Ohio History Journal






The first road maker in our country was the buffalo. His

successor was the Indian. Instinct told the buffalo where to

make his path. Nature, which is another name for instinct,

prompted the red man in marking his trail. The white man

came and reason told him that the red man and the buffalo

had selected the driest, shortest and most practicable routes of

migration. This is only another way of saying that the geog-

raphy of any country determines its history.

Every institution which we have is the product of the

centuries. History therefore is the finding of the factors. Ohio,

occupying the enviable position she does, in the sisterhood of

Commonwealths must consequently have a remarkable history.

In studying the evolution of our state the author believes

that he has discovered a prime factor of its development in

Zane's Trace.

Behind the historical event stand the actors. In the consid-

eration of the present subject there are two.

On the outskirts of the village of Martin's Ferry, Belmont

County, Ohio, is an old neglected grave-yard situated upon a

terrace overlooking the Ohio River. Within the barbed wire

enclosure is another, surrounded by a substantial brick wall,

capped with stone. An iron gate on one side allows you means

of ingress. The interior of this enclosure is a maze of briers

and brambles. It is the private burial ground of the Zane family.

There are monuments in various stages of decay. Upon a stone

tomb, about three feet in height rest four slabs, on one of

these are the words:

*In the preparation of this article, I wish to acknowledge my grati-

tude to John B. Overmeyer, Somerset, 0.; Chas. W. Hunt, Somerset, 0.;

Judge M. Granger, Zanesville, 0.; Col. Chas. C. Goddard, Zanesville, 0.;

Captain N. W. Evans, Portsmouth, 0.; Mr. Sarchett, Cambridge, 0.;

and Judge Cranmer, Wheeling, W. Va.

( 297 )

298 Ohio Arch

298       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


"In memory of Ebenezer Zane, who died 19th

November, 1812, in the 66th year of his age. He was

the first permanent inhabitant of this part of the

Western World, having first begun to reside here in

the year 1769. He died as he lived, an honest man."


In the prosperous city of Zanesville, on a hill overlooking

what is known as the Terrace, is the John McIntire Children's

Home. In a beautiful grove of trees, just as you begin to ascend

the hill, your attention is attracted to a tall iron fence inclosing

a tomb. On the marble slab is the inscription:



"John McIntire, 1738-1815."


1The Zane family originated in Denmark. They certainly

possessed one characteristic of their Danish ancestry - their rov-

ing, adventurous disposition. At an early date a scion of the

family went to England and it is from him that the American

Zanes trace their descent. When William Penn came to America,

he was accompanied by one Zane, who was also a Quaker. In

the new settlement it seems that he was somewhat prominent.

Zane street in Philadelphia was named for him. It is said that

he became obnoxious to his Quaker brethren.   The cause of

this disaffection is not known. It may be that the Quakers were

obnoxious to him. Philadelphia may have become too crowded

for a man of his temperament. He may have longed for the free-

dom of the woods. At any rate he left Quakerdom and settled

on the south branch of the Potomac, near what is now Moorfield.

Hardy County, W. Va. but then known as Berkeley County, Vir-

ginia. Here the Zanes became characteristic woodmen, and pio-

neers. They were hunters, scouts and Indian fighters. They

possessed that stern sense of justice that such conditions of life

can only develop. The social condition of that pioneer day was a

distinct evolution of its own. There was no room for the puny

weakling. It was a case of the "survival of the fittest." There

was no room for sentiment. It was a battle royal for existence.

The weak and sentimental succumbed or went back to the settle-

1Wiseman's Pioneer, Fairfield County.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                  299


ment. The strong remained or pushed further into the interior.

There were wild nature, wild beasts and wild men to conquer.

Even a Quaker under such conditions could lay aside his sombre

gray and from beneath his broad brimmed hat sight along the

barrel of his rifle and shoot men. In summing up the character

of the Zanes it is enough to say that in this pioneer conflict they

not only survived but pushed on toward the setting sun.

Ebenezer Zane was born in the Potomac Valley, October

7th, 1747. He had four brothers and one sister. 1 The assertion

that Ebenezer Zane together with two brothers, was a captive

of the Wyandottes for thirteen years has not sufficient evidence

behind it to give it credence. His wife was Elizabeth McCul-

loch. She was a sister of the McCulloch brothers who were

no less renowned as frontiersmen than the Zane family. It is

said that she was in every way an estimable helpmeet to her


It was in 1767 that Ebenezer Zane and his brothers, Silas and

Jonathan, began to make preparations for a journey to the west.

The following spring with all of the family and property, which

included some negro slaves, they set out on the old Cumberland

Trail, to what is now Brownsville, Pa. The next year they took

up the journey again and at the mouth of the Wheeling Creek

See Denny's Journal.

300 Ohio Arch

300       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


on the Virginia side of the Ohio, they established their homes

thus becoming the founders of Wheeling in 1770. Their fam-

ilies came the next year. However the town was not regularly

laid out till 1793.

"Zane had chosen one of the strategic points of the Ohio

Valley, though this could hardly have been known to him at

the time. All that he probably cared to know was that he had

found an advantageous spot to trade with the interior of Ohio.

It was where the crowding hills left scant room for a town site,

but when the Ohio was low, it was practically the head of nav-

igation, even for flat and keel boats.  Of course its further

advantage as a point of departure for the east had not then been

discovered, or that other advantage which it presently assumed

as a stopping place for emigrants descending the river."-(From

Abbott's History of Ohio.)

l Zane soon had title to all the land where Wheeling now is,

Wheeling Island in the Ohio River, up the Ohio Valley as far

as Burlington, and up Wheeling Creek on the Ohio side for quite

a distance.

He became the recognized leader of the new settlement.

He possessed the rare elements of leadership.    He knew the

woods, the Indians, and the pioneer. 1 In this he was aided by

his brothers, who carried into execution his plans. In 1806 he

laid out the town of Bridgeport, on the north side of Wheeling

Creek, on the line of the old "Indian Trail." He planted the

first seedling nursery in the upper Ohio Valley, on Wheeling

Island in 1790. He even originated a new species of fruit. "Zane's

Greening" was for many years, a popular apple in eastern Ohio.2

1Among the first to brave the dangers of pioneer life was James

Maxwell, who was obliged to leave his home in Virginia to avoid prose-

cution for a murder of which he was subsequently proven innocent. He

was a cousin of Col. Zane and it was the Zane settlement he attempted

to reach to find security; but such was not the case, as Zane ordered him

to leave at once or he would himself convey him to Berkeley County, Vir-

ginia, where the crime was said to be committed." * * *

Later. "Zane recommended him to Capt. Hamtramck as a scout

for the new fort (Steuben). Zane said his eye was keener and his tread

lighter than those of the most wily savage." - Hunter's Pathfinders, Jeff-

erson County.

2 History of Upper Ohio Valley.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                   301


In the Journal of John Matthews in which he keeps a

record of the survey of the Seven Ranges, he frequently men-

tions the name of Zane, e. g.,"went to home of Col. Zane for

dinner." "Esq. Zane brought us word of an Indian being killed."

"Pitched tent near Esq. Zane's store," etc.

In 1774 occurred what is known as Dunmore's War-short

of duration, but pregnant with mighty results. Wheeling was

the original storm center of this conflict. Twenty-six years after-

ward Ebenezer Zane wrote to Hon. John Brown, one of the sena-

tors in Congress from   Kentucky, as to the causes of this war.

