Ohio History Journal




The International Congress of Americanists, made up of delegates

from the leading states of Europe, and nearly all of the Countries of the

Americas, held their biennial meeting in New  York City, beginning

October 22, 1902. At this meeting many addresses were made, and

papers were read by distinguished scholars pertaining to the Archaeology

of North and South America. The full proceedings of this meeting,

with the addresses, will be published in book form during the present year.

This congress is an institution of great importance, and is rather unique

in its character. The delegates to it were from various foreign countries,

and were appointed, and had all their expenses defrayed, by the re-

spective governments which they represented. At the close of their regu-

lar conference in New York, they were made the particular guests of the

Pennsylvania Railroad Company, which conveyed them by special cars from

New York to Washington, D. C. where they investigated the Government

Museums. Thence they were to proceed to Chicago by way of Cincinnati,

their ultimate destination being St. Louis, that they might visit the great

mound of Cahokia, which is on the Mississippi river nearly opposite St.

Louis. It was the expressed and almost universal desire of the delegates

to this congress that they have an opportunity of visiting Fort Ancient,

and negotiations between he Secretary of the Ohio State Archaeological

and Historical Society, and Mr. M. H. Saville, the general secretary of

the congress and Assistant Curator of the American Museum of Natural

History of New York, resulted in the accomplishment of the wish of the

members of the congress. By the action of the Trustees of the Ohio So-

ciety, the Americanists were made the guests of the Society at Fort

Ancient, on Thursday, October 30, 1902. The train conveying the

foreign party reached Columbus in the early morning of the date in

question, and they were met and greeted by the following trustees and

officers of the State Society: Gen. R. Brinkerhoff, G. F. Bareis, A. R.

McIntire, M. D. Follett, H. A. Thompson, J. P. MacLean, C. L. Martz-

olff, B. F. Prince, C. P. Griffin, N. B C. Love, E. O. Randall, W. C.

Mills and E. F. Wood.

The guests and hosts proceeding over the Little Miami Railroad

arrived at Fort Ancient at 10 A M., where carriages had been provided

by the custodian Mr. Warren Cowen, to convey the entire party to the

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hill, and about the Fort. After a substantial lunch had been partaken of,

an address of welcome was made to the guests by General Brinkerhoff,

on the part of the Society, and remarks explanatory of the Fort were

made by Professors J. P. MacLean and W. C. Mills. The entire grounds

were then inspected, many of the party putting in much of their time

in looking for relics, mostly with disappointing results. The weather

proved to be the most propitious, and the visitors were greatly delighted

by their examination of these world-renowned      prehistoric remains.

Many of them    had become familiar with all that is generally known

concerning Fort Ancient, from Archaeological literature, and the in-

spection of models in foreign    museums.   The European delegates

were peculiarly interested and astonished. Even the youthful and practi-

cal United States could exhibit prehistoric remains of surpassing magni-

tude and perfection. They all declared that it was the most wonderful

specimen of its kind, probably, in the world, and all complimented the

Ohio Society on being its possessor, and for keeping it in such excellent

condition. They all declared it was the most enjoyable and interesting

day they had experienced since their visit to America. Mr. George F.

Bareis took several photographs of the party. Altogether it was a red-

letter clay for the Ohio Society whose representatives present were none

the less delighted and entertained than were the guests. The foreign

party embraced many of the most distinguished Archeologists in the

world, and indeed, all of them were men of ripe scholarship and of more

or less widespread fame. The following is a list of the guests present at

the Fort Ancient visit:

Edward H. Thompson, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

David Boyle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Juan B. Ambrosetti, Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic.

M. Gonzalez de la'Rosa, Paris, France.

Arthur Farwell, Boston, Mass.

Arthur M. J. Hirsh, Munich, Germany.

Waldemar Borgoras, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Alfred M. Tozzer, Peabody Museum, Cambridge.

Francisco Belmar, State of Oaxaca, Mexico.

Henri Pittier de Fabrega, Costa Rica.

Leon Lejeal, College of France, Paris.

Alfredo Gonzalez, Mexico.

Chevalier L. C. van Panhuys, The Hague, Netherlands.

Prof. Eduard Seler, Berlin, Germany.

Juan F. Ferraz, Costa Rica.

Mary Endora Lyon, Salem, Mass.

Mrs. Jessie Crellin Pepper, Newark, New Jersey.

Mrs. Annie Lyon Saville, New     York City.

Mrs. Grace Hyde Trine, Oscawana-on-Hudson, N. Y.

Miss Alice Edmands Putnam, Cambridge, Mass.


