian Indians at Gnadenhutten on

the Tuscarawas, and I take it as a privilege on this occasion

to declare, and this fact should be borne in mind, that the

British were wholly responsible for this massacre; in fact they

planned the scheme at Detroit. The hostile Indians who were

the allies of the British, had captured the missionaries having

in charge the Moravian Indians, and with the Christian In-

dians had taken them to Sandusky on a trumped-up charge.

The winter following was a very severe one, and provisions ran

short, and about one hundred of the Christian Indians were given

permission to return to the Tuscarawas river to gather corn left

standing in the field when they were taken away. At the same

time warriors were sent to murder the whites in the Ohio Val-

ley to incense the Americans against the Indians, the British

knowing they would organize and make cause against the Mo-

ravians on the Tuscarawas, and in doing so would be reproached

by the civilized world. These red warriors crossed the Ohio

about fifty miles below Fort Pitt, and committed all sorts of

awful depredations, among them the murder of Mrs. Wallace

and her babe. Col. Williamson and his men marched to the

Moravian village, and finding the Indians there and in posses-

sion of Mrs. Wallace's bloody garments, naturally supposed that

the Christian Indians were at least in part responsible for her

death, just as the British at Detroit had anticipated. There has

been much written about Colonel Williamson, "the murderer of

Christian Indians," just as there has been much written against

the Paxtang boys in Pennsylvania; but those who would cloud

the memories of Colonel Williamson and the Paxtang boys do

not appreciate the conditions then obtaining. The pioneer to

whom we owe everything is entitled to every doubt. He knew

the treacherous nature of the Indians as well as the diabolical

character of the British who carried on the warfare in the West,

and it was natural to suspect every Indian and trust none,

Christian or otherwise; the British were of a Christian nation,

so called, and they could not be trusted. Why should a savage

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under the British flag be trusted simply because he professed

Christianity? As matters turned out, the massacre of those

Christian Indians was a great wrong, but I do not call it a

crime except as I charge it against the British. Rather than

blacken the memory of those pioneer soldiers with the charge of

murder, I would erect a monument on every hill and in every

valley where they shed their blood. On these occasions when

we celebrate the wonderful achievements of the fathers we

should rejoice in the fact that they were men of stern stuff.

They were wonderful men, the like of whom we shall never see

more. There was no emotional sentiment manifested by them

when an Indian's head was seen peeping from behind a tree.

They "left their cause with heaven" and kept their powder dry.

They were cool, deliberate Presbyterians.

The Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish and not the Puritans from

New England were and are now the great factors in the pro-

gress of Ohio; I care not from what point we view progress,

whether religious, educational, industrial or commercial, I make

the claim for the Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish, after the most

careful search possible, using the various county histories for

data. Pennsylvania gave to Ohio no less than a dozen Gover-

nors, ten of them Scotch-Irish. Ten of our counties were named

for Pennsylvania Scotch-Irishmen, and they are abiding monu-

ments to some of the bravest men of pioneer days-Wayne,

Logan, Ross, Mercer, Darke, Crawford, Butler, Fulton, Allen,

and Morrow. Pennsylvania gave to Ohio its ablest statesmen,

its most eloquent orators, its ablest jurists, its most noted edu-

cators, and a look through the directories of many of the coun-

ties allows me to say that the great majority of the officers of

the financial institutions and those who manage the great in-

dustrial and commercial enterprises are of this blood and either

from Pennsylvania or are descendants of the pioneers from

your state.