The letter is dated at Wheeling, February 4th, 1800, and is as

follows :1

"I was myself, with many others, in the practice of making im-

provements on lands upon the Ohio for the purpose of acquiring rights

to the same. Being on the Ohio, at the mouth of Sandy Creek, in com-

pany with many others, news circulated that the Indians had robbed

some of the land jobbers. This news induced the people generally to

1 History of the Upper Ohio Valley.

302 Ohio Arch

302        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


ascend the Ohio. I was among the number. On our arrival at Wheeling,

being informed that there were two Indians with some traders near and

above Wheeling, a proposition was made by the then Captain Michael

Cresap2 to waylay and kill the Indians upon the river. This measure I

opposed with much violence alleging that the killing of those Indians

might involve the country in a war. But the opposition party prevailed

and proceeded up the river with Captain Cresap at their head.

In a short time the party returned and also the traders in a canoe, but

there were no Indians in the company. I enquired what had become of

the Indians and was informed by the traders and Cresap's party that they

had fallen overboard. I examined the canoe and saw much fresh blood

and some bullet holes in the canoe. This finally convinced me that the

party had killed the two Indians and thrown them into the river.

"On the afternoon of the day this action happened, a report pre-

vailed that there was a camp or party of Indians on the Ohio below and

near Wheeling.   In consequence of this information Captain Cresap

joined by a number of recruits, proceeded immediately down the Ohio

for the purpose, as was then generally understood, of destroying the

Indians above mentioned.   On the succeeding day Captain Cresap

and his party returned to Wheeling. It was generally reported by the

party that they had killed a number of Indians. Of the truth of this

report I have no doubt as one of Cresap's party was badly wounded

and the party had a fresh scalp and a quantity of property which they

called Indian plunder. At the time of the last mentioned transaction

it was generally reported that the party of Indians down the Ohio were

Logan and his family; but I have reason to believe that this report was


"Within a few days after the transaction above mentioned a party

of Indians were killed at Yellow Creek. But I must do the memory of

Captain Cresap the justice to say that I do not believe that he was pres-

ent at the killing of the Indians at Yellow Creek. But there is not the

least doubt in my mind that the massacre at Yellow Creek was brought

on by the action above stated.

All the transactions which I have related happened in latter end

of April, 1774; and there can scarcely be a doubt that they were the

cause of the war which immediately followed, commonly called Dun-

more's War.

I am with much esteem, yours etc.,


2"The settlers began to gather at Wheeling, the rush being from all

points, none of them agreeing to accept the protection offered by scouting

parties from Ft. Pitt and return to their plantations. Cresap was elected

leader and on April 21, received a letter from Ft. Pitt confirming the

rumors of impending war. A counsel was held and Cresap's men at once

declared war against the Indians." - Hunter's Pathfinders of Jefferson


Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                   303


Lord Dunmore, the titled governor of the old Dominion, de-

termined to carry the war into the enemy's country. He or-

dered Colonel Angus McDonald to raise a regiment for imme-

diate service.

With a force of four hundred Viriginians McDonald crossed

the mountains to Wheeling, where he built Fort Finncastle, in

honor of Lord Dunmore. On the 25th of July, he floated down

the Ohio to Captina Creek and there with Jonathan Zane, as

guide they started for the Indian villages on the Muskingum.

At the mouth of the Wappatonica, near Coshocton, they destroyed

towns and growing crops and the Indians for the time were


During this war Col. Ebenezer Zane was made Disbursing

Agent of the Militia at Wheeling and was practically the com-

mandant of Fort Finncastle.

1Two years later when Virginia renounced her allegiance to

the crown and deposed her royal governor, Col. Zane, true patriot,

as he was, changed the name of his fort to that of Fort Henry,

for the first governor of the Commonwealth. There was no regu-

lar militia to defend it. The settlers who were driven within its

walls for protection, composed its only garrison.

Here on the last day of August, 1777, four hundred Indian

warriors, led by that prince of cut-throats, Simon Girty, under

the royal insignia of King George, with the consent and approval

of the "Hair-buying" 1 scoundrel at Detroit, appeared before the

walls and gave the garrison fifteen minutes in which to sur-


Col. Zane replied that before they would surrender or ab-

jure the cause of liberty that every man, woman and child within

the fort would rather perish. There were but twelve men and

boys besides the women, in the fort. Col. Zane gave everybody

work. The women made the bullets and they helped to shoot

them. The siege continued for twenty-three hours until rein-

forcements came and the Indians despaired of reducing the fort.

But all of the houses without the fortification were burned arid

many of the settlers' cattle and hogs were driven away.

1Hunter's Pathfinders.

304 Ohio Arch

304        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


The last battle of the American Revolution was fought here

in 1782.

The conflict is described by Col. Zane in a letter sent to

Gen. Irvin by the hands of Mr. Loyd.


WHEELING, 14th of September, 1782.

SIR:--On the evening of the 11th instant a body of the enemy

appeared in sight of our garrison. They immediately formed their lines

around the garrison, paraded British colors and demanded the fort to be

surrendered, which was refused. At twelve o'clock at night they rushed

hard upon the pickets, in order to storm but were repulsed. They made

two other attempts to storm before daybreak but to no purpose. About

eight o'clock next morning there came a negro from them to us and

informed us that their force consisted of a British captain and forty

regular soldiers and two hundred and sixty Indians.

The enemy kept up a continual fire the whole day. About ten

o'clock at night they made a fourth attempt to storm to no better pur-

pose than the former.

The enemy continued round the garrison till the morning of the

13th instant when they disappeared. Our loss is none. Daniel Sullivan

who arrived here in the first of the action is wounded in the foot. I be-

lieve they have driven the greatest part of our stock away and might, I

think, be overtaken. I am with due respect,

Your obedient servant,


Addressed, William Irwin, Brigadier General, Commanding at Pitts-



The fort stood at what is now the corner of Main and Elev-

enth streets in Wheeling. The spot is marked by a stone, bear-

ing these words:

"By authority of the State of West Virginia, to commemorate the

siege of Fort Henry, September 11th, 1782, the last battle of the American

Revolution, this tablet is here placed.




G. W. ATKINSON, Governor.                       Committee.

Col. Zane's house stood about sixty yards without the fort.

He himself remained in his own building which was a sort of


1History of Upper Ohio Valley.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                        305


block house. His three brothers, Silas, Jonathan and Andrew

were within the fort as was also their sister Elizabeth, a young

woman of twenty-three. It was on this occasion that she per-

formed that feat, famous in song and story.


"This dauntless pioneer maiden's name

Is inscribed in gold on the scroll of fame.

She was the lassie who knew no fear

When the tomahawk gleamed on the far frontier.

If deeds of daring should win renown,

Let us honor this damsel of Wheeling town,

Who braved the savages with deep disdain,-

Bright-eyed, buxom Elizabeth Zane.

'Tis more than a hundred years ago,

They were close beset by the dusky foe;

They had spent of powder their scanty store,

And who should the gauntlet run for more?

She sprang to the portal and shouted, 'I!

'Tis better a girl than a man should die!

My loss would be but the garrison's gain.

Unbar the gate!' said Elizabeth Zane.

The powder was sixty yards away

Around her the foemen in ambush lay;

As she darted from shelter they gazed with awe

Then wildly shouted, 'A squaw!' 'a squaw!'

She neither swerved to the left or right,

Swift as an antelope's was her flight.

'Quick ! open the door !' she cried amain.

'For a hope forelorn! 'Tis Elizabeth Zane.'