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George H. Pepper, Am. Museum Nat. History, New York.

Harlan I. Smith, Am. Museum Nat. History, New York.

Cecilie Seler, Berlin, Germany.

Hjalmar Stolpe, Stockholm, Sweden.

Luis A. Herrera, Uruguay.

Marshall H. Saville, New York.

Adelaf Breton, London, England.

C. T. Hartman, Stockholm, Sweden.

At the station, before departure, Mr. Saville made a neat little

speech in behalf of the guests, thanking their hosts for the pleasure

and profit of the day, and three cheers were given by each party in be-

half of the other. The guests proceeded, under the escort of President

Howard Ayres of the Cincinnati University, and Mr. C. L. Metz, the

distinguished Archaeologist of Madisonville, to Cincinnati, where they

were the guests of the Society of Natural History, and the Cincinnati

Museum of Archaeology.



Hon. Charles P. Griffin died at noon, of heart failure, at his resi-

dence on Collinwood Avenue, Toledo, December 18, 1902. Mr. Griffin

was born at Tipton, Lorain County, Feb-

ruary 3, 1842. He was brought up on the

farm, attending district school winters. He

taught school in Iowa in the spring of 1859,

and in Missouri in the fall and winter of

1859 and 60. He entered Oberlin College in

January, 1861, but his college course, like

that of many other patriotic boys, was

cut short by his enlistment in Company

C., 7th O. V. I., in April, 1861. Failing

health, however, prevented a long ser-

vice in the army, and he returned to

College, remaining there during the years

1862, '63 and '64, paying his expenses

by teaching school during the vacation

months. In 1864 he became one of the pro-

prietors of the Oberlin Business College;

established and took charge of a business

college at Hillsdale, Michigan, in 1866. In

1868, he removed to Toledo, where he engaged successfully in real es-

tate and insurance business. He was trustee of Hillsdale College from

1876 to 1886, and when the college buildings were rebuilt after their

destruction by fire, one of the largest was named in his honor "Griffin

Hall." Although retaining his residence in Toledo, his business head-

quarters were in New York from 1874 to 1879, and in Chicago from

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1879 to 1883; since which time he was profitably engaged in the busi-

ness of real estate and farming. When some two or three years ago,

the Toledo and Indiana Electric Line was organized, Mr. Griffin was

elected president, and up to the time of his death devoted his entire

time to its construction.  Mr. Griffin was an ardent Republican, and

was the choice of a large number of Toledoans for Congress, three times

losing the nomination to Congressman James Southard.      He served

with distinction in the Ohio Legislature, being elected in 1887, on the

Republican ticket; member of the 68th General Assembly, by a majority

of five hundred, reelected in 1889 by twice that majority; elected for the

third time in 1891 by over fifteen hundred majority; and elected for

a fourth term in 1893 by a majority of four thousand. He was elected to

the 74th General Assembly, in which he championed the legislative

enactment promoting the Ohio Centennial, which was to have been held

at Toledo. He displayed great energy and diplomacy in carrying the

bill through in spite of most determined opposition. The bill was after-

ward declared inoperative by the Supreme Court.

Mr. Griffin was, from its early days, a most stanch, active and

effective member and friend of The Ohio State Archaeological and His-

torical Society. At the annual meetings on March 7, 1890, and February

18, 1891, he personally participated, and at the dinner on each of those

occasions delivered an eloquent address upon the "History of the Mau-

mee Valley." In 1891, Governor James Campbell appointed him a trustee

of the Society. He served until 1894, when he was re-appointed by

Governor William McKinley, serving until 1897 when he was again re-ap-

pointed by Governor Asa Bushnell, and at the expiration of that term, he

was re-appointed in February, 1900, by Governor George K. Nash, to

serve until February, 1903. He was therefore in continuous service, as

trustee by appointment, for twelve years, the longest service of that kind,

by any trustee. On the visit of the Trustees of the Society with the Ameri-

canists to Fort Ancient, of which we give an account in this number,

Mr. Griffin was present, and took a lively interest in the events of the

day, and said to the writer of these lines that he proposed from then

on to give the Society much of his attention and effort. Mr. Griffin was an

indefatigable worker in everything that he undertook. He was a man of

strong convictions and courageous action. He was an ardent friend,

and a fearless foe. He was a ready speaker, an expert parliamentarian,

and a skilled and shrewd debater. Several times during the history of the

Society, as the writer can personally testify, Mr. Griffin was its champion

on the floor of the legislature, and more than once was the leader in

carrying through measures promotive of the progress and efficiency of

The Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. Well does the

writer remember a particular incident in the general assembly of one of

the early 90's. It was an evenng session, the temper of the house was one

of restlessness and impatience. A bill in the interest of the Society was


Editorialana.                        101


under discussion; the tide was against the enactment on the ground

that the Society did not merit the State's aid. Mr. Griffin hastily summoned

the writer to the cloak-room of the House and asked a full explanation of

the situation. It was given. Mr. Griffin returned to the floor and in a

most vigorous argument and enthusiastic plea changed the prevailing senti-

ment and carried the bill through. He was the friend of the Society and

deserves the kindliest thought and most grateful memory of its members.