The Presbyterians as well as other ministers came to Ohio

from Pennsylvania; and I should mention here that in my re-

search I find that in most countries the first church erected was

of the Presbyterian communion. This alone gives a strong sug-

gestion as to the influence of the Scotch-Irish in Ohio. Had

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.       297


the Puritans been the great factor in the settlement of the state

the first churches would have been of another communion-

the Puritans burned the first Presbyterian church built in Mas-

sachusetts. In the city, where I lived for twenty-five years,

founded by your Senator Ross, six of the seven Presbyterian

ministers are natives of Pennsylvania, and the seventh a de-

scendant of a Pennsylvanian. John Rankin, whose ancestors

settled in Pennsylvania one hundred and sixty years ago, and

whose father was a soldier of the Revolution, came to Ohio

through Virginia, Tennessee and Kentucky, founded the Free

Presbyterian church, and was one of the finest specimens of

physical manhood that ever blessed the earth. He came to Ohio

after the Virginia ordinance of cession was adopted, to get away

from the environments of slavery, as did also Francis McCor-

mack, the founder of one of the first Methodist churches in the

Territory. It was from this stock that the abolition sentiment

got its spirit, its abiding force. While the handful of Puri-

tans who settled Marietta have been given the credit in history,

the truth is, the Scotch-Irish from the Virginia Valley gave the

abolition movement its men of steadfastness of purpose--men

who never gave up the fight until the victory was won. Pres-

ident Ruffner, of Washington and Lee university, wrote one of

the first pamphlets issued advocating abolition of slavery. It

was John Rankin's home that gave succor to George Harris,

made famous by Mrs. Stowe, and it was John Rankin who or-

ganized the underground railroad by which many slaves escaped

to Canada and to liberty. As I have said, Bishop Simpson was

of the same blood; so was that other powerful Methodist

divine, Dr. William Hunter, whose sweet songs of praise are

in nearly all the church hymnals. So was Alexander Campbell,

the founder of the Disciples church, which has exerted vast in-

fluence in the Ohio country, and of which communion Pres-

ident Garfield was a distinguished member. The college founded

by Dr. Campbell is a West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania in-

stitution, so near the lines that all can enjoy its influence, as

all three states enjoy the influence of Washington and Jeffer-

son. Alexander Clark, the most noted minister of the Metho-

dist Protestant church, the founder of the first magazine for chil-

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dren, The Schoolday Visitor, which afterwards became The St.

Nicholas; for years editor of the Methodist Recorder at Pitts-

burg, the author of books that are a part of the nation's most

interesting and instructive literature, was of the same virile

strain.  The Scotch-Irish ministers of the Gospel are not all

Presbyterian, but very few Presbyterian ministers are of other

breeds. I must not neglect to mention here Rev. Joseph Hughes,

who was born in Washington county, and in 181O established

the first Presbyterian church in Delaware county, Ohio. He

was not a characteristic Presbyterian minister, although some

folks would say he had many of the traits that distinguish our

blood. He would pitch quoits for the grog, play the fiddle for

the dance, and preach as long a sermon as any minister in the

Presbytery, and when brought before the church court he made

such an able defense that he was permitted to go on with his

long sermons, quoit pitching, grog and fiddling.

The first church built in Cincinnati, the metropolis of the

State, founded by men of the strong force of character of

Colonel Patterson, who was with Clark, and given its name

by General St. Clair, whose remains lie out there in the Greens-

burg Cemetery, was of this communion, and on the subscription

list I find the names of Dr. Allison, surgeon of General St. Clair's

and General Wayne's armies, Captains Ford, Elliott, and Peters,

and General Wilkinson, the roll being dated 1792. Among the

first settlers of Cincinnati was John Filson, a pioneer school

teacher, who was born in the Cumberland Valley. He wrote the

first history of the Western country, which was published as

early as 1784. He also published a history of Kentucky and

made a map of that State, being among the first surveyors to

venture among the Indians, and he met death at their hands near


The Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish looked upon education as the

strongest factor that moved the world along the way of progress,

and the school house was one of the first buildings erected in a

settlement. The Scotch-Irish schoolmaster was ever abroad in

the land. The annals of Ohio are filled with incidents of the

pioneer schoolmaster, who always had a standing in the com-

munity next to that of the minister himself, who was always held

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.        299


in the highest reverence. The father of Dr. Jeffers, of the West-

ern Theological Seminary, was one of the early itinerant school

teachers in Eastern Ohio. His eccentricity of pronunciation in-

variably stumped the pupil, for he would not know whether the

word given out to be spelled was "beet" or "bait," whether "floor"

or "fleur," but Jeffers would explain that "bait" was a "red root,"

and "fleur" was a "boord" to walk on; and through the influence

of the good man's erudition and hickory gad, the sons and daugh-

ters of the settlers waxed strong in knowledge. Dr. John Mc-

Millen founded several colleges in Ohio, one of them, Franklin,

in Harrison county, settled by Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish, which

is still a flourishing institution, and in its years of usefulness gave

to America many statesmen and jurists, among them men of

Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish blood, your Senator Cowan, John A.

