Ohio History Journal









[In the Summer of 1798, David Zeisberger, accompanied by several

brethren of the Moravian Colony, departed from their then temporary

home, the town of Fairfield, on the Thames, in Canada, and proceeded to

the Tuscarawas Valley, where they founded the settlement called Goshen,

located seven miles northeast of Gnadenhutten. In the party of the Goshen

settlement was the Rev. Benjamin Mortimer, an Englishman, who had sev-

eral years before joined the Moravian Missions in America. He was a

zealous worker among the Indians and a close friend of Zeisberger, at

whose funeral, 1808, he preached a sermon in English. Subsequently Mor-

timer became pastor of the Moravian church in New York City, where he

died in 1834. This Diary of 1812 is interesting as revealing the condition

of the Mission during the War of that date between England and the

United States. The original of the Diary is preserved in Archives of the

Moravian church at Bethlehem, Pa. Indebtedness should be acknowl-

edged for the privilege of publishing the Diary to the Rev. W. N.

Schwarze, Curator of the Moravian Library, Bethlehem-E. O. R. Editor.]


Goshen Congregation at the close of 1811:    4 married pair;

2 married women; 1 widow; 2 single men; 7 boys; 8 girls;-

28 persons.

*  *   *



New Year's day 1 Jan., the public meeting was from Luke

13, 6-9, etc.

5th from Prov. 23.26 whereby these passages of scripture

were closely applied to the hearts.

Epiphany 6th was celebrated in the nearness of our Lord,

with a morning blessing, discourse and lovefeast. During all

the late festival days we were thankful that we had no disturb-

ance from drunken people.


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9th was a meeting for the communicants whom on the

1oth we spoke with individually, and found in a humble

state of mind, longing for more grace from our Saviour.

11th we enjoyed with them a blessed Lord's supper, con-

cerning which they afterwards expressed themselves with

much thankfulness.

12th the public meeting was from Rom. 12.1 etc. In these

days we had particular occasion to speak with Tobias, and with

Anna Sophia, about their circumstances, advising them to con-

duct themselves willing to do.

17th we had the particular pleasure to receive a considerable

parcel of congregational accounts, and other writings from our

dear brn. in Germany and Pennsylvania for which we were

very thankful.

19th the public meeting was Ps. 60. 13.

23rd there were several shocks of an earthquake felt here,

and in particular one at 1/2 past 8 o'clock in the morning, more

severe than any of those on the 16th ult. None of our brn.

& srs. could recollect that they had ever till lately witnessed any

thing of the kind before, and in common with the rest of the

inhabitants of this country, were much alarmed at these un-

usual phenomena. We explained to them the supposed causes

of earthquakes, and exhorted them to put their trust in our

Lord, and not to be afraid; but at same time to pray for grace

to be ready for whatever might be His will with them.

An Indian chief who hunts at present not far from here,

gives out, that the late earthquakes took place because the Great

Spirit was not pleased that the white people had taken posses-

sion of so much of the Indian country, and had lately killed so

many Indians on the Wabash.

26th the public meeting was from John 3.17. & 2 Feb. from

Phil. 3. 7-14.

7th at about 1/2 past 3 o'clock in the morning, there was a

very severe shock of an earthquake here. The concussions

lasted nearly half an hour. The morning was perfectly calm,

and the moon shone dimly. In the evening at about 8, and at

1/2 past 10 o'clock, there were two other pretty severe shocks,

though not nearly equal to that in the morning. In general

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about this time slight earthquakes were very frequent, and

sometimes lasted for hours successively. In many persons they

produced headache, and a disordered state of the stomach re-

sembling sea-sickness. We were told of instances in the neigh-

borhood of children who after an earthquake were obliged to

vomit. These concussions of the earth, the dreadful appre-

hensions that were at this time very generally entertained of an

Indian war, the prognostications of a so-called prophet among

the whites in Virginia, and a variety of other occurrences, made

many people in these parts suppose that the end of the world

was near at hand.

9th the public meeting was from Luke 22. 37. By a letter

from Br. Luckenbach to Br. Peter, we were very sorry to hear

of Br. Hagen's poor state of health since he left us last fall.

13th we had the pleasure to receive the late weekly leaves

out of the U.E.C. Today a beginning was made to seize the

property of Indians here for debt, by warrants from a justice

of the peace; which occasioned considerable uneasiness among

our brn. & srs. We endeavored to console them, and make them

easy on the subject, by representing to them the advantages

that, with proper care on their side, they might derive from our


16th the public meeting was from Math. 4.1 etc. Sugar-

making commenced for this season, and all the Indians here

moved to their sugar-camps.

23d on account of inclement weather, there could be no

meeting here. Ska and William set off for Sandusky, by whom

we sent congn. accounts and other articles to our brn. there.

1 March, the public meeting was from Matth. 25. 1-13.

2d at our request Br. Oppelt from Gnadenhutten attended

the court today in New Philadelphia, in order to prosecute some

of the persons who are now more forward than ever in offering

whiskey to the Indians. The notices that he gave had a good

effect, though as the grand jury was found to have been irregu-

larly summoned, they could make no presentments.

3d Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

8th there could be no meeting here, as the weather was un-


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15th there was a general attendance of our people here, and

the public meeting was from Is. 46. 3, 4.

22d on account of the very unfavorable weather, our brn.

and srs. could not possibly assemble from the sugar camps to

a meeting.

Maundy-Thursday, 26th, all the Indians who at present

reside with us, came to hear the account of our Saviour's suf-

ferings in the garden of Gethsemane, and listened thereto ap-

parently with great attention. Br. & Sr. Mortimore enjoyed the

holy communion together blessedly.

Good Friday, 27th, the reading of the history of our

Saviour's sufferings was continued in several meetings.

Great Sabbath, 28th, we had an agreeable lovefeast with all

the Indians here, in commemoration of our Saviour's meritorious

rest for us in the grave. The opportunity was especially im-

proved to call to mind the most remarkable scenes of our Lord's

sufferings, which is never done without evident impression upon

the hearts.

Easter, 29th, early in the morning we prayed the Easter

litany, partly in the church, and partly in the burying-ground.

At 10 o'clock we read together the history of the day, after

which was the festival discourse from Rev. 1. 18. During these

festival days all the Indians here moved entirely into the town

again on purpose to enjoy the meetings, and no kind of dis-

turbance occurred. This afternoon they returned again to their


31st Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadenhutten.

5th April, the public meeting was from Matth. 9, 27-31.

