Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 141
vation of their historic sites, mounds, circles, squares, and the tokens
of a bygone civilization found therein.
To you, and to your keeping, we present this Tablet, and are happy
in so doing.
We realize that you, and the great State of Ohio, are leading in the
procession of progress. To you, the custodian of the glories of the past,
peoples, records, and their trophies of valor, we consign this Tablet, and
leave it under your protection, and that of "Old Glory." Once again in
behalf of the Cresap Clan, we thank you.
With like purpose words of appreciation in behalf of the
descendants of Captain Michael Cresap were tendered to the
State Society by Mr. Charles H. Lewis, who is a descendant of
the one in whose honor the tablet was erected. His closing words
"In this beautiful setting, now filled with peace and plenty,
unafraid we breathe the spirit of pioneer heroism. Here met civil-
ization and savage. Short the story-
Buried, -lost forever is the tomahawk;
Broken, and useless is the flintlock;
The voice of Logan is silenced."
In connection with this occasion Mr. Frank Tallmadge had
offered a money prize to the school pupils of Circleville for
the most meritorious essay on the historical plains of Pickaway
Township. The prize was awarded to Miss Arista Arledge.
The essay is here given in full:
Pickaway County is one of our most historical counties in Ohio.
It was formed January 12, 1810. The name is a misspelling of Piqua,
the name of a tribe of Shawnee Indians. We learn that most of our
formal Indian settlements were near the Scioto river in the Pickaway
The remarkable Pickaway Plains may be designated as the section
lying between the Scioto on the west, Salt Creek on the east, and extend-
ing north and south between lines which would run respectively east
and west through Circleville and Chillicothe. This rich bottom land, the
most fertile in Ohio, was the most favorite location of the prehistoric
Mound Builders, as well as the most historic field of the Ohio Indians.
Of the earliest inhabitants of the Ohio Valley, the Indians had
neither knowledge nor tradition. They belong to the prehistoric ages
and, -"These ages have no memory, but they left a record."
142 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
Ohio is rich in its records of a prehistoric people. The records are
the mounds raised, in some far off time by their hands. They are found
in various forms. Some of them represent animals. The most noted of
them is the famous Serpent Mound of Adams county. Some were for
purposes of defense and some for religious rites and burial. Whence the
builders came and whither they departed is an unsolved mystery. Some
conclude that they were a distinct race; others say they were the an-
cestors of the Indian race.
In the Pickaway Plains on Scippo Creek just north of where Congo
Creek empties into it, was Grenadier Squaw's town, a wigwam center
which was named from a Shawnee woman of great muscular strength,
who was the sister of one, who at that time was the ablest and most influ-
ential chief of his nation. This man was Keightughqua, signifying a
blade or stalk of the maize, hence the cornstalk, or chief support of the
people, was therefore known as Cornstalk to the people.
Cornstalk was born about 1720, in one of the Scioto towns of the
Shawnees and first appears in history as a leader in a Shawnee band
into the settlements of Virginia during and after the French and Indian
war and Pontiac's war. During his raids inhabitants were being mur-
dered and many were taken to the Shawnee towns on the banks of the
Scioto River. His capital, called Cornstalk's Town, was located on the
north bank of the Scippo Creek, a short distance from his sister's village,
Grenadier Squaw Town.
The Indians had five villages, named Chillicothe. 1-The Chillicothe
on the Great Miami, on the present site of Piqua; 2-Chillicothe, often
called "Old Chillicothe," located about three miles north of Xenia; 3-
Chillicothe also called "Old Chillicothe," on the west bank of the Scioto
River, at present ocation of the village of Westfall; 4-Chillicothe, now
called Hopetown, often designated as "Old Town," three miles north of
present Chillicothe; 5-Chillicothe now Frankfort, Ross county. These five
historic Chillicothes were Shawnee villages. The word Chillicothe, meaning
"the place where the people live" or "a village."
Black Mountain is a ridge located on the farm where D. E. Phillips
now resides. It is somewhat in the shape of an inverted boat, elevated
from one hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty feet above the
bottom of the prairie immediately in its vicinity, and commands from its
summit a full view of the high plains and the country around it to a
great extent. This elevated ridge answered the Indians some valuable
No enemy could approach in daytime, who could not from its sum-
mit be descried at a great distance and by repairing there the Red Man
could often have a choice of the game in view, and his sagacity seldom
failed him in the endeavors to approach it with success.
The burning ground in the suburbs of Grenadier Squaw's Town
was also situated on an elevated spot, which commands a full view of all
the other towns for a distance around, so that when a victim was at the
Unveiling of the Cresap Tablet. 143
stake and the flames ascending, all the inhabitants of the other towns
who could not be present, might, in a great measure, enjoy the scene by
sight and imagination. The burning ground at Old Chillicothe was some-
what similar, being in full view of the burning ground at Squaw's Town
and Black Mountain, and two or three other small towns in other places
of the plains.