Bingham, Judges Welch and Lawrence, while hundreds of Pres-

byterian ministers have been taught within its walls, among them

Dr. J. H. Sharp, of your city. Athens county, in which the State

University is located, the first college in the State, was settled

by our people, and Thomas Ewing and John Hunter were the

first graduates, being the first collegiate alumni in the West.

Thomas Ewing was one of the greatest statesmen Ohio ever pro-

duced - strong, sincere, intellectual to the highest degree. It

was in his family that the Shermans were reared. Of the Athens

University W. H. McGuffy, the noted author of school books

still widely in use in the public schools, was the president for

years. He was also a professor in the Miami University, another

Scotch-Irish college, and of the Virginia University. He was

born in Pennsylvania in 1800; a man whose sterling qualities of

mind and heart marked him as a teacher of power and influence.

Joseph Ray, the author of mathematical works, as an educator

displayed a scope of mind force that was an honor to his race.

Rev. George Buchanan, in whose academy the great War Sec-

retary, Edwin M. Stonton, received his classical education, was

born in the "Barrens," so prolific of men prominent in the affairs

of the Republic. Col. John Johnson, one of the founders of

Kenyon College, one of the most noted of the Protestant Epis-

copal institutions of learning in the land, was reared in Penn-


8 Vol. XII-3

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300       Ohio Arch. and His. Society Publications.


sylvania. He was the first president of the Ohio Historical and

Philosophical Society, and the author of the "Indian Tribes of

Ohio," a standard work published by the United States Govern-

ment. He possessed those intellectual qualities to which all pay

homage, and his influence had a wide scope of power. The

father of Professor Sloane, of Columbia, was a Pennsylvania

Scotch-Irishman who taught in a Scotch-Irish academy in Jeff-

erson county--Professor Sloane is the author of the ablest

"Life of Napoleon" ever written. Dr. C. C. Beatty, whose muni-

ficent gift made possible the union of Washington and Jefferson

Colleges, founded at Steubenville, Ohio, the first distinctive sem-

inary for the higher education of women west of the mountains,

which institution was conducted for many years by Dr. A. M.