No time had she to waver or wait

Back must she go ere it be too late;

She snatched from the table its cloth in haste

And knotted it deftly around her waist,

Then filled it with powder-never, I ween,

Had powder so lovely a magazine;

Then, scorning the bullets' deadly rain,

Like a startled fawn, fled Elizabeth Zane.

She gained the fort with her precious freight;

Strong hands fastened the oaken gate:

Brave men's eyes were suffused with tears

That had been strangers for many years.

From flint-lock rifles again there sped

20 Vol. XIII.

306 Ohio Arch

306       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


'Gainst the skulking red skins a storm of lead.

And the war-whoop sounded that day in vain,

Thanks to the deed of Elizabeth Zane.

Talk not to me of Paul Revere

A man, on horseback, with naught to fear;

Nor of old John Burns with his bell crowned hat-

He'd an army to back him, so what of that?

Here's to the heroine, plump and brown,

Who ran the gauntlet in Wheeling town;

Hers is a record without a stain,-

Beautiful, buxom, Elizabeth Zane."

-John S. Adams in St. Nicholas.

1The heroine of this poem    afterwards lived about two

miles above Wheeling on the Ohio side. She was twice married,

first to Mr. McLaughlin and then to Mr. Clark.   She died in

1847 at St. Clairsville, Belmont County, and is buried in the

Zane burial ground, but no monument marks the spot.2

It is evident that much of Zane's knowledge of the Ohio

country was derived from his brother Jonathan, who it seems

had traveled over a considerable portion of eastern Ohio. In

1785 General Parsons from Massachusetts, afterwards one of

the judges of the territory north of the Ohio, while on an in-

spection tour in the interests of the then proposed Ohio Company,

made a trip up the Muskingum River. At the "Saltlick," Dun-

can's Falls, ten miles below the mouth of the Licking, he met

and conversed with Jonathan Zane about the Ohio Country;

Zane was there making salt.3 Dr. Cutler himself was advised by

Col. Zane to make his proposed settlement on the Muskingum

north of the Licking.

4When Gen. William Crawford led his expedition against

the Sandusky Indians, Jonathan Zane served in the capacity

of scout and guide.  He was invited to a council before the

battle and because of his superior knowledge of Indian prowess

and tactics he advised a retreat. His advice was not acted upon

and the result was fatal to the pioneer army.

1Howe's Historical Collection.

2Wiseman's Pioneers of Fairfield County.

3Hildreth's Pioneer History.

4Wiseman's Pioneers of Fairfield County.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                  307

No better man than Ebenezer Zane could have been found

to cut a road through Ohio. His influence in the new settlement,

his wealth and his general knowledge of the country made him

the logical man to assume the responsibility. His brother Jona-

Click on image to view full size

than was his right hand man in everything he did, and this was

a great aid to him in all of his undertakings.

The first pioneers to our state settled along the Ohio river.

The great interior was still the hunting grounds of the Indian.

308 Ohio Arch

308       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


The first decade after the Revolution was not a propitious time

to make settlements too near the frontier border. It was not till

after the decisive victory of Wayne in 1794 that the influx of

settlers began to ascend the streams, to any material extent.

Wheeling was situated where this pioneer army was apt to di-

verge from the established water route.

Knowing the land as well as he did, it was natural that Col.

Zane should advise people to settle upon the Muskingum.

Neither does it take such a great stretch of the imagination to

see how he might conceive the blazing of a trail, and the cutting

of a road to reach these new lands. A road starting from his

town would make it an important factor in the development of

the Ohio country.

There was another thing in his favor. There might be an-

other outbreak of the Indians. Governor St. Clair had officially

reported to Congress concerning the absence of roads and pointed

out their importance in the moving of troops.

Col. Zane had already blazed a trail from Pittsburg to

Wheeling and its value to the new settlers only made him more

sanguine regarding a road connectiong the Ohio with the Ohio

and running through what was then the garden spot of the state.

It was early in 1796 that Ebenezer Zane presented a me-

morial to Congress stating his plans. On Friday, March 25th

of that year.1

"Mr. Brown (Kentucky) presented the memorial of Ebenezer Zane

praying liberty to locate such military bounty lands, lying at the cross-

ings of certain rivers, mentioned in the said memorial as may be neces-

sary to enable to establish ferries and open a road through the territory

Northwest of the Ohio to the state of Kentucky, which memorial was


"Ordered that it be referred to Messrs Brown, Ross and Livermore

to consider and report thereon to the Senate."

Wednesday, April 6th, 1796.

The Committee to which was referred the petition of Ebene-

zer Zane states:

"That the petitioner sets forth that he hath at considerable ex-

pense, explored and in part opened a road, northwest of the river Ohio,

between Wheeling and Limestone, which when completed will greatly

1 History of Congress.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                         309


contribute to the accommodation of the public as well as individuals. But

that several rivers intervening, the road proposed cannot be used with

safety until ferries shall be established thereon.

"That the petitioner will engage to have such ferries erected pro-

vided he can obtain a right to the land which is now the property of

the United States. And therefore prays that he may be authorized to

locate and survey-at his own expense-military bounty warrants upon

as much land at Muskingum, Hockhocking and Scioto Rivers as may be

sufficient to support the necessary establishments. And that the same be

granted to him by the United States.

"That they having received satisfactory support of the above state-

ment are of opinion that the proposed road will be of general utility,

that the petitioner merits encouragement and that his petition being

reasonable, ought to be granted.

"The committee therefore submit the following resolution:

"Resolved, That the petition of Ebenezer Zane is reasonable; that

he be authorized to locate warrants granted by the U. S. for military

services upon three tracts of land, not exceeding one mile square each,

at Muskingum, Hock-hocking and Scioto where the proposed road shall

cross those rivers, for the purpose of establishing ferries thereon: and

that leave be given to bring in a bill for that purpose.

"On motion it was agreed that this report be adopted and that the

committee who were appointed on the petition be instructed to bring in

a bill accordingly.

"Mr. Brown from the Committee instructed for the purpose reported

a bill to authorize Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in the territory

northwest of the river Ohio, which was read and ordered to a second

reading Thursday, April 7th, 1786.

"The bill to authorize Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in the

territory of the United States, northwest of the river Ohio, was con-


"Ordered, That the second reading of this bill be the order of the

day Monday next.

(Nothing seems to have been done that day.)

Wednesday, April 13th, 1796.

"The bill to authorize Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in

the territory of the United States, northwest of the river Ohio, was read

the second time and referred to the Committee appointed on the 8th

instant, on the bill entitled, 'An act providing for the sale of lands of the

United States in the territory northwest of the river Ohio and above

the mouth of the Kentucky River' to consider and report thereon to the


Wednesday, April 27th, 1796.

"Mr. Ross from the committee to whom was referred the bill 'to

authorize Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in the territory of the

United States Northwest of the river Ohio' reported amendments thereto

310 Ohio Arch

310        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


which were read and adopted and the bill was ordered to a third read-


Thursday, April 28th, 1798.

"The bill to authorize Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in the

territory northwest of the river Ohio was read the third time and being

further amended was passed.

"An act to authorize Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in the

territory of the United States, northwest of the river Ohio.

"Be it enacted, etc. That upon the conditions hereinafter men-

tioned, there shall be granted to Ebenezer Zane three tracts of land, not

exceeding one mile square each, one on the Muskingum River, one on the

Hock-hocking River and one other on the north bank of the Scioto River

and in such situations as shall best promote the utility of a road to be

opened by him on the most eligible route, between Wheeling and Lime-

stone, to be approved by the President of the United States or by such

person as he shall appoint for such purpose.