9th Br. Mortimer visited again in Gnadenhutten and in


12th, the public meeting was from Jno. 10. 14-18. Br. Mor-

timer went today to Beersheba to the assistance of Br. Miller to

confer on some matters with the brn. of that congregation agree-

able to a commission given him for the purpose from the direc-

tors of the society for the propagation of the gospel among the

heathen. He returned home in the evening.

16th, the post today brought us the unwelcome news that

the President of the U. S. had called on the Governor of this

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state, for 1200 of the militia to march immediately for Detroit.

This will occasion much uneasiness among the Indians in gen-

eral, who are alarmed at nothing so much as at the marching of

the militia. It was the militia of this country and not regular

troops that murdered so many of our defenseless Indian brn.

and srs. and their children, in cold blood, in the year 1782 at


19th, the public meeting was from Prov. 2. 6, 8. In the

afternoon Br. Mortimer tried to dispel the alarms which our

brn. had expressed respecting the marching of the militia. They

declared themselves at length to be quite easy on the subject,

provided only open war did not break out between the English

and Americans; in which case they believed that if, as they ap-

prehended would be the case, Indians took part in the dispute,

their lives would not be safe here. They said they relied on Br.

Mortimer for advice, what it would be best for them to do in

such a case.

26th, the public discourse was from Prov. 2, 6-8.

30th, being appointed by the Governor of this state to be

observed as a day of public fasting and prayer the same was

kept here with due solemnity. At a meeting in the morning,

after prayer had been put that the Governor had recommended,

a discourse was held from Jer. 18, 1-11, with reference in par-

ticular to Jonah 3, 1 etc.; and with a suitable application to the

hearts. It was rumored here to-day, that all the Indians at the

town half way between here and Sandusky were suddenly fled

away and the neighboring white people did not know what was

become of them. If this is the case (and it is not improbable)

the cause, we suppose, is their excessive terror on account of

the marching of the militia, whom all the Indians in these parts,

from past experience, regard only as so many lawless, blood-

thirsty murderers.

N. B. According to subsequent accounts if these Indians

really all fled as described, the majority of them soon returned.

3 May, the public meeting was from Jno. 4. 42.

Ascension-day, 7th, at a meeting in the morning, the history

of our Lord's glorious ascension into heaven was read and was

Vol. XXII --14.

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discoursed upon, the conclusion was made with prayer kneeling.

In the evening Br. Mortimer, by commission from the G. H. C.

in Bethlehem, made known to the brn. & srs. that he was called

from hence in the service of our Lord to New York. As he

could not at same time inform them who would come as his suc-

cessor in this place, the communication caused some agitation

among them, and they seemed to be generally afraid that they

would now be left without a teacher, and, as they said, for want

of hearing the gospel fall more and more into sin, and thus

perish eternally. Br. Mortimer encouraged them with the hopes

that if it was their sincere desire to amend their course of life,

and begin anew to live for our Lord, a teacher might still be

sent them. In consequence of the declarations of the majority

in the ensuing days, that they could not endure the thought of

going to live again among the wild Indians, where they would no

longer hear the word of God; and the disposition they mani-

fested to make the best promises they could for the future; he

promised to remain with them till another teacher was sent here

in his place.

8th, Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

10th, the public meeting was from Jno. 14. 16, 17.

Whitsunday, 17th, was celebrated with a solemn morning

blessing, and a discourse from Acts 2. 1, etc.

18th, Br. Miller on his way to and from New Philadelphia

where he preached today made us as usual the pleasure of a


22nd, was the funeral of Anna Benigna, the wife of John

Henry, who departed to our Lord early yesterday morning.

She was born and baptized at the winter abode of the Indn

congn, on Capt. Elliott's farm (near where Malden now is in

Upper Canada) on their way from Pettquotting to Fairfield, in

the year 1791. At an early age she married, and being brought

to bed with her first child on the way between here and Pett-

quotting, the company with which she travelled so hastened with

her on the journey, that when she arrived at the latter place,

she was very ill, and apparently at the point of death. In her

distress she sought and found the grace of our Saviour, and

was soon after received into the congn. Three years ago, a

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particular work of the Spirit of God was observable in her, and

she was admitted to partake of the holy communion. She was

of a still, quiet and meek disposition, lived in uninterrupted

peace with every one, was dutiful towards her aged mother, and

in the different relations of wife and mother walked worthy of

the gospel. She never unnecessarily missed a meeting, and re-

joiced for some years past at nothing so much as when she

heard of our Saviour, with whom it was evident that she lived

in heart's connexion.  So exemplary and valuable a young

sister we would very gladly have kept among us.      Our

Lord however thought otherwise, and for a considerable time

past has been preparing her for a happy exit out of time. When

her departure drew near, nothing troubled her but the thoughts

of leaving her only surviving child, her husband and mother.

But she became at length easy on their account too; and being

anew assured of the forgiveness of all her sins, she declared

that she was now ready to depart, and rejoiced at the thought

of going to be with our Saviour.

In the evening a stage and seven waggons, containing 7

families from Litiz in Pennsylvania, and that neighborhood,

passed through here on their way to Billartin Heller's two miles

from here, where most of them propose making their home for

the present. The greater part of these belong to the Brethern's

congn., and purpose settling not far from here. The whole

number of families of white brn. & srs. in this neighborhood is

now nearly forty. With the above mentioned company came

Br. & Sr. Miller's daughter Charlotte from  Bethlehem, who

remained over night with us, and proceeded the next day, the

23d to her parent's house in Beersheba.

Trinity, 24th, the public meeting was from 1 Jno. 5. 7, 8.

Ska Levi and another Indian came here from Sandusky and

brought us letters from our dear brn. there and at Fairfield.

On account of fears at present entertained in these parts of an

Indian war, much eagerness was soon discovered in our neigh-

borhood, to know what news these Indians had brought, and

what was the object of their being here. All the accounts they

brought agreed with our letters in representing the Sandusky,

Greentown and Achquittehanning Indians as peaceably disposed

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towards the United States. The false reports that are at pres-

ent propagated here respecting the Indians are innumerable.

26th Anna Sophia returned from Achquittehanning whither

she went some weeks since to seek relief for her sick child. In

these days we had the pleasure to receive congn. accounts and

letters which had been brought hither by Br. Christ. Blickens-

derfer and company from Litiz. Our brn. & srs. were now en-

gaged in planting; some of the srs. were sickly, and could not

attend to their work as usual, on which account we found it

necessary to remind the others to be so much the more in-

dustrious, that they might be the better able to assist each other

with the future produce of their labors, and there be no want

among them.

29th Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

31st the public meeting was from Matth. 6, 24. Locusts

now made their appearance here in greater numbers, than ever

have been known in these parts since the recommencement of

the settlements on this river. For some weeks past as they

were coming out of the earth, the hogs fed and throve on them.