Reid, a native of Beaver county, and to-day a trustee of the

Western Theological Seminary and of Washington and Jeffer-

son. Dr. Reid's trained mind and scope for usefulness have not

been without influence in Ohio; his influence has been much

wider. The noble women who have gone out from the sacred

precincts of the old seminary are in every missionary field, home

and foreign. This institution is still being conducted by a Penn-

sylvanian, Miss Stewart, whose Scotch-Irish blood gives assur-

ance that the power of the school will continue a factor of pro-

gress. Francis Glass, of Londonderry stock, came from Penn-

sylvania to Ohio in 1817, and taught one of the first classical

schools. His building was a primitive one, a log college to be

sure - clapboard roof, windows of oiled paper, benches of hewn

timber; but notwithstanding all this lack of conveniences, like

the Tennants of sacred memory, he sent out into the world boys

well equipped for contests in the intellectual arena. He had forty

pupils in the backwoods settlement, and whenever an additional

pupil "knocked at his door for admission to his classes, he would

be so rejoiced that his whole soul appeared to beam from his

countenance," writes a former pupil. Such was the intense in-

terest in the work, such the benevolence of the Scotch-Irish

schoolmaster of the pioneer days, to whom our fathers owe so

much and to whom we owe more. Glass published a two hun-

dred and twenty-three page "Life of Washington" in Latin, and

that such a work in Latin should have been written in the back-

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.         301


woods by a schoolmaster was for years a marvel to those who

did not know of the scholastic attainments of the Scotch-Irish

boys even of pioneer days. Rev. J. B. Finley, the Indian fighter

and itinerant Methodist preacher, was an educated man, although

we often hear stated in derision of the Methodist Church that

her early ministers were illiterate. He studied Greek and Latin

in his father's academies in North Carolina and Kentucky, estab-

lished on his trail from Pennsylvania to Ohio. When his father's

congregation settled Chillicothe, the first capital of the State, he

was a Presbyterian and a member of his father's church, but he

"became converted" and was for years the most noted itinerant

preacher of the country, and exerted more influence for good in

the Ohio region than any other man in the State. He preached

in every county and organized churches everywhere. He founded

the Indian schools and mission at Wyandott, the site of which

institution is marked by a memorial church erected by the Meth-

odist Episcopal Conference on ground given for the purpose by

the United States Government. His autobiography is a record of

pioneer times, and to its pages the historian must turn for data of

the achievement of the early settlers. John Stewart was the first

to preach the gospel-bearing tidings of peace and goodwill to the

Wyandotts. Allen Trimble, Acting Governor one term and Gov-

ernor two terms, while Acting Governor appointed the commis-

sion, a majority of whose members were of Pennsylvania stock,

including Judge William Johnson, that formulated the public

school system that is the brightest star in our diadem, which sys-

tem was afterwards perfected by Samuel Galloway, born at Get-

tysburg of Revolutionary stock, a teacher, jurist, statesman, upon

whose advice and opinion Lincoln set high value. The Trimbles

came to Ohio from Augusta county, Virginia, Allen having been

carried in his mother's arms while she rode horseback through the

trackless forest. There is a tradition in the family that the farm

occupied by them in the Virginia Valley was shown their ancestor

by an Indian in return for a favor shown him in the woods of

Pennsylvania. Gen. O. M. Mitchell, teacher, astronomer, sol-

dier, was of the Virginia-Kentucky stock which I have shown

had its origin in Pennsylvania. We could rest our honors on

his achievement and still be sure of an abiding place in the mem-

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ory of those who instruct the youth of the land. While Mitchell

explored the heavens, Jeremiah Reynolds explored the earth be-

neath, his expedition to the South Pole being one of the notable

events of the early days. John Cleves Symmes, nephew of the

founder of the first settlement of the Miami Valley, a New Jersey

Scotchman, promulgated the theory of concentric spheres, hold-

ing that the earth is hollow, inhabitable within and widely

open at the poles. Reynolds undertook the expedition with a

view of proving the Symmes theory. Adams' administration

fitted out a ship for the expedition, but Jackson coming in as

President, Government aid was withheld; but Reynolds, un-

daunted by this turn of affairs, started on a private expedition,

reaching within eight degrees of the pole. Mordecai Bartley, a

native of Fayette county, who succeeded his son as Governor of

Ohio, and who represented Ohio for three terms in Congress,

was the first man to propose the conversion of land grants into

a permanent school fund. The father of C. L. Vallandingham,

whose fight for freedom of speech is a part of the nation's his-

tory, was a Washington county Scotch-Irish Huguenot and a

Presbyterian preacher, to whose classical academy we are largely

indebted for the foundation of the scholarship of the justly cel-

ebrated McCook family also of Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish blood.

Inasmuch as the greatest measure of influence is exerted in a

community through efforts along educational lines, I have spoken

at length on this point of my subject. And there is much more

that might be recorded here to show the high place held by

Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish in the educational history of Ohio.