"Provided such tracts shall not interfere with any existing claim,

location or survey nor include any salt spring, nor the lands on either

side of the Hock-hocking River at the falls thereof.

"Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That upon the said Zane's pro-

curing at his own expense the said tracts to be surveyed in such way

and manner as the President of the United States shall approve and

returning into the Treasury of the United States plats thereof, together

with warrants granted by the United States for Military land bounties

to the amount of the number of acres contained in the said three tracts;

and also producing satisfactory proof by the first day of January next

that the aforesaid road is opened and ferries established upon the rivers

aforesaid, for the accommodation of travelers and giving security that

such ferries shall be maintained during the pleasure of Congress, the

President of the United States shall be and hereby is authorized and

empowered to issue letters patent in the name and under the seal of the

United States, thereby granting and conveying to the said Zane and his

heirs the said tracts of land located and surveyed as aforesaid; which

patents shall be countersigned by the Secretary of State and recorded

in his office.

"Provided always, That the rates of ferriage at such ferries shall

from time to time be ascertained by any two of the judges of the territory

Northwest of the river Ohio, or such other authority as shall be ap-

pointed for that purpose.

Thursday, April 28th, 1796.

"A bill was received from the Senate authorizing Ebenezer Zane

to locate certain lands northwest of the river Ohio which was read and


May 2d, 1796.

"Mr. Orr, Chairman of the Committee to whom was referred the

bill from the Senate authorizing Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                      311


northwest of the river Ohio, reported the bill without amendment. Re-

ferred to a committee of the whole.

Wednesday, May 11th, 1796.

"The bill authorizing Ebenezer Zane to locate certain lands in the

Northwestern Territory was read a third time and passed."

Approved, May 17th, 1796.

If Col. Zane could not have accomplished the work he did

without the help of his brother Jonathan, it is equally certain

that he would have done much less had he not been assisted by

his son-in-law John McIntire, who now appears as a factor in

the achievements of Ebenezer Zane.

Born of Scotch parentage in Alexandria, Virginia, 1759,

John McIntire came to Wheeling in the capacity of a shoemaker.

Possessed of a handsome figure and much native ability and

address, he succeeded in winning the affections of Sarah Zane,

the second daughter of the Wheeling proprietor. She was at

this time but fifteen years of age and over twenty years younger

than her gallant admirer. The old adage of "true love running

not smooth," was verified in this case to an ultimate certainty.

For Col. Zane and his wife opposed the match with great vehe-

mence. But the result is the same old story. They were married

in spite of parental objection. During the wedding festivities,

the father-in-law absented himself, by taking a hunting trip. The

lWiseman's Pioneers Fairfield County.

312 Ohio Arch

312       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


mother-in-law used her slipper over the shoulders of her daughter

to show her disapproval.

It is said that sometime after the marriage Col. Zane in pass-

ing the cabin of McIntire saw his daughter chopping wood. He

did not hesitate to remind her that if she had stayed at home

she would not have had to do such manual labor. But everything

was righted before long and McIntire became a favorite of Mr.

Zane. Now that he had the contract to cut a road through the

Ohio woods, it was but natural that he should leave the real

work to this son-in-law and his brother Jonathan.

The experience of Jonathan Zane stood him well in hand,

in the laying out of the road. The route determined upon was

the result of his advice.

However Jonathan Zane was not the originator of the route,

in its entirety, for the Indian had gone over practically the same

ground, that the Trace afterward covered. The work of blazing

trees and cutting out small undergrowth and removing fallen

timber began in the summer of 1796.1

2 The party consisted of Jonathan Zane, John McIntire,

John Green, William McCulloch, Ebenezer Ryan and several

others whose names are not known.

John Green had charge of the pack horses, that carried the

tent and provisions. Being also a boot and shoemaker and not

used to handling the ax, he was selected to kill game of which

there was an abundance. He was also the cook and general ser-

vice man of the party. At night a fire was built to keep away

beasts of prey and two men were kept on watch for fear that a

straggling party of Indians might attack them. But there was

no need of this precaution for the spirit of the Ohio Indian had

been broken by Mad Anthony two years before at Fallen Timbers

and the chances for attack were remote.

The route of Zane's trace followed Wheeling Creek for about

seven miles, where it climbed the hill and struck the ridge be-


1The marking was done with axes; and as far as can be learned

now, it was never surveyed, or any part of it returned to Congress or the

land office. No report of it was made or can be found in the general

land office.                     CAPT. NELSON W. EVANS.

Portsmouth, Ohio.

Archives of Muskingum Pioneer Society.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                    313


tween Wheeling Creek and McMahon's Creek. Since the Na-

tional Road from Wheeling to Zanesville is located approximately

upon Zane's Trace, we deem it proper to describe its route in

reference to this road.

1 The "Trace" from St. Clairsville, Belmont County followed

the ridge and crossed Big and Little Still Water Creeks, gradu-

ally climbed along the side of the hill to Morristown. From

Morristown it went north of the National Road and also north

of Henrysburg, passed over the ridge at Fairview, Guernsey

County, crossing the National Road at this place and kept south

of the Pike following Putney Ridge which divides Leatherwood

and Salt Creek tributaries of Will's Creek, till about three miles

east of Washington, which is the oldest town in Guernsey


Following the divide to this town it passed through it, at

an angle to the present street.2

Crossing the National Road here it kept on the north side

for five miles, when it crossed to the south again, about three

miles east of Cambridge and just east of the Crooked Stone

Bridge. For a very short distance it continued south of the

road, but crossed again to the north at Stone Bridge, crossing

Cook's Run. The house standing above the bridge is on the

"Trace," Old Wheeling Road and National Road, but by means

of a "cut" is somewhat elevated. From here it practically fol-

lows the National Road with only a divergence of a few rods

until within one and a half miles east of Cambridge. At this

point it veers to the north of the Pike, and follows the ridge just

north of Wheeling street in Cambridge1 and just a little north

of Steubenville Avenue of the present city.

It crossed Will's Creek at a point above where the Baltimore

and Ohio Railway Bridge is now situated. Later the crossing

was changed to the east opposite the Marietta Depot. Here a

ferry was maintained and later a rude log bridge was built by

General Biggs who owned the land upon which the city of Cam-


2 (See old street back of the present one.)

1The first tavern in Cambridge called the Bridge House Tavern was

situated on the Trace.

314 Ohio Arch

314        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


bridge is built.  Persons crossing this bridge were required to

pay toll. The general afterward sold the bridge to Beatty and

Gambier who laid out the city.    In the sale the right to cross

the bridge free from toll was reserved by the seller to himself

and his descendants forever.

From Will's Creek the Trace crossed Crooked Creek Bot-

tom,2 then the National Road where the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-

way now interescts it, and then continued north of the Pike till

about five miles west of Cambridge and a little west of Cassel

station, where it strikes the road again. Just before striking the

Pike is the residence of Judge Speer. This is situated on the

"Trace" and here the judge kept a tavern. About a mile west

was another public house known as the Grummond Tavern. Here

the "Trace" again crossed the National Road and continued on

the south side of it till it reached New Concord.