They now served as food for the fowls, and the Indian children

also fried and ate them.

7th June, the public meeting was from John 12. 35, 36.

13th Br. Miller and daughter paid a visit here, and re-

turned to Beersheba the same day.

14th the public meeting was from Jno. 10. 28.

15th Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

21st the public meeting was from Ps. 23. 1-4. In the even-

ing we had the grace to enjoy the holy comm. with our small

congn. of Indian comts., in the sense of the nearness of our

gracious Lord.

28th the public meeting was from Matth. 11. 28.

30th Br. Miller paid us a short visit.

1 July the very melancholy intelligence was brought here,

that war had actually been declared by the U. States against

Great Britain, which led us to commend ourselves, the Indians

here, and all the inhabitants of the land, to the protection of

our Lord.

4th Kaschates came here from Greentown.

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5th the public meeting was from Rom. 6. 3, etc. In the

afternoon Br. Mortimer went by invitation to welcome Br. &

Sr. Blickensderfer and family in this neighborhood, as members

of the Gnadenhutten congn. He had also the grace to enjoy

the holy comn. with the brn. & srs. there.

12th the public meeting was from Rom. 6. 19 etc.

16th Br. & Sr. Miller made us the pleasure of a visit.

19th there could be no meeting here from the apprehension

of disturbance from drunken Indians.

22nd for some time past it had been circulated in our neigh-

borhood, that a number of Indians with red coats and British

rifles were seen in different places near us; and the report oc-

casioned much uneasiness among the settlers. Today we were seri-

ously questioned from New Philadelphia on the subject, and

were glad that we could satisfactorily explain the origin of the

whole alarm. It has arisen from the circumstance, that Kas-

chates, who is known here by the name of Thomas Lyons, some

time since came here with a red coat on, and carrying-as was

said -a British rifle. This Indian speaks English, and used when

he lived here formerly, to relate to the white people very cir-

cumstantially, what murders he had committed among them

during the last Indian war, and what excessive cruelties he

either has-or pretends to have been-guilty of. His arrival

here at this time excited the greatest illwill against him wher-

ever he was known, as he was supposed to be come only as a

British spy. We were glad that he soon went away again of his

own accord, as no Indian appears to be so generally disliked in

this part of the country as he is.

26th the public meeting was from Acts 26. 17, 18. Dur-

ing this week, by occasion that some disputes that occurred

here, had to be made up, Br. & Sr. Mortimer spoke with all our

upgrown Indians, either individually, or in small parties. What-

ever was said to them was well received, and seemed to have

salutary effects. The disagreements that had arisen were satis-

factorily adjusted and love and harmony restored. For all this

we had particular reason to be thankful to our Lord, especially

in consideration of the present trying times.

A draft of militia was made this week throughout our

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county, and the men received orders to hold themselves in readi-

ness for the defense of the country. This requisition fell hard

upon many heads of families, and others, to whom it was very

inconvenient to leave their homes; and numbers were under

much anxiety, that if during their absence, an Indian war

should break out on the frontiers nearest us, their families

would be unprotected, and in great danger of their lives. It

was also believed, that the circumstance that the Indians reside

at this place, rendered the situation of the neighboring white in-

habitants more critical than it otherwise would be; as here, it

was apprehended, hostile Indians might secret themselves; and

from the knowledge that they could obtain here of persons and

places, devise plans for future mischief among the white people.

The report was circulated, too, that such inimical Indians were

already arrived here; that by day they were not to be seen, but

that they assembled here during the night. It was in conse-

quence said without reserve, that before the militia marched,

the settlement here must be destroyed. Many declared that if

they saw a strange Indian here they would shoot him, and shoot

any Indian who would take their part; which was in fact noth-

ing less than uttering a threat of murder against all the in-

habitants here; and some said plainly, that every Indian here

must be killed. The different militia companies were mustered,

and the drafts made on Thursday; and on Friday in particular

these alarming expressions were communicated to us.

1 Aug. It being the day appointed for all the drafted

militia men to meet in New Philadelphia, Br. Mortimer went

there too, to enquire into the truth of the flying reports re-

specting danger from the Indians, and to avail himself of such

opportunities as might offer, to calm men's minds respecting

the dangers that were apprehended from those that live here.

He could assure every inquirer, that no strange Indian except

the above mentioned Kaschates had arrived in Goshen for a

considerable time past, and that he had been gone from here

for above a week. He proposed that as long as the war con-

tinued notice should be given by us in New Philadelphia when-

ever any strange Indians arrived here, with a description who

they were.

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2d by the return of the mail carrier this morning to Gnaden-

hutten Br. Mortimer wrote to the Governor of this State, to

give him some account of our situation. This was a step that

appeared from various considerations to be proper at this time.

The public meeting was from Luke 12. 37.

3d Br. Mortimer went again to New Philadelphia, prin-

cipally with the view to shew Col. Bay, who is the principal

military man in this and the neighboring counties, copy of the

letter which he had sent to the Governor yesterday. He took

the opportunity to converse with him, and other gentlemen there

who appear to be friendly disposed toward us, more leisurely

than could be done on Saturday, concerning the situation of the

Indians here, with reference to the reports that circulate in our

neighborhood, respecting dangers to be apprehended from them,

and to learn their sentiments on the subject.

4th the Indian Ska set off from here for Jerome's town;

and we recommended to him not to come hither again as long as

the war continued. This man is unmarried; and although he

has been a hearer of the gospel with us now these 13 years, re-

mains still a heathen. He spends much of his time in going

from place to place to hear and tell news. As he speaks broken

English and has occasionally told among the white people what

acts of cruelty he had committed among them during the last

Indian war (which were altogether probably his own fabrica-

tions) he is on that account disliked by many in this neighbor-


5th Br. Mortimer went to Gnadenhutten and put into the

post office there a letter to Mr. Varnum, the Agent of the United

States at Sandusky, the object of which was, for reasons as-

signed, to warn and prevent, as much as lay in his power, all

Indians whatever from coming to this place. This step seemed

the more necessary, as the American Brigadier Gen. Hull, as

the public papers informed us, had recommended to all the In-

dians who had joined the British at Brownstown and Maiden,

and afterwards made peace with the U. States (whose number

it appeared however afterwards was not great) to return peace-

ably to their former homes. Among these are some from San-

dusky and Jerome's-town, who as they have not planted this

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season, might in part, if not previously prevented, design to

come hither to partake of the crops of their Indian friends, and

to hunt and buy cheap provisions in our neighborhood; which

-as the state of the public opinion here is-they would do at

the peril of their lives.*

Today we heard that on the preceding evening, in conse-

quence of the firing off of a gun by some unknown person about

dusk near Canton, which is 34 miles from here, a great fright

was occasioned in and near that town, as it was immediately

circulated and believed, that the Indians were arrived, and had

commenced destroying and murdering. About 300 persons fled

during the night into Canton, and all the inhabitants there re-

mained under arms till morning. The consternation continued

in that neighborhood for many days afterwards, but not an In-

dian was to be seen or heard of.