I might omit all I have said and be able to record other achieve-

ments along educational lines and still show that our blood stands

out in bolder relief than the Puritan as a factor of education

in Ohio; yet the Puritan is given the credit for the moral and

material progress of our people, and all because forty-eight Pur-

itans settled at Marietta and made so much fuss about it that

the advertising done then is still alive. But the town did not

grow in a hundred years after the settlement in 1788, and then

took a spurt as result of the discovery of oil by Pennsylvania


Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.       303


The Pennsylvanian has served Ohio in both branches of

Congress, the first territorial delegate being William McMil-

len, and the first State Representative Jeremiah Morrow; the

first Governor was Arthur St. Clair, the first Judge Jeremiah

Dunlavy. The Pennsylvania Scotch-Irishman has been on the

Supreme Bench; he has gone from Ohio to the President's

Cabinet. It is said that in 1817 a majority of the Lower House

of the State Legislature were natives of Washington county, and

I believe it, for my investigations have disclosed the fact that

the Pennsylvanian is apt to hold office, especially if he gets

into Ohio from Washington county and he also be a Scotch-

Irishmen. As late as 1846 one-fourth of the members of the Slate

Legislature were from Pennsylvania. We all know that one

of the warmest gubernatorial contests in the state's history was

when Governor Vance and Governor Shannon were pitted against

each other in 1836, one a native of Washington county and

the other's father from that county. Vance's father was the

first settler of Champaign county and Shannon's father one of

the first settlers of Belmont, the son being the first native of

Ohio to hold the office of Governor. Vance and Shannon held

the office two terms each. I think I am safe in making the

claim that one or more Pennsylvania Scotch-Irishmen are now

holding office in each courthouse in Ohio. The two greatest law-

yers of the pioneer west were Judge Jacob Burnett and Judge

John McLean, who were born just over the river here, and

near enough to be counted in the family. Their influence had

a wide scope and it still goes on. The wife of McLean was

a daughter of Charlotte Chambers, one of the foremost women

of the Cumberland Valley. President Harrison was born in

Ohio, but his mother was a Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish woman.

Vice President Hendricks, although credited to Indiana, was a

native of Ohio, but his people were of Westmoreland Scotch-

Irish stock, and he was a cousin of my father. President Mc-

Kinley was of Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish blood; so is Senator

Hanna, his Warwick.

Governor Jeremiah Morrow was a native of Gettysburg,

and without doubt impressed himself on the progress of Ohio

more than any other man holding office in the gift of the people.

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He was a characteristic Scotch-Irishman, mentally, physically

and religiously. He was the father of the national pike and

other internal improvements that gave Ohio her first impetus in

industrial progress. He was Congressman, Senator, Governor,

and of him Henry Clay said, "His influence was greater than

that of any of his contemporaries, for his integrity was so fully

recognized and appreciated that every one had faith in any

measure he brought before Congress." A prominent Pennsyl-

vanian, a few years ago, in referring to a newspaper article I

had written on Governor Morrow, said that he was the finest

example of the statesman of the old school with whom he had

ever come in contact, noble, honest and brave. I have been

greatly gratified to meet in this assemblage to-night a relative of

Governor Morrow, Mr. T. Elliott Patterson, of your city, and I

want to say that he may well be proud of the blood that courses

his veins. Morrow's successor in the Senate in 1819 was Wil-

liam A. Trimble, of the same royal Pennsylvania blood.

It is a fact shown by the census that there are to-day more

natives of Pennsylvania in three-fourths of the Ohio counties

than natives of any other state, Ohio excepted, and in this list

I include counties on the western border as well as Washing-

ton county, the first county settled by the New England Puri-

tans; I include the Western Reserve, first settled by the Yankees

of Connecticut, which settlement was made thirty-three years

before a church was built, though a whisky distillery was in

operation all those years. This can never be said of the Scotch-

Irish settlers, no matter whence they came. Our forefathers

had their weakness for distilleries, too, but they always had

the church in operation before the distillery was built; yet

there are those who place great store in Mayflower blood and

sneer at us because our forefathers had a little trouble with

the revenue collector over in Washington county away back in

the last century. I admit that on occasions even to this day there

are Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish in Ohio who will take a drink of

mountain dew, but never without an excuse. One of them

said to me the other day that he had "the iron in his soul,"

and he took a little liquor to mix with it for a tonic.

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.        305


The claims made for the Puritan settlement at Marietta give

us an example of Puritan audacity; the New England settle-

ments on the Western Reserve give us examples of Yankee

ingenuity. In Connecticut he made nutmegs of wood; in Ohio

he makes maple molasses of glucose and hickory bark. In New

England the Puritan bored the Quaker tongue with red-hot

poker; in Ohio he dearly loves to roast Democrats. The Re-

serve was the home of crankisms. Joseph Smith started the

Mormon Church in Lake county. And there were others, some

of whom the Northern Ohio emigrant took with him to Kansas.