3 It was at first determined to run the "Trace" along the li

of the old "Mingo Indian Trail" from Cambridge. This would


2At Crooked Creek, Mr. Sarchett says that the trace went between

two oak trees, so close together that they were almost cut off by wagon


3When Ebenezer Zane in 1797 surveyed his road, he passed through

the territory now known as Union township (Muskingum County), and

opened up a highway in the wilderness along which the tide of emigration


"Old Wheeling Road surveyed by Zane entered Union Township

(Muskingum County), in Township 1, "Military Lands, on S. E. of Sec.

10, and passed in Range Six, now Perry Township in the N. E. 1/4 of

Sec. 16."

"In 1827, the National Road was surveyed. It entered the township

(Union), in S. E. 1/4 of Sec. 1, and passed out on the N. W. 1/4 of Sec. 15.

The Wheeling Road (Zane's Trace), was then abandoned."

"After the Cumberland Road had been established the travel over

Zane's Trace was diverted toward Columbus."

"So they started from the Schaffer Meeting House in a south west

course until they came out by the Evans and Irwin place on the National

Road, then to Mill Run, up Mill Run hill south, then nearly due

west, then down the steep hill, where the machine house now stands,

known as the Cochran Hill. Then they crossed over to Sullivan street

between Dr. Brown's late residence and the German Catholic Church;

down Main street to the foot, crossed the Muskingum, south of Licking

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                      315


have made the crossing of the Muskingum at Duncan's Falls,

ten miles below Zanesville. But the superior water power at

the mouth of the Licking caused Jonathan Zane to leave the

"Trail" when he reached Salt Creek and instead of following

the "Trail" along that creek he made a direct line for the Lick-

ing. He now crossed to the north of the National Road till they

reached the Shaffer Meeting House, three miles east of Zanes-

ville on the Adamsville Road. From here they intended going

down Mill Run near the Indian trail, then cross Mill Run near

the Iron bridge by the old blast furnace, go south to the head of

Layhew's hollow, then southwest to the foot of Market Street in

Zanesville. Finding that the proposed town could not be laid

off to advantage, this idea was abandoned.

1A survey of December 14th, 1798 of Zanesville Mile Square

shows the line of the "Trace" for a few miles east of Muskin-

gum River. This indicates that it crossed the east line of Sec.

7, Township 12, Range 12 about one-third mile south from N. E.

corner of said section. Ran northwest across sections 7, 1 and 5

and interesected the south line of United States Military Land

just east of Zane's Mile Square, crossed the river within said

Mile Square and ran from the branch of the Licking or Pataskala

Creek at its mouth, S.W. and then south, again southwest cross-

ing Sections 1, 2, 11 and 14 in Township 16, Range 13. It

crossed the south line of Sec. 14 about one-third mile from S. W.

corner of said section.  From   this point to where it reached


Island over Chap's Run; then south east of the stone quarry; through

the Springer farm and then south along the Maysville Pike."

"The old Indian Trail3 crossed the (Muskingum) river at the foot

of Market street at the head of the upper falls near where the old dam

was built. Then into West Zanesville over Licking Island into South

Zanesville; up Chap's run; through the Fair Grounds to the Maysville

Pike. This Indian Trail went from Wheeling, through Zanesville to

Chillicothe and the Ohio River. It was a well beaten path, several inches

deep.2 I have seen it many times as it went through my father's farm

in Washington Township," (Muskingum County.)

Judge Munson.

Zane's Trace did not follow an Indian Trail at least east of the

Muskingum.                                          HULBERT.

2 Writer in old Zanesville paper.

316 Ohio Arch

316        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


the Perry2 County line it followed approximately what is now

known as the Maysville Pike, through the towns of White Cot-

tage and Fultonham.

It entered Perry county in Section 22, Madison Township,

crossed the Pike several times, then took an almost westerly

course, leaving Somerset1 a mile and a half to the south. Upon

striking the waters of Rush Creek they went south along the

ridge east of the Creek until they struck the Pike again just east

of Rushville5 in Fairfield County. From here6 to Lancaster the

Indian trail leading from  the Muskingum     Valley by the great

Swamp and Standing Rock to the Pickaway Plains was the

general route followed.   The Maysville Pike is nearly on that


In Lancaster it is pretty well established that the "Trace"

followed Wheeling street as far as Columbus street, where it

diverged to the south and crossed the Hocking at Coate's cabin,

where there was a ripple or ford about three hundred yards be-

low the turnpike bridge.

From Lancaster to Chillicothe4 with but a few variations,

Zane's trace and the Maysville Pike are identical. The route

is almost directly southwest, passing through the famous Picka-

way Plains.


2"A road was cut in 1805 from Putnam to intersect Zane's Trace in

Perry County. It passed diagonally through the township (Newton),

from north-east to southwest." The Indians used the Zane's Trail which

is a little south of this."-Old writer.

1Zane's Trace passed School House No. 14 in Reading township,

Perry County.

5"It (Zane's Trace), passed through the present villages of East

and West Rushville. Edward Murphy kept a hotel near this road a short

distance from West Rushville. Among the many distinguished guests

who partook of the bounties of this hotel at various times were General

Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay. The old hotel, now a rather dilapidated

structure is still standing (1883)."-History Fairfield County.

6"The first road in Pleasant Township (Fairfield County), was the

one leading from Wheeling to Maysville, known as Zane's Trace. It

crossed the southern part of the township."

4"A post-office was established at Chillicothe in 1799. The mail was

brought from the east by Zane's Trace and from the west by Todd's."

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                       317


2 From Chillicothe it followed Paint Creek to the point where

it bends to the northwest, four or five miles southwest of the

city.  Continuing in a southwesterly direction till just after it

crosses Black Run where it intersects Todd's Trace up Morgan's

Fork of Sun Fish Creek.1 The remainder of the route to Mays-

ville is virtually the same as that over which Todd's army crossed


2Dawley's Map of Virginia Military District.

1 In June, 1787, Colonel Robert Todd led a party of mounted men,

about three hundred in number, on an expedition against the Indians

at Old Chillicothe. The expedition originated with Simon Kenton. He

was then at Washington, Kentucky, about three miles back of Maysville.

The Indians were quite troublesome. They would make raids, steal

horses and sometimes murder the settlers. Kenton sent word to Col.

Robert Todd at Lexington, to bring as many men as he could, and he

would bring a number and they would join forces and destroy the In-

dian towns on the north fork of Paint Creek. Kenton commanded a com-

pany and piloted the expedition, but Col. Robert Todd had the command.

The party crossed the Ohio at the mouth of Threemile Creek early

in the morning and followed it to near where Bentonville now stands.

It passed south of the site of West Union, and struck Lick Fork and fol-

lowed it to its mouth, where it camped on the west side of Brush Creek.

The next day the expedition divided and a part, that part under Kenton

went up Brush Creek to the site of Fristoe Bridge, crossed Brush Creek

and went along the route of the present turnpike to Sinking Springs and

thence to Cynthiana, Pike County, where they camped the second night.

The right wing, under Col. Todd crossed the creek at the site of the Iron

Bridge, and went up the old Chillicothe road to Steam Furnace, to

near Cynthiana, where the forces joined. From there they went by way

of Bainbridge to within three miles of Old Chillicothe, where they

camped the third night out. About five miles from Old Chillicothe, the

advance guard met four Indians, two of whom they killed and the re-

maining two they captured. Kenton's company then advanced to recon-

noiter, and sent word back to Col. Todd. Kenton's party surrounded the

Indian camp but attacked before it was light enough. Two Indians were

killed and seven made prisoners. The remainder escaped. Col. Todd

with the force under his immediate command, did not arrive in time to

participate in the attack. The town was burned and all the crops de-

stroyed. The army encamped on the north fork of Paint Creek the night

after the attack and the next day started for their homes. Where they

camped on their return is not known, but they took the route of the left

wing in returning. From the Ohio River to Frankfort in Ross County,

the entire route was a virgin wilderness. The party had to and did cut

out a road for themselves, their horses and pack horses, all the way from

the Ohio River to Frankfort. The route from the Ohio River to Old

318 Ohio Arch

318        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


ten years earlier, with the exception from Locust Grove to a

point opposite Sinking Springs, Highland County.3.