By occasion of this last occurrence, we warned the Indians

here of the danger which might very easily befall them, if they

were from home in the evenings; and strongly recommended

to them, to be careful where they go, how they behave every-

where, and not for the present to go to places where they are

not well known, and are not assured that they are among friends.

They are not a little terrified at the different accounts they hear,

and some of the women spoke of flying to some more secure

place. But the brethren answered: "that they did not come

here of themselves, but had been brought hither by their teach-

ers, and a place appointed them by Congress to reside on. That

they had still one teacher living with them, to instruct and take

care of them. Here therefore they relied upon being pro-

tected and provided for as circumstances might require. Nor

did they think that their lives would be rendered more secure

by their moving to any other place."

In those days the report also came here, that a company of

Missouri Indians (Osages etc.) who were returning from a mis-

sion to the President of the U. States, had been fired at on the

Ohio from the town of Steubenville, when their conductor-

a white man-was wounded in the mouth. This account we

* Br. Mortimer in the sequel made known the contents of this

letter to Col. Bay and others in official stations in the county.

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afterwards found was true. It shows that it would no longer

be safe for our Indians to move from this place, as their being

strangers any where among the white people, would alone, with-

out strong protection, put them in danger of their lives.

8th between 11 & 12 o'clock at night, above 20 men, all

armed with rifles, swords or pistols, came here from New Phila-

delphia, to search for Indians who have been said to sculk about

by day, and assemble here at night. Messrs. Laffer and Mc-

Connel preceded them on horseback, and came first to Br. & Sr.

Mortimer's house, to give them notice of the approach of the

people, and what their business was. Br. Mortimer, who was

fast asleep, on being awoke and dressed, offered to go with the

whole company, with a candle in his hands, into every Indian

house, and to every place about us which the people might ex-

press a desire to visit. It happened that there was no other In-

dian here except Charles and Christian Henry and their families,

who at this dead hour of the night were all fast asleep. They

were awoke by Br. Mortimer in presence of Messrs. Laffer and

McConnel, and told of the object of this visit; and Mr. Mc-

Connel went immediately afterwards with Br. Mortimer's con-

sent to fetch the company of armed men, who had meanwhile

stopped near the town. Three of these people believed and

maintained, that from the place where they had stood among

the bushes, they had seen two men cross the street just at the

time when Br. Mortimer came out of his house with Messrs.

Laffer and McConnel, with a candle in his hand. They declared

too that they had heard them open a door, and speak together;

and no surmise made with a view to explain what might have

led to this belief, would satisfy them. The most diligent search

was therefore made in all the buildings and places from whence

the New Philadelphians themselves believed it to be possible,

that the supposed two men could have come; but no trace, they

allowed, was found, that a human being had been in any one

of them, within the preceding 24 hours. If therefore they saw

anything, it was probably only two dogs, who had recently

barked, and might have crossed the street at the time when

Messrs. Laffer and McConnel entered the town, and who by

means of a distant candle, and their fears, became long and

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alarming shadows. All who belong here were very sure, and

averred, that no strange Indians were secreted here.

Had this unauthorized visit, made in the dead of the night,

with many apologies for troubling us at so unseasonable an

hour, and with much caution in particular from Mr. Laffer, who

took care that no person here should be alarmed, and nothing

done or said that could be taken amiss; not been conducted so

prudently, we might with propriety have made it the subject of

a complaint before a magistrate. A report, it was said, had

reached New Philadelphia that 15 strange-and it was supposed

hostile-Indians were seen during the day coming towards this

place.  This occasioned much alarm, and the 20 armed men

and upwards, came here to see whether the report was true; and

if so; they told us, to take the 15 strange Indians prisoners.

But their plan was illjudged; for had there been so many hos-

tile Indians here, the greater part of them would probably have

been killed by them, as their behaviour was altogether un-

soldierlike. Judge Dierdorf, Mr. Clark, Col. Bay and others in

New Philadelphia had endeavored, they said, to dissuade them

from their purpose, as they professed to be convinced, that all

the reports of hostile Indians being harbored here, were false;

but as their representations were disregarded, they particularly

desired Mr. Laffer, who keeps the principal tavern there, to

ride in haste hither, give due notice of their approach and busi-

ness, and strongly recommend in their name, to behave them-

selves in a becoming manner here. After staying with us up-

wards of an hour, these nightly visitors set off on their return

home. As soon as they were out of town, they began to fire off

their guns, in order as they had said here, to frighten the women

in New Philadelphia, and make them think that murderous

work was going forward. As they approached New Phila-

delphia, they continued firing, which so alarmed Abr. Kneisley

Esqre. and his family, who live about half a mile out of town,

that, under supposition that hostile Indians were actually come,

and were fighting with the New Philadelphia people, they all

fled with the utmost precipitation into the woods, and remained

there till break of day.

9th the public meeting was from Ps. 32 7.

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            219


loth Br. Miller paid us a visit.

11th, a strange Indian woman came here, from whom we

learnt that a considerable number of Indians were at present

hunting in these parts, but avoided coming to New Philadelphia,

or here, for fear of the white people. The woman staid here

only a few days. A company of regular troops marched

through here on their way to Zanesville.

14th all the militia of the county assembled not far from

Br Uhrich's mill. As we live nearly in the center of the county,

and on the high road, many people pass on such occasions

through our place.-Kaschates, of whom mention in our diary

22d last month, came here again.

We soon informed him of the suspicions entertained con-

cerning him by the white people; and that we wished him on

that account to go out of these parts. He answered that for the

very reason that he had heard this, he had come and would now

remain here, and give an account of himself to every one who

would ask him; he would not go away immediately, as that

would only strengthen the suspicions against him; and he was con-

scious that he was come here for no bad or improper purpose,

but merely to see his friends. This was doubtless too the real

truth. On hearing this, Br. Mortimer, and the Indian brother

John Henry took the first opportunity of the return of a con-

siderable party of militia from the mustering-ground, to in-

form them that Kaschates, the Indian of whom so much had

been said, was now here, and had declared that whoever pleased

might speak to him, and he could himself answer them in Eng-

lish. Br. Mortimer first related to them the general history of

his life, mentioning every circumstance that occurred to him in

his favor, among the rest that the red coat which had occasioned

so much alarm, had, to his knowledge, been made here six

years ago; and as for his speaking of the warlike exploits which

he had performed 30 or 40 years ago, it was precisely what al-

most every old soldier among the white people did, and which

no man was ever blamed for. He then introduced the militia

men, who while he was speaking, had increased to about 40, all

on horseback, to Kaschates himself, who on being called, came

directly out of the house, Br. Mortimer placing himself close to

220 Ohio Arch

220      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

him as his friend. Some of the militia murmured, and even

threatened; but others immediately shook hands with him, ex-

pressing themselves at the same time handsomely in his favor.