To the surviving wife, son Mark and daughter Ethel of Toledo

and daughter Mrs. N. Coe Stewart, of Worcester, Mass., we extend the

sympathy and well wishes of the members of the Ohio State Archaeo-

logical and Historical Society.





Mr. Alfred Mathews, recently made honorary member of the Ohio

State Archaeological and Historical Society, has given the public one of

the most valuable little books on Ohio history that has been issued

within recent times. The book bears the title Ohio and her Western

Reserve, with a story of three states, the states being Connecticut,

Pennsylvania and Ohio. Mr. Mathews is a tireless student of history.

He has apparently exhausted the subject of his volume. With great

detail, but always in a delightful and polished style he gives the history

of the Connecticut colony, its claim of a wide strip of territory across

Pennsylvania and the northern part of Ohio into Michigan and Indiana.

His chapter on Wyoming gives the most complete and satisfactory his-

tory of the Connecticut settlement at Wyoming, the tragic history of

that settlement, the battle and massacre of Wyoming, that we have ever

seen in print. It will be recalled that this settlement by the Connecticut

colonists at Wyoming was the first pioneer settlement of the Connecti-

cut people within the boundary of Penn's province on the Susquehanna

river, and within the territory claimed by Connecticut, and was made

largely to preempt and establish by right of possession the title of Connecti-

cut to that western extension. "It represented the first overt act of an

inter-colonial intrusion; the initial movement of that persistent, general,

systematic invasion which resulted in the settlement of Wyoming and the

establishment of a Connecticut government on Pennsylvania soil; a de-

termined effort to dismember the state and to create another, to be

carved from the territory of Pennsylvania." Wyoming was founded by

what was known as the Connecticut-Susquehanna company, which made

its settlement with about two hundred Connecticut men about a mile

above the site of Wilkesbarre in the Wyoming valley in the early spring

of 1762. As early as 1754 the company sent agents to Albany to purchase

from the Indians of the Six Nations the land in the Wyoming Valley.

This was all done under the protest of the Pennsylvanians and their

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governor Hamilton. What was known as the "Pennamite" war subse-

quently ensued. There was much incipient warfare against and perse-

cution of the Wyoming settlers until the early summer of 1778 when the

Wyoming wives besought their husbands to return from the Continental

Army of the Revolution to their Wyoming homes to protect their threat-

ened destruction. At the same time these people called upon the Con-

tinental Congress and the Pennsylvania authorities for justice and pro-

tection for the threatened settlement. But the sorm could not be stayed.

The Indian and British and Tory forces were concentrated at Tioga on

the Susquehanna some distance above Wyoming. "No more heterogen-

eous herd of murderous soldiers and savages was ever seen in America.

Its total is not far from twelve hundred fighting men. There were

four hundred British provincials with a rabble of Tories from New Jersey,

New York and Pennsylvania. There were not far from seven hundred

Indians chiefly Senecas with detachments from the Mohawks and other

tribes. This army was in almost every conceivable dress from the mar-

tial dignity of trained soldiers down to the ruffian type of the low

abandoned and depraved of the Tories. The regulars were in smart uni-

forms. Col. John Butler's Rangers in rich green; the Tories and rene-

gades in every form of backwoods rusticity and tattered motley; the

Indians half naked were in savage attire with their war-paint and bar-

barous adornment varied with martial trappings of soldiers slain in

northern battles."  This nondescript army was under the command of

Colonel John Butler a remote relative of Colonel Zebulon Butler who

was in command at Wyoming. The real leader of the Indian contingent

under Colonel John Butler was Catherine Montour a halfbreed and reputed

daughter of one of the French Governors of Canada. She had been

liberally educated, and the best society of colonial Philadelphia, Albany

and New York had petted and feted her as a romantic and engaging

young woman in whose veins coursed a mingling of cultured and savage

blood. She was now the widow of chief, known as Queen Esther, and

enjoyed the repute of a seeress. She possessed peculiar power over her

Indian race.