Between these two places the "Trace" passed through Sink-

ing Springs, over the Todd War Road, and crossed Brush Creek,

(the route of Christopher Gist, 1750,) at Dunbarton in Adams


It paralleled Brush Creek and one of its southwestern tribu-

taries till it reached the junction of the two streams forming the

Big Three Mile Creek which it followed to the Ohio River oppo-

site Maysville or Limestone.1


Chillicothe by the route of the right wing was afterwards called Todd's

Trace. That part of the route taken by the left wing from the mouth of

Lick Fork by the Fristoe Bridge to Cynthiana was called Todd's War

Road, and the name of that route, "Todd's War Road," was given it by

Gen. Simon Kenton. * * * * After Zane's Trace was laid out in

1797, Todd's Trace was forgotten except as used in surveys made be-

tween 1787 and 1797, but the route of Todd's War Road was the one used

by the stages from the time they began to run."-N. W. Evans, Ports-

mouth, Ohio.

3"So far as the Trace went through Adams County, it followed

the general course of Todd's Trace, except between Bentonville and West

Union, where it was located further north and east; and at the crossing

of Brush Creek, it went up by Steam Furnace. The first settlers in it

were John Treber and Andrew Ellison, who located on it in the spring

of 1798 on Lick Fork. These two locations are the earliest known on

the line of the Trace in Adams County. They are supposed to have set-

tled there in order to kill plenty of game.

Zane's Trace was the usual route from Maysville, Kentucky to Chil-

licothe, Ohio, from 1797 until about 1820. When first opened, it only

afforded a passway for persons on horseback and packhorses. The first

man to ever pass over with a team was William Craig, who drove a

wagon and a team of horses through from Maysville to Chillicothe. This

was in 1798, and he had to cut his way through for the whole distance."-

Nelson W. Evans.

"The Maysville and Zanesville turnpike was constructed along the

general route of the old post road over Zane's Trace passing through

Bradyville, Bentonville, West Union, Dunkinsville, Dunbarton, Palestine,

Locust Grove and Sinking Springs."- History Adams County, (Evans).

1"Zane's Trace commenced opposite Maysville, came up through

Adams county to the ridge in Sun Fish township, along which it continued

till it reached Byington; thence down Sun Fish Creek to Big Spring;

thence up Kincaid's Fork to Lunbeck's Hill and along that ridge in an

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                   319


The "Trace" was not completed within the time specified in

the Congressional Act. It could hardly be expected when we

consider that it covered a distance of something over two hundred

miles. While the road was a mere indicator of direction and it

followed the ridges where the undergrowth was scantier, yet

there were many obstacles to overcome and it was not till well

into the summer of 1797 that it was finished.

It is said that John McIntire met with quite a severe acci-

dent on the route between Zanesville and Limestone. While load-

ing his gun the stock slipped off a root and the contents went

through his right hand crippling it for life.


easterly direction till it passed Mr. Gaull's, in Perry township (Pike

county); thence down Paint Valley to Chillicothe or Indian Old Town."

- History of lower Scioto Valley.

320 Ohio Arch

320       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


2This "Trace" only a bridle path as made by Zane soon be-

gan to be used. At wet crossings saplings known as "corduroys"

were laid. The flood of immigration from tide water poured

through this narrow sluice and gradually widened it. It was for

years the only thoroughfare east or west. It was so constantly

used that at times and places it was worn into ruts so deep that

a horse could have been buried in some of them. Travelers soon

learned to go round these places. It is said that before the road

was accepted Zane was required to drive a wagon over it. We

doubt this and place it along side of the other traditionary state-

ments that grow up around historical events. It has been fur-

ther stated that when he attempted to go over his "Trace" with

the wagon it could not be done.

Pack horses were driven in lines of ten and twelve. They

were tied together so that one driver could handle them all.

Each animal carried about 200 pounds. A large forked limb was

obtained and was cut off just below the fork and then each limb

was cut off about six inches from the crotch and trimmed down to

the required dimensions to accommodate the load to be carried

upon it. Then a flat smooth board was strapped on the horses'

back with a sheep skin pad under it. The art of making pack

saddles became quite a backwoods industry.

As settlements grew up along the line of the Trace improve-

ments were quickly made in the route and in the condition of

the road.

The "Trace" evaded the marshy bottom lands. Neither did

it go around the hills, for digging would have to be done, but it

climbed the hills, often in seemingly inaccessible places. But it

formed the nucleus of the only highway for forty years, along

which passed the trade and commerce of the country.

1The eastern part of this blazed trail as has been intimated

was along the route of an old Indian thoroughfare. Before

Zane had been employed, the white settler and trader had passed

along this bloody path, the scene of many hairbreadth escapes

and thrilling adventures, the memory of which still lingers in

the traditions of the people, because from father to son is told

2Drake's Making of Ohio Valley States.

1 History of Upper Ohio Valley.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                    321

again and again, before the fireside, the achievements of the

"Heroes of the Forest."

"Zane's Trace" might be rightfully considered as the first

declaration of the principle of "Internal Improvements."  It is

true Ohio was not yet a state. The National Government was

still the sole power of authority. Possibly a few years later the

project would have been opposed by politicians who read dire

calamity in "internal improvements."

The route of the "Trace" determined the location of the home

of the pioneer. The settler's cabin soon evolved into the tavern

and the tavern soon became the center of a cluster of houses and

a town had been born. At the crossing of a stream a ferry might

be maintained. The ferryman might also be the proprietor of a

public house. A small stock of goods could be kept for sale and

there we have the germ of another town.

322 Ohio Arch

322        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


The first home within the boundary of Perry Township,

Muskingum County, was by James Brown who came from Water-

ford, Washington County, in 1803, built a cabin and opened

hotel where Zane's Trace crossed Big Salt Creek.2

In 1804 Andrew Crooks opened a wagon road along the

Trace from Zanesville to where it crossed Jonathan's Creek 1 in

Newton Township and opened a public house that for many

years was known as Crooks' Tavern.

In 1804 Thomas Warren following the Trace located in

Section 13, Union Township, Muskingum        County, and opened

his house for the accommodation of the traveling public. This

was the pioneer tavern of the township and was known as the

"Few Tavern."

Caleb Evans the first settler in Pickaway County, came over

the Trace from Kentucky.

The first settlement in Highland County was about half a

mile north of Sinking Springs on Zane's or rather Todd's Trace.4


2 "This road, also called Old Wheeling Road, entered this township

on Section 20 and passed out near southwest corner. Along this road first

settlements were made." - Old Writer.

1 Tradition has it that Jonathan's Creek was named after Jonathan

Zane, who at one time was lost, and camped for the night at its mouth.

This is pretty much of a guess.

