Monument at Fort Jefferson. 113
5. PRESENTATION ................................. Geo. A. Katzenberger
6. UNVEILING .................................. Elizabeth D. Robeson
7. MILITARY SALUTE ....................Gun Squad, Co. M., 3rd Regt.
8. STAR SPANGLED BANNER . .............................Drum Corps
9. ACCEPTANCE ON BEHALF OF THE PUBLIC..........Prof. J. T. Martz
10. HISTORIC ADDRESS ............................Judge J. I. Allread
11. YANKEE DOODLE ......................................Drum Corps
12. A WORD FROM THE RED MEN ......................L. E. Wills
13. BENEDICTION ............................Rev. G. W. Berry
ADDRESS OF FRAZER E. WILSON.
SECRETARY GREENVILLE HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
One hundred and sixteen years ago to-day a military post which
was being erected on this very spot by the army of Maj. Gen. Arthur
St. Clair was named Fort Jefferson in honor of that great statesman
and author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson. We
are assembled to commemorate that event and to do honor to the mem-
ory of the heroes and patriots who sacrificed so much that we might
enjoy the benefits of a free nation. Father Time has been very good
to us, indeed, and it is hard to appreciate all the benefits conferred by
those who have gone before. Other men labored and we have entered
into the rewards of their labors. Under the inspiring influences of the
past I feel that it is good for us to be here. Let us unveil this tablet and
dedicate this monument with due reverence for the patriots who once
stood where we stand not knowing what another day might bring forth.
With these thoughts in mind I want to express a few words of appreciation
for the character and public services of one whose name has gone down un-
der a cloud because of defeat at a very critical moment in Western history.
Whenever the name of Arthur St. Clair is mentioned in this vicinity
our minds go back to that cold November morning in 1791 when his ex-
posed and decrepit army was surprised and suddenly attacked by a fierce
horde of howling savages on a branch of the upper Wabash. In face
of the terrible defeat that followed we are prone to forget or overlook
the previous and later record of this stalwart patriot. St. Clair was of
Scottish birth. He emigrated to America in 1755 and served with the
British in the French and Indian War, being in the important engage-
ments of Louisburg and Quebec. Like many of his hardy countrymen he
then settled in western Pennsylvania and engaged in farming until the
outbreak of the Revolution. The call of the Colonies appealed to him
and he espoused the cause of freedom, serving with distinction at Three-
Rivers, Trenton, Princeton and Hubbardstown and attaining the rank
of Major-General. In 1786 he was elected President of Congress and in
1788 was appointed Governor of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio
river. With such a record of faithful service on the credit side of
Vol. XVII.- 8.
114 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
life's ledger the new Government naturally turned to him with con-
fidence when its western borders were assailed by savage foes. The
new settlements of the Americans on the north side of the Ohio river were
regarded by the Indians of the North as an invasion of their ancient
domains. The British, who still retained the military posts at Detroit
and along the lakes, took advantage of the situation and goaded on the
savages to attack the scattered settlements, furnishing them with arms,
ammunition, food, clothing, etc. To meet this alarming situation three
expeditions were sent against the Indian villages of the Maumee and
Wabash with indifferent success. These raids so greatly exasperated the
Indians against whom they were sent that they formed a confederacy
and entered into a conspiracy to drive the white settlers beyond the
Ohio. At this juncture St. Clair appeared on the scene. With a poorly
Monument at Fort Jefferson. 115
equipped and inadequately disciplined army of mixed and insubordinate
troops, which had been collected with great pains and labor, he left camp
at Ludlow's Station, near Fort Washington, September 17th, 1791, and
marched northward to the crossing of the Great Miami where he built
and garrisoned Fort Hamilton. Cutting a road through the wilderness the
army arrived on this ground October 12th, and proceeded to build another
post as one of a chain of forts connecting Fort Washington with the Maumee
at the present site of Fort Wayne, Indiana. On the 24th of October
this post, which was nearing completion, was named Fort Jefferson by
St. Clair, and a detachment with two pieces of artillery left to defend
it. Proceeding northward along an old Indian trail through the beautiful
open forest the army arrived on the present site of Greenville, Ohio, and