On this evil disposed were overawed and silent. After some

further conversation the greater part declared themselves to be

quite satisfied; and all went away to appearance convinced that

no bad design ought to be imputed to him. Kaschates when

all was over, retired to the house again; but lay down in his

clothes, kept his horse tied to a tree, and before the next morn-

ing came, had gone off privately without saying a word to any


Yesterday on the mustering ground some disputes had taken

place among the militia; and the same Mr. McConnel who had

been on the preceding Saturday night at Br. & Sr. Mortimer's

house, badly wounded the two brn. John Uhrich and Henry

Keller, who were appointed as guard over a drunken person,

merely because they did the duty assigned them. Br. Uhrich's

life for some time was almost despaired of. This occurrence

among others, served to take off people's attention for some

time from the Indians here, concerning whom many unrea-

sonable reports and jealousies had been entertained and propa-

gated, one cause of which appeared uniformly to be, that the

militia here were mostly unwilling to go to Canada, and brought

forward the danger to be apprehended from the Indians if they

went, as a ground why they believed they ought rather to stay

at home.

15th Anton, son of the late Br. Lucas, came here from Pett-

quotting, and two Indians from Jerome's town.

16th, we heard from Mr. Kneisley Senr., that one of the

Indians who came here yesterday from Jerome's town, had on

the way got drunk in New Philadelphia, and without any provo-

cation, drew his knife at, and used threatening language to

Mr. Kneisley and others. Upon such occasions, and especially

during the present war-time, the first expression in almost every

one's mouth is, to shoot such an Indian on the spot. The per-

son who behaved so we sent away immediately, after relating

to him how he had excited the public feelings against us, and

endangered all our lives. Every other wild Indian who was

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            221


here, was intimidated by this affair, and accompanied him. The

preaching was from Luke 22. 32.

17th there was a meeting of a considerable part of our

county militia at New Philadelphia. Unfavorable news began

now to arrive here from the American army near Detroit, which

much damped the spirits of many.

18th Ska returned here from Jerome's town.

19th, Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

20th this day being appointed by the President of the United

States, to be kept as a day of humiliation and prayer, the same

was also observed here. At 11 o'clock a public and very solemn

discourse, in reference to our own particular circumstances, and

those of the county at large to which we belong was held from

Is. 26. 8, 9. Just when the meeting was ending, nearly 200 per-

sons passed through here from New Philadelphia, namely the

company of militia that had been drafted here lately, and were

on their way to Zanesville, and a considerable number of per-

sons who chose to accompany them for a few miles. The sight

of so many people did not appear to occasion any fears among

our Indians.

21st we thought of the meeting of the Society for the

propagation of the gospel among the heathen, which is usually

held on this day in Bethlehem, wishing all the members the

guidance of the good Spirit of God in their deliberations.

After a long drought, we had on this and the following

day, a very heavy rain, which caused the Muskingum in many

places to overflow its banks.

23rd the public meeting was from Luke 17. 17.

Today the first certain news arrived here, that Genl. Hull

and his army had suffered a great reverse of fortune, but what

the particulars were, could not be ascertained. The inhabitants

near Cleveland had seen English ships approach that place

full of people, and supposing them to be come to invade the

country, fled from their houses, and spread alarm in all direc-

tions. The consternation in this part of the county was beyond

description great; it could hardly have been greater with many,

had the enemy actually been at their doors, and had they seen

scalping knives in the hands of the Indian warriors. From

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222      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

mere anxiety and dread, all labor appeared to cease now

throughout the country.

26th Col. Bay passed through here, and shewed Br. Mor-

timer a letter which he had just received from Governor Meiggs,

directing him as acting General of Brigade, to provide for the

security of the frontier nearest here, by calling out the militia

of his district, and building block houses. He expressed the

wish that some Indian men from here might go along with the

army to be used as spies and interpreters. To this Br. Mortimer

stated objections, which seemed to have weight with him. On

sounding him respecting the measures that he might think proper

to pursue to defend the country, he confessed himself to be

utterly at a loss what to do.

In the evening Br. Mortimer conversed freely with our Indn.

brn. about our present critical circumstances, exhorting them

very strictly as to their behaviour and conduct and recommend-

ing to them in particular to put an unshaken confidence in our

Lord, and be resigned to his will with them.

27th was a general meeting of the militia of the county at

New Philadelphia. Br. Mortimer also went thither to gain in-

formation. Today a few of the men who lately belonged to

Genl. Hull's army began to pass through here on their way from

Cleveland to their respective homes. Their appearance and

hard fate excited universal interest and compassion.

28th some of the men from Genl. Hull's army took break-

fast with us. At parting they declared the Indians at this place

to be in great danger of their lives from their incensed com-

rades, and warned us in a friendly manner to take great care,

or harm would easily befall them.

29th some hundreds of Genl. Hull's army passed through

here. They came along as beggars, and were in general treated

everywhere with much hospitality. We did all in our power

to shew a friendly disposition towards them, and soften their

anger against the Indians. Some parties of them spoke loudly

before they came here (and their words were reported to us

before their arrival), that they would kill every Indian here

and take their horses to ride home on. Today was another

meeting of the militia in New Philadelphia. Col. McArthur

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            223


and other principal officers of Genl. Hull's late army passed

through here. Capt. Thorp, an old acquaintance, of Br. Heck-

ewelder, informed us that he had heard from persons whom

he could rely on, that all the Indian men at our settlement at

Fairfield, had been compelled by other Indians to go with them

to war against the United States. The same melancholy in-

telligence was confirmed by others from the army, with whom

we found an opportunity of conversing.

30th there was no meeting here on account of the frequent

passing of soldiers. Br. &  Sr. Edmonds and family from

Beersheba came here, to celebrate with us Sr. Mortimer's 41st

birthday, Sr. Edmonds being Sr. Mortimer's sister. Upon this

occasion we drew for ourselves several texts of scripture, that

during the following days of increased outward trouble, were

through our Lord's grace a great encouragement to us, in par-

ticular the daily words and texts for the 11 Septr. and 25 Nov.

this year.