In 1770, the first congress of the various tribes met at the Shawnee
In July, 1772, another congress was held at the Pickaway Plains at
which the confederacy was consummated, if indeed, it had not been fully
organized a year before. Thus on the banks of the Scioto were united
Shawnees, Delawares, Miamis, Ottawas, Wyandottes, Illinois and western
tribes. The Shawnees were the chief constituency of this union and
Cornstalk, their leader, was recognized as the head of the tribal alliances,
About six miles south of Circleville, the county seat of Pickaway
county, in an open field by the roadside, stands an ancient elm tree, whose
broad branches stretch over a wide space and whose sturdy trunk has
withstood the storms of two centuries. With each passing year it be-
comes more and more an object of interest and veneration. Under its
falling autumn leaves, almost one hundred and forty years ago, Logan,
"the friend of the white man," delivered the famous speech that has since
become familiar in almost every home in the middle west. Who has not
read the following eloquent and pathetic words?:
"I appeal to any white man to say if ever he entered Logan's
cabin and I gave him not meat; if ever he came cold and naked and
I gave him not clothing. During the course of the last long and
bloody war, Logan remained in his tent, an advocate of peace. Nay,
such was my love for the whites that those of my own country
pointed at me as they passed, and said, 'Logan is a friend of the
white man!' I had ever thought to live with you, but for the in-
juries of one man, Colonel Creasap, last spring, in cold blood and
unprovoked, cut off all the relatives of Logan, not sparing even my
women and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the
veins of any human creature. This called on me for revenge. I
have sought it. I have killed many. I have fully glutted my ven-
geance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace. Yet do
not harbor the thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never
felt fear. He will not turn on his heel to save his life. Who is
there to mourn for Logan? Not one."
In this burst of Indian eloquence Logan told the truth in regard to
his friendship for the white man and the murder of his family. He was
mistaken, however, in placing the blame on Colonel Cresap. The deeds
of unprovoked violence of which he complained were perpetrated near the
144 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
mouth of Yellow Creek, a short distance below the sight of Wellsville,
in the spring of 1774.
A man by the name of Daniel Gratehouse enticed some Indians
across the Ohio near this point, gave them liquor until they were help-
lessly drunk, and then slew them. He and his followers afterward sur-
prised and killed other Indians on Yellow Creek. Among those slain
were the mother, brother and sister of Logan.
This outrage aroused his fury against the whites. After the battle
at Point Pleasant, in which the Indians led by Cornstalk, Logan and other
chiefs were overwhelmingly defeated, October, 1774, a peace was con-
cluded on the Pickaway Plains, not far from the site of Circleville.
Here Lord Dunmore at the head of the victorious army met the van-
quished chiefs in council. Logan refused to be present but sent by Col-
onel John Gibson the famous speech already given. Of the later years
of Logan, little is definitely known. While he did not renounce the nobil-
ity of his nature and on different occasions still manifested humane sym-
pathy for the whites he withdrew from the borders of civilization, be-
came sullen and moody, often sitting for hours, "buried in thought."
As he sat thus, so runs the story, one of his own race, to satisfy
some personal grudge, slipped up behind him and slew him with a toma-
hawk. But the great tree still stands and flourishes greenly where he
told the immortal story of the wrongs he had suffered at the hands of
the white man.
At the ceremonies of the unveiling of the Cresap Tablet,
at Logan Elm Park there were present the following descend-
ants of Colonel Thomas Cresap: Friend Cox, Brent Cresap Cox,
and J. Frank Cox, Wheeling, W. Va.; B. O. Cresap and B. O.
Cresap, Jr., Wellsburg, W. Va.; B. Worth Ricketts, Willis H.
Cresap, and Ernest Wilfred Cresap, Coshocton, Ohio; Anna
Sanford Cresap Bibb, Kansas City, Mo.; Charles Henrickson
Lewis, Harpster, Ohio; Ellen Brasee Towt, Lancaster, Ohio;
Ella Ogle Shoemaker, Massillon, Ohio; Mrs. M. L. C. Stevenson
and Anna Thistle Cresap Dorsey, Dresden, Ohio; Blanche
Cresap Longstreth, Union Furnace, Ohio; Frank Tallmadge,
Howard Cresap Lemert, Madge Hibbard Potter and Hibbard
Bethlo Potter, Columbus, Ohio.
These Cresap descendants, on the evening following the ex-
ercises at the Logan Elm, assembled at the Chittenden Hotel,
Columbus, and organized "The Cresap Society," with the fol-
lowing officers: Honorary President and Official Historian,
Mrs. Mary Louise Cresap Stevenson, Dresden, Ohio; President,