The forces at the Wyoming settlement and fort numbered all told

only about three hundred men, and nearly all of these, according to

the inscription of the monument erected in their honor, were "The un-

disciplined, the youthful and the aged." There were two hundred and

thirty enrolled men, many in fact minors, and the remaining seventy were

all either boys or old men. They were divided into six companies, and

mustered at Forty Fort on the west side of the river where the families

of the settlers on the east side had taken refuge. Such was the situation

on that memorable day, the third of July, 1778, when the British and

Indians having advanced intrepidly down the valley were finally met in

battle. The result was inevitable. Col. Zebulon Butler's brave three

hundred, like those of Leonidas at Thermopylae, were cut down. One


Editorialana.                       103


hundred and sixty men were killed, and a hundred and forty escaped only

to be subsequently captured.  A debauch of blood followed for the

special delectation of Queen Esther who personally participated in the

battle. "That seemingly insane savage ordered a score of the prisoners

brought before her for torture. They were compelled to kneel above a

large rock, and then the fanatical fury chanting a wild song swept swiftly

around the circle and dashed out the brains of sixteen victims while

the warriors crowded closely about the scene of butchery expressing their

fierce joy with leaps and yells."  Nearly all of the three hundred men

were killed in the attack or subsequent massacre. Of the wretched people

remaining there were made that day in the valley one hundred and fifty

widows, and nearly six hundred orphans.

Mr. Mathews deals at much length upon the settlement of the

Western Reserve by the Connecticut Yankees. This phase in our state

history he entitles "Connecticut Triumphant in Ohio."  He does full

justice to the great influence of the New England character in its trans-

plantation from Connecticut to the shores of Lake Erie on the Western

Reserve. The part which the Western Reserve has played through its

distinguished characters, military, political, literary and otherwise is

fully set forth. There is a very admirable and succinct statement of the

origin and nature of the great ordinance of 1787, and the Marietta settle-

ment which immediately followed the creation of the North West Terri-

tory. Mr. Mathews also briefly states the chain of events leading to the

evolution of Ohio from the North West Territory into statehood. "Ohio

was never formally admitted as all other states since the original thirteen

have been, to the Union; and it has been a matter of much contention

as to which one of a half dozen dates is the true one from which to

compute her age." That of April 30, 1802 is not the true one, that date

was simply the one upon which Congress passed the first enabling act

paving the way for the admission of Ohio into the Union.  A better

one would be that of November 29, in the same year, when the consti-

tution was adopted by the convention at Chillicothe, or January 11, 1803,

when the first state election was held; but these and several others are

unsupportable for various reasons. On February 19, 1803, Congress passed

an act for the execution of the laws of the Union within the state of Ohio,

"and so is the nearest approach to the act of admission, from which the

existence of other states is determined. This date has been generally sanc-

tioned by historians as the true one. But the legislature first assembled

on March 1, 1803, and the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society

has officially designated that date to be the proper one of the state's

origin and it is therefore now generally so accepted." Mr. Mathews de-

votes an interesting chapter to the analysis of Ohio's ascendency in the

sisterhood of states. This he attributes mainly to its mixture of racial

forces. "It has been tritely told that New England was sown with selected

seed from Old England, but Ohio was sown with selected seed from all

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New England and all the colonies. Her uniqueness, historically speak-

ing, lies in the fact that hers was the first soil settled by the United States.

New England was peopled by the Puritans and others from Old England;

New York by Dutch and English; Pennsylvania by Quakers and Ger-

mans and Scotch-Irish; Virginia again by the English but quite differ-

ent from those of Massachusetts and Connecticut; Maryland by still

another element; and so on. Of the states not included among the

original thirteen, but admitted to the Union before Ohio: Vermont was

settled by Massachusetts and New York; Kentucky by Virginia; and Ten-

nessee by North Carolina; but Ohio was settled by all of these-by

elements from each and every state in the confederacy; in other words,

Ohio was settled by the people of the United States. Ohio was the first

territory to be representative of the entire people, colonists of English

Puritans and Cavaliers and Quakers, of Scotch-Irish and Germans. And

thus in a certain senese were not the Ohioans truly the first Americans?"





This is the age of the historical novel. It is being produced from the

press ad infinitum if not indeed ad nauseum but it has remained for

General John Beatty, a life and honored member of the Ohio State

Archaeological and Historical Society, to be the author of a prehistoric

novel. General Beatty's book is therefore unique as a literary feature

of the day. This volume, as confessed in the apology, purports to be

a free translation from the Norraena of the story of a man living in the

tenth century. It is the self-told narrative of the hero Ivarr Bartholds-

son, a grandson of a former king of Norway, which king spent many

years of his early life in the court of Athelstan of England. Ivarr with

his father had drifted to Greenland, whence Ivarr with an adventurous

party travels to the land of the Acolhuans who occupied the Ohio val-

ley, and were none other than the Mound Builders of that territory.