In the graveyard on the hill above Chillicothe lie the re-

mains of four Governors, two of them Pennsylvania Scotch-

Irishmen-one the noble William Allen, a strong man from every

point of view, whose every distinguishing trait was Scotch-Irish,

a very Jackson; but because his people went from Pennsylvania

into North Carolina they were said to be Quakers, which calls

to mind the fact that when I was a boy all Pennsylvanians were

either Quaker or Dutch. In several of the county histories I

also find the statement that the early settlers were "Quakers and

Germans from Pennsylvania," but in the list of settlers given

the "Macs" predominate. Achilles Pugh, the first publisher of

an abolition paper in Ohio, came from Pennsylvania and was

called a Quaker, but who ever heard of a Quaker giving that

name to his son? The other Scotch-Irish Governor buried in

the Chillicothe cemetery was Duncan McArthur, who, although

not a native of our State, was reared to manhood in the old Com-

monwealth, and became one of the most notable figures in Ohio

-soldier, surveyor, Indian fighter, statesman, Governor. Wil-

liam Allen's sister was the mother of Allen G. Thurman, the

noblest Roman of them all, and Allen's wife was a daughter

of McArthur.

In literature and journalism the Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish

have always held a prominent place in Ohio. Dr. McCook has

already told of the fact that Foster, the greatest American song

writer, lived in Ohio, and no one of his nobility of character and

intellectual attainments could go in and out among a people with-

out exerting influence. General Lytle, the author of

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"I am dying, Egypt, dying;

Crimson flows the ebbing tide,"

one of the most beautiful poems in the English language, was

the grandson of Gen. Lytle, born at Cumberland, Pa., whose

Spartan-like conduct at Grant's defeat in Indiana in the War

of 1812 is a part of history. James Buchanan Reed, the author

of "Sheridan's Ride," which has become an American classic,

was a Pennsylvania Scotch-Irishman. James McBride, the his-

torian and archaeologist, supplying much of the manuscript and

drawings for the "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Val-

ley," a very important work, was born at Newcastle.  He was

a careful historian, and to him we are greatly indebted for much

of the early history preserved in book form. In journalism

our blood has been pre-eminent in the Ohio field, the first paper

in the state having been launched by William Maxwell in 1793.

Colonel Miller, who is noted as the commander of the sortie

from Fort Meigs during the war of 1812, one of the most dar-

ing acts of that war, when he rushed out under fire and spiked

the British cannon with files and won the battle, was a jour-

nalist, having started a paper in Steubenville in 1806. Colonel

Miller came into Ohio by the way of the Virginia Valley. His

successor, James Wilson, the grandfather of President Woodrow

Wilson of Princeton, was a pupil of Duane, of The Aurora.

Samuel Medary, one of the most prominent Ohio editors, es-

pecially during the exciting war period, his journal, the Co-

lumbus Crisis, being a very strong advocate of peace, married

a daughter of James Wilson. M. Halstead's ancestors came to

Ohio from Pennsylvania, and our blood has every reason to be

proud of his achievements as an editor. The McLeans, who

for two generations have held the throttle of that great engine,

the Cincinnati Enquirer; S. G. McClure, of the Columbus Jour-

nal; and Morrow, late of the Cleveland Leader, all among the

foremost journals in America, are of the same stock.

The first woolen mills west of the mountains were estab-

lished just after the second war for Independence at Steubenville,

by your Senator James Ross, and it was in these mills that the

first broadcloth ever made in America was produced. James

Ross and his partner, Mr. Dickinson, whom I believe to have

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.         307


been of the same royal stock, introduced into America the Span-

ish sheep that were the foundation of the great wool-growing

industry of Eastern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania. John

Campbell invented the hot blast employed in iron furnaces, and

James Means erected the first iron furnace north of the Ohio.