31st we heard that an Indian had been killed at Canton,

and that a quaker gentleman was knocked down there, and se-

verely bruised, for having declared himself openly in a tavern

to be a friend of the Indians. As guns were at this time

pressed in the settlement for the use of the small army that is

to march soon from New Philadelphia, one was required from

this place, namely from the Indian Charles Henry, which he

cheerfully consented to deliver. An account of the increased

alarm and threats that we heard respecting the Indians here,

we very earnestly recommended to them not to go out of their

town, further than to their cornfields, on any account what-

ever. Such cautions tend to alarm and cast down our Indian

brn. and srs., but we cannot avoid giving them, as the times

are at present. The last strange Indian who remained here-

a man from Greentown of the name of Big Johnny Cake-was

much frightened, and asked Br. Mortimer what he would ad-

vise him to do. He recommended to him to go off from here

immediately to where he properly belonged, and to avoid be-

ing seen by the white people on the way. The man went from

here in consequence without loss of time; and from this time

forward until this diary was concluded, no more strange In-

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224      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

dians ventured to come to this place. Today we heard a threat

very seriously repeated, that a number of persons in New Phil-

adelphia were privately deliberating about coming to burn our

town. Our friend Mr. James Clark of that place passed

through here, and on being addressed by Br. Mortimer, ex-

pressed himself in warm terms our assured friend. He said he

would make it his business to enquire into what might be go-

ing forward among the people concerning us, and as soon as

we appeared to him to be really in danger, he would give us

notice of it. This promise he in the sequel kept very faith-

fully, and thereby got the ill-will of our enemies, which he

however appeared not to regard. Other travellers whom Br.

Mortimer addressed in the street, also approved themselves af-

terwards as our sincere friends. Br. Mortimer now wrote ur-

gently to Col. Bay to request a constant guard for this place,

till the present alarms were past. As Charles Henry was in

New Philadelphia to deliver his gun, his life was threatened by

some of the soldiers from the late northern army. He had

gone there with some of Col. Bay's people, who had promised

him safe protection thither and back again. Col. Bay, Judge

Dierdorf, Capt. Itzkin and others accompanied him to our town,

and staid some time with us. While these gentlemen were in

conversation with Br. Mortimer, 100 militia men from Guern-

sey county in this state, who had been ordered out by Col.

Bay, passed through our places on their route to the frontiers.

In other places on their way to us, they had committed various

excesses and all along many of them had threatened destruc-

tion to the Indians here. As providentially however they met

here with some of the most respectable gentlemen in the coun-

ty, and just conversing with us as with friends, they behaved

without exception better in our town than they were in the

habit of doing elsewhere; which was a mercy for which we

could truly thank our dear Lord. One Indian woman, on see-

ing these 100 men exercise in our town, in presence of Col.

Bay fled away, and had not again been heard of at the time

this diary was concluded. Some sick men from Gen. Hull's

army staid all night at Br. & Sr. Mortimer's.

1 Sept., Br. Oppelt of Gnadenhutten from uneasiness came

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            225


to see how we might have fared yesterday. Many more of the

late army of Gen. Hull passed through our town. Br. Morti-

mer in these days had to spend most of his time on the street,

conversing with and endeavoring to pacify these people as to

our Indians. The revengeful, cruel and malignant disposition

which the greater part of them manifest towards all Indians,

was often shocking and painful to him to witness.

Late this Evening Br. Mortimer observed that all our In-

dian brn. & srs. sat together and appeared pensive and dis-

heartened. In conversation with them he soon found that they

were considering together, how critical their situation would

be if the army which was now marching out of these parts to

the frontiers should return enraged, as the men of Genl. Hull's

army were, against all Indians because they had killed some of

them.  One brother then observed in a low and thoughtful

manner that they had more cause of concern than this. Three

men in New Philadelphia, he said (whose names he mentioned)

had lately told him that all the Indians here depended upon Br.

Mortimer, that he would get them protected from danger; but

added they: "when the time arrives that your town is to be

destroyed, and you Indians killed, the beginning will be made

with him and his family". That such threats have been fre-

quently used, is very certain. Probably the intention was

merely to endeavor to frighten us away. But if they were ser-

iously meant by some, it is quite conceivable that it might be

the design, first to murder the missionary and his family, that

there might be no white man to witness further proceedings.

Br. Mortimer before taking leave endeavored to comfort

the Indian brn. and srs. with the consideration that we were

in the hands of our almighty God and Redeemer, who, if all

men were our enemies, could protect us from every harm and

danger. Soon after the Indian brn. & srs. and their children

sung a few verses together and then retired to rest.

In these days it was related to us, that our brother John

Henry had lately visited with his little daughter in several of

the dwellings of the white brn. & srs. who live nearest to us,

saying that he wished to see them once more and take leave of

Vol. XXII -15.

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226      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


them. He commonly added: "Perhaps you will soon hear, that

my daughter and I lie dead together in my home."

2d about 250 militia men, including those who lately passed

through here from Guernsey county, marched from New Phil-

adelphia towards the frontiers, under the command of Col.

Bay. We were glad that these people were moved farther off

from us, as during their encampment at New Philadelphia our

dogs had barked incessantly during the great part of the nights.

The Indians maintained afterwards that white men were then

skulking about near to us, and that they had seen them from

the inside of their houses, though no one adventured to go

out to search for them.

3d at noon we had the very particular pleasure to see Br.

Luckenbach arrive with us, and to hear from him that Br.

Hagen was safe at a house three miles this side of Wooster.

These brethern, in consequence of the capture of Genl. Hull's

army at Detroit, had been obliged in common with all the in-

habitants at Sandusky, to fly from that settlement which was

soon after burnt by the savages. It was on account of the

difficulty of hiring horses, that Br. Luckenbach proceeded to

us alone, so soon as he could consider Br. Hagen as being cer-

tainly out of danger from the enemy.

4th Lieut. Col. Beatty and Judge Spear of Guernsey

County paid Br. Mortimer a friendly visit on their way to the

army on the frontiers.

5th was again a day when many alarming threats re-

specting our place were communicated to us. We were told

that it would certainly be destroyed in two weeks, that Br.

Mortimer's house would be burnt; and some of our friends

related to us, that such was the prevalent exasperation through-

out the country against all Indians that it was hardly safe for

any one to speak a word in their favor. We communicated

our circumstances very frequently in prayer to our Lord, and

diligently recommended to our Indian brn. & srs. to do the same,

that we might all be perfectly resigned to His holy will with us.