encamped until the 31st, awaiting supplies. Again taking up the line of
march the army veered a little west of north. About this time sixty of
the Kentucky militia deserted and the entire First Regiment of Regulars
was detached and sent in pursuit to protect the provision train and bring
back the deserters. In this weakened and disorganized condition the army
encamped on a branch of the upper Wabash on the evening of November
3rd, 1791. St. Clair intended to cast up a light earthwork on the follow-
ing day and make a forced march for the Maumee, which he thought
to be about fifteen miles distant but which was, in fact, about fifty miles
away. This he was not permitted to do but was surprised, surrounded and
terribly defeated early the following day. In this engagement St. Clair
had two horses shot from under him and several bullet holes shot through
his clothes. Altho suffering with the gout he rode up and down the lines
encouraging the troops but failed to save the day. After nearly three
hours of hard fighting the army retreated pell-mell and kept on with un-
told hardship and suffering until this place (Fort Jefferson) was reached
near night-fall-a distance of nearly thirty miles. The story of this de-
feat cast a gloom over the whole frontier and encouraged the Indians
to renew their attacks on the scattered settlers. This condition prevailed
until "Mad Anthony" Wayne defeated the allied tribes on the Maumee in
1794 and caused them to sign the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. St. Clair
was court-martialed and exonerated, and continued to serve as Governor
of the Territory Northwest of the Ohio until 1802, when he was removed
for stubborn persistence in ideas which he thought to be right but which
were at variance with the growing principles of equal rights and popular
representation. Broken in health and greatly reduced in fortune he died
in a log house near Ligonier, Pa., in 1818. He had sacrificed the comforts
of home and the social advantages of a brilliant political career besides
a considerable fortune in attempting to direct the destinies of a vast and
newly organized territory in the western wilderness. Measuring success
by conventional standards we might be tempted to call his later public
life a failure. Shakespeare makes Mark Antony say over the dead body
116 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
"The evil that men do lives after them;
The good is oft interred with their bones."
May it not be thus with Arthur St. Clair but rather may this
monument long stand as a fitting tribute of respect to his memory. May
the broken granite boulders typify the strength and rugged virtues of that
stalwart patriot and his faithful followers and may this bronze tablet fit-
tingly recall the advancement of the western frontier to this place.
Mr. President, on behalf of the Committee on Construction, I now
tender this beautiful and appropriate memorial to the Greenville Historical
Society to be disposed of at its pleasure.
REMARKS OF GEORGE A. KATZENBERGER.
PRESIDENT GREENVILLE HISTORICAL SOCIETY.
We have met to-day in the golden month of October to unveil a
monument erected to the memory of the brave pioneers who built here
a fort in the wilderness, one hundred and sixteen years ago. As in this
month the latest crops are gathered, so ought we to realize that we are
reaping the fruits of the labors of the pioneers.
Monuments not only contribute to our civilization, they mark its
progress and degree. They keep green the memory of patriotic services.
The members of the Greenville Historical Society after placing a me-
morial boulder in Greenville, were of the opinion that the most important
work to be done was the erection of a memorial at this place. Fort Jef-
ferson is the oldest historic spot in this county and we are glad to state
that we have had no difficulty in securing the co-operation of the citizens
of this village.
We all realize that great credit is due to Messrs. Patty and Coppock
for their unselfish action in deeding these two lots to the Trustees of
Neave Township for park purposes.
This is also an appropriate time to acknowledge the aid and co-
operation on the part of the residents of this place.
In presenting this monument to the public in behalf of the donors
we express the hope that it will be a reminder to us and to those who
come after us, of our indebtedness to the brave soldiers and pioneers who
opened this country to civilization ! May it increase our love for this, our
country, which extends its protection over all of us.
ADDRESS OF ACCEPTANCE.
PROF. J. T. MARTZ.
This fort was built, not for the protection of the white settlers in
its immediate vicinity, for there were none there at that time. Then
the howl of the wolf, the scream of the panther or the whoop of the