The first furnace west of the mountains was erected by a Grant

near the Virginia-Pennsylvania-Ohio line, and the cannon balls

used by Perry in the battle of Lake Erie were made in this fur-

nace and carried on the backs of horses to the lake shore. And,

by the way, Perry's mother was Scotch-Irish and, for years after

fought, the battle of Lake Erie was called Mrs. Perry's victory

by the people of Rhode Island who appreciated her force of

character. It may not be amiss to say in this connection that some

of the men who gave the New Englanders basis for their claims

as to Ohio got their forceful characteristics from the Scotch-

Irish blood of their mothers, notably bluff Ben Wade - born in

Massachusetts, was educated by his mother, his father being with-

out means, and coming to Ohio, settled in the Western Reserve,

and ever since has been in the galaxy of Puritan greatness. Chief

Justice Chase was born in Vermont, his mother being Scotch, but

his achievements have been placed to the glorification of the Puri-

tan blood. Joshua Reid Giddings, who gave the Reserve its

greatest renown as the producer of great men, was a native of

Pennsylvania, his birthplace being Athens. I do not claim him

as a Scotch-Irishman, but he had all the distinguishing traits,

and his name will ever shine as one of the brightest stars in the

Buckeye diadem. If Pennsylvania had given birth to but one

man, and that man Joshua Reid Giddings, her place in the pan-

theon where we celebrate immortals would be assured. James

Geddes and Samuel Forrer, the pioneer engineers, who did much

to develop Ohio and give her her proper place in the progress of

nations, were natives of the Keystone state. The father of J. Q.

A. Ward, America's most noted sculptor, was a pioneer, coming

from the great commonwealth.

The most notable events that mark epochs in the history of

Ohio are monuments of Pennsylvania Scotch-Irishmen:    The

first settlement at the mouth of the Scioto; Wayne's treaty with

the Indians; adoption of the Constitution; the building of the first

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steamboat on the Ohio river by Fulton; the building of the

National pike and the canals; the formation of a public school

system; and, coming down to the present, the nomination and

election of a President by Mark Hanna. McKinley was a Scotch-

Irishman with the sign of the Keystone blown on his front; and

Mark Hanna - I made an effort to discover that he was a de-

scendant of Judge Hanna of Hanna's town, but was discouraged

by running against the fact that the old gentleman never had

a son. Pennsylvania may not be the mother of presidents, but

she holds a higher position in the sisterhood - she is the grand-

mother of the Ohio man. General Grant was born in Ohio, but

his mother was a Bucks county Simpson. And however strange

it may appear to us, Jefferson Davis was one of the same family

of Simpsons! The generals Ohio gave to command Federal

troops in the war of the Rebellion were largely of the royal fam-

ily. I have mentioned Grant, the greatest captain of the age; and

there is General Porter, his companion and commander of the

Ohio division; he was a native of the Juniata Valley, and has

been selected by the President to represent our country as ambas-

sador to France. There were the McDowells, the Gilmours, the

brilliant Steedman, the hero of Chicamauga -he was born in

Northumberland county; George W. Morgan, the hero of two

wars, was a Washington county product; and as further evidence

that blood will tell, I need only mention the fact that Major Daniel

and Dr. John McCook, the fathers of nine commissioned officers

in the army, were born in Washington county. And how appro-

priate it all was that Gen. George B. McClelland should be placed

in command of the Ohio troops! General Harmar, who procured

Grant's admission to West Point, was a Pennsylvanian, but I am

not certain as to his race. And John Randolph said that Penn-

sylvania produced but two great men, one from Massachusetts,

the other from Switzerland!

But I should not close without giving credit to the Palatinate

German for the introduction of the long rifle, which made possible

the settlement of Ohio by the Scotch-Irish of Pennsylvania.

The long rifle was brought to the interior of your state by

German immigrants; it was a true weapon, and with it the Indian

fighters became marksmen. When a pioneer went out with a

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio

Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio.        309


long rifle and a dozen charges he returned with that number of

game or the unused bullets. It was with this weapon that the

sharpshooters of the Revolutionary war were armed, and these

sharpshooters were largely Pennsylvania Scotch-Irish pioneers;

although without the German rifle they would have been ineffec-

tive. The rifle was not in use at tide-water; it was unknown in

New England. Had the brave men at Bunker Hill possessed these

weapons instead of muskets, it would not have been necessary

for them to await the sight of the whites of the British eyes.

Had it not been for the long rifle, Ohio never could have been


The authorities consulted are-

The Scotch-Irish in Augusta; Col. Boliver Christian's Notes;

Caldwell's History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties; Path-

finders of Jefferson County (Hunter's); J. B. Finley's Autobiog-

raphy; Dr. Morgan's Biography of Col. John McDonald; Dr.

Perry, Williams College; Dr. Alexander White's Presidents of

Washington and Lee; Howe's Historical Collections; Rev.

Thomas Robbins' Dairy; Hildreth's Pioneer History; Scotch-

Irish in America.