6th Br. Luckenbach kept the public meeting from  Matth


7th was the festival of the married choir in congregations,

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            227


but we could not celebrate it, on account of the constant un-

easiness and alarms that prevailed around us. Br. Mortimer

went to New Philadelphia, and other places in our neighbor-

hood, on business arising from our present circumstances. It

was confidentially said about this time in our neighborhood, and

in the sequel repeated over and over again, that the Indian

Philip, and other strange Indians who had been seen to fight

against the U. States at Brownstown and Detroit, were since

then come to our town, and attended nightly meetings here.

We declared to the proper authorities and to every one who

conversed with us on the subject, that to our knowledge no

such persons were here; and that the promise which we made

some time since, to give speedy notice in New Philadelphia of

the arrival of every strange Indian with us, had been and

would be strictly observed by us, as long as the war continued.

8th Col. Findlay's regiment, being the last part of Gen'l

Hull's late army that was landed at Cleveland, began to pass

through here on their return home; and like all the rest of this

army, in straggling parties only, and as beggars for provisions

generally wherever they came. In rancor against the Indians

they were inferior to none who had preceded them. Br. Luck-

enbach set off to fetch Br. Hagen here from the comfortable

house near Wooster where he had procured accommodations

for him.

9th many officers and men passed through here from Cleve-


10th Br. Luckenbach came here with Br. Hagen; the lat-

ter was in a very infirm state of health.

13th Br. Mortimer kept the public meeting from John 6.

37. Br. Hagen went to Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

14th he was followed by Br. Mortimer, who returned in the


15th the account arrived in New Philadelphia of some

shocking murders committed the day before by Indians, only

about 50 miles from here, near where the place called Green-

town formerly stood.   Through the violent prejudice and

hatred against all Indians, which now pervaded the country,

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228      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

that settlement of friendly inoffensive people was shortly be-

fore hastily broken up and all the inhabitants moved away, by

order of some of the commanders of the militia. Immediately

afterwards, the neighboring whites burnt every house there

and plundered or destroyed all the property of the Indians in

the most unwarrantable manner. This procedure, the savage

hunters who were at that time out in the woods, as soon as they

heard of it, of course resented, and began to revenge, to the

no small terror of all the settlements of white people within

perhaps more than one hundred miles of that place.* In the

afternoon, Messrs. John Kneisley, Espich, Itzkin, Laffer and

Peter Williams of New Philadelphia arrived with us and

brought the following letter from our friend mr. Clark:



DEAR SIR: I think it would be proper to take some meas-

ure for the security of the Goshen Indians either send them

to Bethlehem, Pittsburg or some other place of security; for I

am fully persuaded that they will not long be safe where they

are. If you send them away, they will require a guard to pro-

tect them. They might go to the Greentown Indians, who are

already under the protection of the United States, but in that

case they would require a very strong guard, having to travel

through a country where our armies lie, and where the recent

murders were committed, or through the country where Hull's

unfortunate men have lately returned to, in either of which

routes it would be difficult to protect them. If they go by

themselves it would be difficult to escape our spies and rangers

who are out, who would give them no quarters should

they meet with them.

You can consult your friends on the measures to be pur-

sued. Humanity cries aloud for the kind hand of protection

to be extended to the innocent Indians who have submitted

their all to the protection of the U. States but yet I am sorry

to state that I have no difficulty in saying that in my opinion


* By all accounts they were perfectly inoffensive as to their conduct

to the whites.

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they will not long remain undisturbed in their present place

of residence.

In haste I have the honor to be

Your friend and humble serv.




All the above named gentlemen of New Philadelphia who

had been in friendly habits with us, and were mostly in offi-

cial stations, urged our following the advice of Mr. Clark.

Doubtless they really believed that it would be the safest and

best for us, and for the whole neighborhood, and the only

means of quieting the minds of the people at large respecting

us, and preventing bloodshed in our place; that every Indian

here should be removed to some other part of the country. As

they were pressing in their representations and expressed much

concern on our account, we agreed to endeavor to effect this;

and spoke with that view in the evening to our Indian brn.,

who expressed themselves willing to do what we proposed to

them, believing themselves that it would not be safe for them

to remain here much longer. Br. Luckenbach in consequence

went the next day, the

16th to Gnadenhutten, and Br. Mortimer addressed the

following letter to Mr. Clark:

GOSHEN 16 Sept. 1812.


I was favored with your humane letter of yesterday, con-

taining the advice to remove the Indians from this place, it be-

ing your opinion that they would not be safe here much longer.

In your and the other gentlemen's sentiments on the subject

Mr. Luckenbach and I could not but coincide, and felt much

obliged for all the communications which you and they have

made to us. On reading your letter first to the three Henries,

and relating to them the account of the murders which have

been recently committed so near to us, they all believed too

that it would be best for them to move away out of the State

to the eastward, and Mr. Luckenbach has promised to accom-

pany them. Every Indian here, I am told, will go with them,

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230      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

and they will be ready to start in a few days. This number

including the small children is 25. We have mentioned next

Monday to them as the day for moving, but this will depend

on the guard's being ready, which you and the other gentle-

men purpose kindly to furnish them with. The Indians have

proposed taking the route towards Charleston, where they con-

sider Col. Connel, Major McGuire and Capt. Biggs as their

good friends.  They would be thankful for recommendations

from you to one or more of these gentlemen, and request that

the guard from here may accompany them so far. All their

rifles they propose depositing with Mr. Peter of Gnadenhutten.

Mr. Luckenbach is gone today to Gnadenhutten to consult with

our friends there. Tomorrow one or both of us propose wait-

ing on you, and our other friends in New Philadelphia. Mr.

Luckenbach intends going with these Indians as their mission-

ary and conductor, and they have promised to be obedient to

him. To me it is a most welcome circumstance that the for-

tune of war led him to come hither from Sandusky, as it would

have been very inconvenient for me who have a family to travel

with a company of Indians through the settlements.

I have again made the most particular enquiries here,

whether Buckwheat, Big-Johnny-Cake, Phillipus, or any other

strange Indian had been seen here lately, but every one denies

having seen or heard anything of them. I have read to all

the Indians here the law about high treason.  I remain etc.



New Philadelphia.