4 "The earliest tavern" in Adams county was kept by James January

on Zane's Trace in the valley just to the west of where West Union now

stands. In 1798 John Trebar opened a public house on Lick Fork. In

1801 Mr. Wickerham was licensed for "four dollars a year" to keep this

tavern. It was at Palestine, between Locust Grove and Peebles. The

old brick tavern, the first of the kind in the county (Adams) is still

standing."- History of Adams County (Evans).

"Ellis Road was that portion of Zane's Trace which Nathan Ellis

had improved at his own expense from his ferry opposite Limestone, to

John Sheppard's on Ohio Brush Creek, now known as Fristoes."- Id.

"The first public road surveyed and established in Adams County was

the old Post Road over that portion of Zane's Trace from opposite Lime-

stone or Maysville on the Ohio River, to the north line of the county,

near Sinking Springs." - Id.

"Zane's Road was so 'straightened and amended' as to lose its iden-

tity within a few years after the trace was blazed through Adams County.

This accounts for the many conflicting claims as to its original loca-

tion." - Id.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                      323


The pioneers of Fairfield county came first from Kentucky

and then from Virginia and Pennsylvania by way of the

"Trace." 3

In 1798 a Mr. Graham located upon the site of Cambridge,

Guernsey County. At this time his was the only dwelling be-

tween Wheeling and Zanesville. He kept a tavern and main-

tained a ferry over Will's Creek. After two years he was suc-

ceeded by George Beymer of Somerset, Pennsylvania.

Thomas Sarchett settled at Cambridge in August, 1806. He

came over the Trace and it took him two days to climb the hill

from  Wheeling Creek to the top of the hill at St. Clairsville.

He had three wagons purchased at Baltimore.

St. Clairsville was formerly called Newelsville because Newel

built a tavern here. It took Mr. Sarchett from Tuesday till

Saturday night to go the forty miles from St. Clairsville, to


The patent transferring the three mile tracts to Ebenezer

Zane was not made by President John Adams until February

14th, 1800. But the survey of the Muskingum tract was made

by the order of Rufus Putnam in October, 1797.

Col. Zane gave this tract to his brother Jonathan and his

son-in-law McIntire for their services in opening 1 the "Trace."

The deed transferring the same was signed by Ebenezer

Zane and Elizabeth Zane, his wife, on the 19th of December,

1800, for the consideration of one hundred dollars.

Jonathan Zane and McIntire in turn, leased it to William

McCullough2 and Henry Crooks for five years on condition that


3 In the spring of 1798 Captain Joseph Hunter, a bold and enter-

prising man, with his family, emigrated from Kentucky and settled on

Zane's Tract, upon the bank of the prairie west of the crossings, and

about one hundred and fifty yards north of the present turnpike road.

This was the commencement of the first settlement in the upper Hocking

Valley."- Sanderson's History of Fairfield County.

1The statement that Col. Zane gave the Muskingum tract to his

brother and son-in-law because "it was hilly," might seem to impute a

selfish motive to Col. Zane. Jonathan Zane and McIntire both knew that

the Zanesville tract was the more valuable, and no doubt Col. Zane knew

it also.

2 In 1798 mail was brought from Marietta to Zanesville to meet

mail on Maysville and Wheeling route. McCulloch could hardly read,

324 Ohio Arch

324        Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


they move their families and provide a ferry. In the fall of 1797

they arrived and thus became the first settlers at Zanesville.

The ferry boat at first consisted of canoes lashed together. After

the arrival of McIntire, himself, two years later the flat boat in

which he had moved his household goods from     Wheeling down

the Ohio and up the Muskingum, served in that capacity.

Mrs. McCulloch was a niece of Ebenezer Zane, while her

husband was a nephew of Col. Zane's wife. Her father was the

celebrated Isaac Zane1 while her mother was the daughter of a

chief of the Wyandottes.

On May 7th, 1798, was born to Mr. and Mrs. McCulloch, a

son, who was named Noah Zane McCulloch and who was the

first white (?) child born on the banks of the Muskingum and

Licking Rivers.

In the autumn of 1799, McIntire came to Zanesville.        A

few Virginia families soon joined. At the corner of Market and

Second streets. where the Pennsylvania Depot now stands, he

built a double log cabin with a passage between the parts. It

stood a few rods from the banks of the river within a grove of

maple trees.


but he assorted mail for $30 a year. The mail from Limestone and Wheel-

ing met weekly at Zanesville. Daniel Converse was the first man to

carry the mail from  Marietta to Zanesville. Mr. Converse afterward

acted as executor of the McIntire will.

1 Isaac Zane, the youngest of the Zane brothers, was born in 1753.

At the age of nine years he was captured by the Wyandots and lived

with them upon the Sandusky for seventeen years. He was afterwards

released, and in 1785 was guide and hunter to Richard Butler, one of the

Commissioners to treat with the Indians. For this service he was re-

warded by Congress in 1795 with a tract of 1800 acres situated on Mad

river in Logan county. The town of Zanesfield and the township of Zane

serve to preserve his memory.

On June 21st, 1803, he was elected as one of the first trustees in

Jefferson township, Logan county.

He died in 1816, and is buried near Zanesfield.

(Partially adapted from Wiseman's Pioneers of Fairfield County).

NOTE.- An Isaac Zane represented Frederick county, Virginia, in the

Revolutionary conventions of 1775 and 1776.--Mag. Am. History. If

the foregoing story of the capture by Indians is true, evidently there

were two Isaac Zanes.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                   325


This humble home became the first hostelry of Zanesville

and McIntire's Tavern was known from tide-water to the lakes.

McIntire with his own hands cut the logs, shaped saplings into

rafters1 split scantling for door and window frames. The win-

dow glass was brought from Wheeling.

Mrs. McIntire soon joined her husband and brought with

her the side-board and "chest of drawers" still to be seen in the

McIntire Children's Home. This furniture was made by her

brother-in-law John Burkhart, a cabinet maker of Wheeling.

Mrs. McIntire was born in Wheeling, February 22nd, 1773.

She was a resolute woman, as has been indicated in recounting

her marriage to John McIntire. Standing in her door one day

looking over the ford at the head of big falls, she saw two In-

dians, one a great tall fellow carrying bow and arrows, the other

a squaw, a small woman, carrying a papoose and cooking uten-

sils, struggling along with difficulty, against the current as they

waded across. The sight made her angry and when the Indian

came up and asked for something to eat, she used a stick upon


1 One of these rafters is now a part of the finishing wood in a room of

the McIntire Childrens' Home at Zanesville.

326 Ohio Arch

326       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


him and said, "Begone, you lazy dog." With an "Ugh" he went

away. Then she gave the squaw and child a hearty meal.

It was a fortunate day for the bachelor John McIntire when

he married Sarah Zane. Her will power and her high ideals

served as a balance wheel to her husband. As a hostess her

fame was widely known and her hospitality was dealt with a

lavish hand. In 1802 Louis Philippe, the French exile, lodged

in this humble inn, where he was much impressed with "mine

host and hostess." When he became King of France he often

recurred to this event and inquired of an American traveler con-

cerning Mr. and Mrs. McIntire.2

She was charitable in every sense of the word. Having no

children of her own, she, during her life, adopted no less than

twelve into her family. These she provided for and educated.

Among them was Amelia, the illegitimate child of her husband.

After the death of Mr. McIntire she married in 1816, Rev.

David Young, a Methodist minister. She died in 1854, thirty-

nine years after her first husband. From her private resources

she built the Second street and South street Methodist churches

in Zanesville. Her portrait hangs beside that of her husband

in the McIntire Children's Home.

A short time before her death she gave to her faithful colored

servant, Silas Johnson, the McIntire family Bible.