The book is thenceforth an account of the lengthy sojourn of Ivarr among

its prehistoric people, whose customs, life, habitations, government, and

social system so far as it went, are ingeniously and in imagination de-

scribed. The author takes this form to tell what is supposed to be known

about these people who left no written records. Ivarr in his wanderings

strikes the northern boundary of the present Ohio at the mouth of the

Sandusky river where was a chief settlement of the Acolhuans. The

hero and his friends assist these people in one of their campaigns against

a rival race known as the Skraelings. There is a naval encounter on the

lake in their rude boats, and a hand to hand contest with clubs and bows

and arrows on the land. Ivarr visits the various chief settlements such

as those at Chillicothe, Newark and Marietta. These Mound Building

settlements are graphically portrayed, the business and domestic life of


Editorialana.                       105


the people as one might suppose it to have been in the days of the tenth

century. The author carries the credulity of his reader to the very limit.

For instance, he fully describes the girls' and boys' schools at Lekin,

the name which he gives to the present site of Newark, in the vicinity

of which there still stand to-day vast and complete earth-works of those

long lost tribes. These people, as General Beatty pictures them with a

graphic pen, reached a stage of considerable civilization, one far beyond

that of their successors the Indians. They had a written language, a

commerce that extended to foreign nations in South America, and en-

gaged in many of the amusements prevalent among our smartest set.

They indulged freely, and often too frequently, in palatable wines, and

appear to have been especially fond of gambling. Indeed the indulgence

in this pastime got the hero Ivarr into very serious trouble from which

he had most thrilling escapes. Ivarr takes a long journey from the

country of the Acolhuans to Central America, and Mexico the country

of the Taltecs, who, the author states, were the kinsfolk and contem-

poraries of the Acolhuans of the Ohio valley. There is of course a love-

thread running through the story. One lady Gunhild, a princess among

the Acolhuans, is the beloved of Ivarr, and with her he subsequently re-

turns to Norway, where they live, in their later life enjoying the mem-

ories of their experiences among the Mound Builders of Ohio. General

Beatty has woven into this interesting story very much that the Archaeo-

logists claim in behalf of these prehistoric people. The "Acolhuans" is

not only an excellently imagined story itself, with many thrilling scenes

and graphic descriptions, but is, moreover, well calculated to attract our

attention to and interest us in the days and life of the Mound Builders,

as we see them in our mind's eye. The book is embellished with several

illustrations of the rehabilitated cities and localities of the Mound Build-

ers, the special one of which is that reproducing Fort Ancient as it was

in the day of its habitation. Fort Ancient the author describes as the

city of refuge and the capital of the province. This is in accordance

with a much accredited belief that Fort Ancient was the great central

capital of these people in the Ohio valley. General Beatty very fittingly

dedicates his volume to Colonel E. L. Taylor, a life member of the Ohio

State Archaeological and Historical Society, and one than whom there

are few, if any, so well versed in the life and character of the Mound

Builders and their followers the American Indian. General Beatty's book

is published by McClelland & Co. of Columbus, Ohio.




A most attractive and interesting little pamphlet has just been

published by Mr. S. F. Harriman, Columbus, O., under the pretentious title

"The Greatest Living Man." The author is Col. William Jackson Arm-

strong, the distinguished writer, and who, under Grant's Administration,

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was inspector of foreign consulates. Colonel Armstrong is a most forceful

and accomplished writer. His style is more that of the early English

essayists than of the modern facile but less elegant wielders of the pen.

Colonel Armstrong, in this little monograph, displays a wonderful range

of reading, marvelous insight into human nature, and most exact powers

of analysis and comparison. He touches upon the leading characteristics

of all the great living men, authors, poets, generals, artists, philosophers,

scholars, actors, scientists, engineers, inventors, and great captains of

industry both foreign as well as American. His essay is a remarkable

condensation of vast intellectual sweep and study. He comes to the

rather startling conclusion that the greatest living man is none other

than Thomas Edison, the inventor, and a native Buckeye, having been

born at the little town of Milan, near Norwalk. It is possible that all

the world will not agree with Colonel Armstrong's deduction, but, in

any event, considering the care and range which he has given to his

subject, the Colonel is entitled to very great consideration.