30 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
Battle of Point Pleasant Treaty twenty years before was its be-
ginning. Had the pioneers been successful in that conflict the
Americans would not have rebelled. It would have shown the
impossibility of success.
But Colonel Lewis was successful, and Anthony Wayne was
successful. The Revolution culminated in independence, but not
for Ohio until Wayne fought the last battle that gave our people
instead of England the land upon which we now stand.
England could not be induced to accept the provisions of the
Treaty of Paris as it related to the Northwest, whose conquest
was made by George Rogers Clark, and she persisted in her
claim to the land northwest of the river Ohio, and she persisted
in sending her savage allies into the settlements hoping to thus
make American settlement impossible.
The incursion that massacred the settlers at the place known
in history as Big Bottom, called attention to England's intention
as God directed, and Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne, under the
same powerful Director, made it possible for us to dedicate this
ADDRESS OF PROF. M. R. ANDREWS.
The young men who came to this spot a hundred and fifteen
years ago formed the extreme outpost of the New England
settlement that had been made at Marietta
two years earlier. It is almost impossible
for us now to realize the difficulties and
dangers which beset those struggling colo-
nies. I doubt if there were more than two
thousand actual settlers on this side of the
Ohio, from the Muskingum to the Miami,
when the little band of pioneers were mas-
sacred at this place. On the edge of this
great territory small parties of bold men
watched and toiled, waiting for the time
when British agents would cease to send the
savage on his errands of murder. The first seven years of
the settlement along this border was, as has already been
said, a continuation of the Revolutionary War, which began at
Big Bottom and Its History. 31
Point Pleasant and ended at Fallen Timbers. After Wayne had
made a treaty with the Indians, and Jay with the British, the
occupation of the savage was gone, and the settlements began
to extend beyond the banks of the rivers.
Yet long before this consummation, even within the period
of border warfare, these pioneers from New England, officers
and soldiers of the Revolution, began to make arrangements
for the education of their children. They were determined
that religion, morality and knowledge" should "be encouraged"
from the very beginning. In the first winter Major Anselm
Tupper taught a school in the Marietta block-house, and in the
first summer Manasseh Cutler had suggested Harmar Hill as
a suitable place for a university. The rapid settlement of the
Scioto country so changed the center of population that a few
years later General Rufus Putnam found it expedient to choose
another site- Chandler's Hill--where Ohio University now
stands. Ere this was done the citizens of Marietta had taken
steps towards having an institution for higher education in their
own town. Within a year after the close of the Indian War
they began Muskingum Academy, from which grew Marietta
College. The first body of emigrants to this valley, those from
New England, have left us, then, two worthy monuments of
their zeal in behalf of higher education, Ohio University and
When peace had been established the Western Reserve was
opened for settlement, and from that time New England sent
comparatively few to "Muskingum," as this whole valley was
then called. The hardy yeomen of Virginia came across the
country and occupied the land north of the Marietta settlements.
Their path is marked by the names of Monroe and Morgan
counties, commemorating two of Virginia's distinguished sons.
North of these and mingling with them came the Scotch-Irish
from Pennsylvania, building Presbyterian churches and acade-
mies and preaching "righteousness, temperance and judgment
to come." Some of those academies have grown to Colleges,
and one of them, Muskingum College, though little among the
tribes of Israel, has sent out many a Saul to lead the people. A
college that has given us the Finleys, the Stevensons and such
32 Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.
university presidents as Dr. Thompson and Dr. Harper deserves
grateful remembrance from the whole people.
North of the Scotch-Irish zone there came from Pennsyl-
vania to the Muskingum, as the Tuscarawas was then called,
the Moravians to occupy the land where their disciples, the
Christian Indians had been murdered. John Heckewelder, the
pioneer of this movement, had visited this valley as early as 1762.
A group of Moravian churches in Tuscarawas county remains
as a fitting memorial of his Christian labors.
Early in the nineteenth century immigrants from Ger-
many and Ireland came in considerable numbers to this valley.
Their settlements are marked by Lutheran and Catholic churches.
The blending of all these elements could not be accomplished
at once. Even the native Americans had little acquaintance
with their neighbors from other states, and there were differ-
ences in faith and in customs which for a time kept the little
qroups asunder. I have often heard a tradition of a New Eng-
land family that was surrounded by Virginians. A girl from
this family had gone on some errand to the cabin of a neighbor.
While she was there a child exclaimed, "Mother, give her a
piece of bread. I want to see how a Yankee eats." There were
also differences and mutual prejudices between Americans and
foreigners, but comradeship in battling with the wilderness
changed these feelings into sympathy and respect. The Amer-
ican soon learned that the Irishman or the German was as handy
at a log-rolling or a raising as any other man, and these learned
in their turn that the Yankee or the Virginian was not unwilling
to be neighborly. Whatever traces of old differences remained
were obliterated by the storm of Civil War. The strife which,
for a time, divided the nation united the section. In the regiment
to which I had the honor to belong, as well as in others raised
in this valley, there were worthy descendants of all these classes.
Cavalier and Puritan, Catholic and Protestant, German, Irish,
and American, were all united in defending a common country,
and thus in the fiery trial of war all the elements were fused into
a united people.