Zanesville was formally laid out by Jonathan Zane and John

McIntire, April 28th, 1802. The town as laid out then extended

from North street east to Seventh street.

McIntire established a ferry where the "Y" bridge now

stands. He made a mistake in exacting a tariff from immi-

grants and fishermen, who passed along the stream, but upon

discovering his error he abandoned it. But on January 23, 1802,

2 Lewis Cass, referring to this incident in his book, says: "At Zanes-

ville the party found the comfortable cabin of Mr. McIntire, whose name

has been preserved in the King's memory and whose home was a favorite

place of rest and refreshment for all travelers, who at this early period

were compelled to traverse that part of the country. And if these pages

should chance to meet the eyes of any of those, who, like the writer, have

passed many a pleasant hour under the roof of this uneducated but truly

worthy and respectable man, he trusts they will unite in this tribute to

his memory." - Wiseman's Pioneers of Fairfield County.

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                   327


the Second Territorial Legislature authorized Jonathan Zane, et

al., to erect a toll bridge where the "Y" bridge now is.

In the first Constitutional Convention, he was a delegate and

signed the organic laws for Ohio's statehood. From this time

till his death he was the leading citizen of Zanesville. As a

public benefactor that city has yet just cause not to forget.

In the will of John McIntire, dated March 18, 1815, pro-

vision is made that in the event of his daughter leaving no heirs,

that his estate after the death of his wife shall be "for the use

and support of a poor school which they are to establish in the

town of Zanesville for the use of poor children in said town."

In 1855 the public schools of Zanesville had become so well

established that there were no longer poor children, education-

ally speaking, in it. The present John McIntire Children's

Home is now the beneficiary of the will. The estate, which has

been judiciously administered, was worth on May 15, 1902,


1The Zanesville Athaeneum, the only public library in that

city, receives a large share of its revenue from the McIntire estate.

The John McIntire Sewing School is also supported by the

same means.

The John McIntire Children's Home is the best monument

its founder could have. Situated on a beautiful hill overlooking

the city, which he founded, this refuge for poor children is a

living testimony of the beneficence of the man who sleeps be-

neath its shadow.

In the making of Ohio, John McIntire occupied no mediocre

position and we doubt if any other pioneer in the state has suc-

ceeded in continuing his good offices so long after his de-

parture. Much of the McIntire furniture is in the Children's

Home. The old sideboard and chest of drawers of antique pat-

tern, are of especial interest. A sampler made by the daughter,

Amelia McIntire, and showing her handiwork, is also there. The

pictures of John McIntire and wife hang on the walls of the re-

ception room.

1 On June 1, 1904, the Zanesville Athaeneum was transferred to the

Board of Education.

328 Ohio Arch

328      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


John and Noah Zane laid out Lancaster in 1799 and com-

menced the sale of lots. They had the power of attorney and

made the deeds. Ebenezer Zane himself was never in Lan-

caster. Before Lancaster was laid out, travelers who passed along

Zane's Trace called the spot "the place where they crossed the

Hockhocking near the Standing Stone."

In 1799 a postoffice was established. The mail was car-

ried once a week each way. Samuel Coates, Sr., was postmaster.

General Sanderson, the Fairfield County historian, then a lad,

was post-boy between Chillicothe and Zanesville. There were not

half a dozen cabins on the whole route.

Maple street, Lancaster, is on the east line of the original

Zane section. The north line is now the alley just north of the

German Lutheran Church. The south line is now a part of

the south line of the Mithoff farm. The west line starts at a

point in the south line near the sugar-grove on the Mithoff farm,

returning thence north.


"Article of agreement made and entered into by and between Eben-

ezer Zane, of Ohio County, Va., and the purchasers of lots in the town

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                       329


of Lancaster, county of Fairfield, territory northwest of the Ohio River,

now for sale in lots, on the east side of the Hockhocking River, by Eben-

ezer Zane.

Section 1. The lots to be numbered in squares beginning with the

northwest corner of the town, and then alternating from north to south,

and from south to north, agreeable to the general draft of the town.

Section 2. One-fourth of the purchase money will be required two

weeks from the date of this article. The residue of three-fourths will be

required on or before 14th of November, 1802. To be approved by secured

notes bearing lawful interest from the 14th day of November, 1800.

Section 3. Square No. 16, including five lots in the southeast cor-

ner of the town, was thereafter to be held in trust, for the use of a grave-

yard, erection of a school house, a house of worship, and such other build-

ings as may be found necessary. All of which are to be under the direc-

tion of the trustees for the time being. Also four lots at the intersection

of the two main streets running east and west and north and south, known

by appellation of the Center Square, are given for the purpose of erecting

public buildings not heretofore specified.

Section 4. Possession will be given immediately to purchasers com-

plying with Section 2 of this Article. When fully complied with the said

Ebenezer Zane and his heirs, bind themselves to make a deed to the pur-

chasers, their heirs and assigns. If the terms be not fully complied with

the lots shall be considered forfeited and returned again to the original


Section 5. For the convenience of the town, one-fourth part of an

acre, lying west of lot No. 2 in the square No. 3, including two springs,

will be, and are hereby given for the use of its inhabitants, as the trus-

tees of the town may think proper.

Section 6. In consideration of the advantages that arise from the

early settlements of mechanics in the town, and the encouragement of those

who may first settle, lot No. 3 in 20th square; lot No. 6 in 15th square;

lot No. 6 in 12th square, will be given to the first blacksmith, the first

carpenter and the first tanner, all of whom are to settle and continue in

the town pursuing their respective trades for the term of four years, at

which time the aforesaid Zane binds himself to make them a deed.

In testimony of all and singular, the premises, the said Ebenezer

Zane by his attorneys, Noah and John Zane, hath hereunto set his hand

and affixed his seal, this 14th day of November, A. D. 1800.


The Chillicothe tract was located on the east side of the

river, because the lands on the west of the Scioto had already

been appropriated in the Virginia Military Grant. Ebenezer Zane

deeded this tract to Humphrey Fullerton     In 1839, when Caleb

330 Ohio Arch

330       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


Atwater wrote the first history of Ohio, Fullerton's widow was

yet in possession of the land.

A traveler over Zane's Trace leaves us this description of it:

"We started back to Pennsylvania on horseback, as there was

no getting up the river that day. * * * There was one house

(Treiber's) at Lick Branch five miles from where West Union

now is. * * * The next house was where Sinking Springs

or Middletown now is. The next was at Chillicothe, which was

just then commenced.   We encamped one night on Massie's

Run, say two or three miles from Paint creek, where the Trace

crossed the stream. From Chillicothe to Lancaster, the Trace

then went through Pickaway Plains. * * * There was a cabin

three or four miles below the plains and another at their eastern

edge, and one or two more between that and Lancaster. *   *    *

Here we stayed the third night. From Lancaster we went the

next day to Zanesville, passing several small beginnings. I recol-

lect no improvement between Zanesville and Wheeling except one

Zane's Trace

Zane's Trace.                   331

at the mouth of Indian Wheeling Creek opposite Wheeling."

-American Pioneer.

This in brief is the history of the famous "Zane's Trace."

The rough trail with its blazed trees has passed away. Only

here and there can we with certainty locate its ancient course.

But it was a factor in the making and the "winning of the west,"

and every city and town along its narrow route is a product

of this first Ohio roadway. But back of it all stands the heroic

pioneer and "Hero of the Forest," Ebenezer Zane.