During the day attempts were made by some of our

Indian brethern to dispose of their houses and plantations

to those white brethern who live nearest here. No one how-

ever would purchase of them; partly because they pitied them

and did not wish them to leave the country; and partly be-

cause they had heard and now told our Indians, that as soon

as they were gone from here, people from New Philadelphia

etc. would burn their houses, throw down their fences, and

steal or otherwise make away with all the cattle they might

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.              231


leave, precisely as had been done at Greentown, after the fair-

est promises had been made to the Indians there, both by the

civil and military authorities, that they and their property should

be sacredly protected. If therefore-it was remarked-anyone

would purchase houses, cattle, or standing produce of them, he

would probably get nothing for his money. Nay, if any of

their own cattle happened afterwards to be on the Indians' land

(which was constantly the case) they might be taken away by

unprincipled persons along with theirs. They would therefore

much rather, they said, and for every reason, see them if pos-

sible remain where they were, and entirely give up the idea of

moving away. This opinion of our white brethern who live

nearest us, perfectly coincided with our own. The difficulty

however was to get the whole neighborhood to think so. These

considerations, in connexion with our other circumstances,

caused us white brethern to have a very particular consultation

in the evening, the result of which was that

17th the bren. Mortimer and Luckenbach, in company of

some of our friends, went to New Philadelphia. On entering

that small* town every eye was fixed on them. At Mr. Clark's,

a few of the principal persons there soon met, to hear what

they had to say, while numbers were gathered together in the

street opposite to the house. The Brn. represented to Mr. Clark

and his friends, the above mentioned difficulties as to the loss

of property which our Indians would incur; in case they left

their present place of abode; and their whole case as injured

persons in the opinion of the public, and perfectly innocent of

the treason which was so unreasonably charged against them.

They stated facts, and accounts which had come to their knowl-

edge, tending to show, that their danger would be increased in-

stead of being diminished, by attempting to move to any other

part of the country; as here, where they were known, they had

* At this critical juncture, it was most fortunate for Goshen that

New Philadelphia was still a small town, containing hardly 40 houses.

Had it been larger, the difficulties to be encountered would in proportion

have been greater. Or, had New Philadelphia not existed at all, and

the country to the N. W. of us been as far back in population as it was

seven years before, Goshen, as being in that case still on the frontier

must have been abandoned.

232 Ohio Arch

232      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

many friends; and where unknown, could at present, as In-

dians, expect to meet with hardly any but enemies. In their

hard case, everything practicable, it was argued, ought to be

attempted for their safety. At the same time it was very much

their and our wish, it was stated, to do everything in our power,

to remove the suspicions that were entertained against them.

We had applied to Col. Bay some time since (on the 31st Aug.)

for a guard for our town. He did not then believe it to be

necessary; but had promised one in case the danger increased.

Every one agreed now there was an increase of danger, in

consequence of the murders that had recently been committed

so very near us. But Col. Bay was now with the army, and

we could not apply to him. And were he here, we were con-

vinced that it was not in his power to help us; as the panic

was now so great throughout the country, that everyone wanted

to be guarded; therefore if a beginning was made to leave

guards anywhere, the consequence would soon be that no army

would remain to secure the frontiers, and the whole country

would thence be exposed to danger from the enemy.    Our

proposal, therefore, was that Mr. Clark and his friends should,

at our expense hire any number of creditable persons that they

might think proper, to answer the double purpose of being

guards over, and spies upon the conduct of our Indians. They

should watch and guard them by day and night, report daily

every occurrence among them to some civil or military officer,

and cause every Indian who might offend against the laws, or

act suspiciously, to be treated accordingly. They should scout

in the neighborhood and follow every track of an Indian that

might be discovered; in doing which the Indians in Goshen

promised to assist them to the best of their ability whenever

required, and to furnish horses for their use in all these ser-

vices. The Indians offered too, to accompany any scouting

parties that might be sent on short expeditions from New Phil-

adelphia to look for hostile Indians, and to render them all

the service in their power; as they considered all the enemies

of the U. States as their own;-in short, to afford every proof

in their power that they were faithful to the country. Br. Mor-

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            233

timer promised to board the hired spies at his house and fur-

nish them with lodging and every reasonable accommodation.

And if anything else could be thought of as proper for us to

do in order to remove all suspicions, and prevent the necessity

of the Indians moving from Goshen, we would if possible, do it.

This plan was fully discussed, and appeared to Mr. Clark,

and his and our friends who were present to be so fair and so

perfectly satisfactory, that they agreed to support us in the

prosecution of it. They perceived that it was all that with pro-

priety could be offered on our part to give satisfaction to the

public; and the case of our distressed Indian brn. & srs. moved

them to pity. It was agreed that the proper number of spies,

to watch both by day and night, ought to be four. Our friends

knowing their own difficulties, wished that we might hire them,

but we urged rather, in order to prevent suspicions that Mr.

Clark or some other gentleman, might kindly undertake the bus-

iness for us; observing thereby, that of course it must be our

wish that no person might be engaged, who would bring up

false reports against us. The conclusion was that we had to

undertake this business ourselves, but would let Mr. Clark

know who the persons were that we engaged. On our return

our Indian brn. & srs. were exceedingly rejoiced to hear that

a plan was agreed upon according to which they might remain

at their homes; and they went to work with alacrity, to make

the repairs that we pointed out to them as proper to be done to

the house where the spies were to be lodged. The brn. Mil-

ler, Oppelt and others came today to visit us, and expressed

their sympathy with us on account of our present difficulties.

18th a man belonging to Genl. Hull's late army, who had

taken dinner at Br. & sr. Mortimer's, and had an uncommonly

wild appearance, and Indian clothing and trinkets about him, on

his way over the hills between Goshen and Gnadenhutten on

seeing one or more women who appeared to be afraid of him,

first skulked behind some trees, and then ran off hastily. This

occasioned new and wide extending alarms in the neighbor-

hood. It was believed that hostile Indians were very near, and

preparing to strike some blow; parties of militia were sent out

234 Ohio Arch

234      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

in different directions after them; and families, even of our

nearest neighbors, began to move together from their planta-

tions to one house, as was supposed for better safety. Moving

thus together or forting as it is called in the western country-

has the distressing effect when conducted as it was here of

increasing the fears of the people very much: for no guards

were appointed about their so called forts; therefore the in-

habitants were not more secure in consequence, and could not

think themselves so, and the opportunity was taken especially

on the part of the females, to tell each other the most fright-

ful stories which they had ever heard concerning the cruelties

of the Indians in war, and thence to form strong representa-

tions of what great evils might befall themselves. The state

of things about us was now truly awful to those who were

under the complete influence of their fears. Happy were those,

who with placid resignation could cast all their care upon an

Almighty Saviour, believing assuredly that he cared for them,

and that nothing could befall them without the divine permis-


19th there was another general meeting of the militia in

New Philadelphia. News arrived there, that 4 more men had

been killed on the preceding day by the Indians near Green-

town, and that three of them were of the Guernsey militia.

Soon after a young man belonging to the town, dressed himself

and yelled after the manner of the Indians. It was imme-

diately rumored through the town, that an Indian army was

approaching: the militia could therefore be no longer kept on

the mustering-ground, and the consternation and fusion were

general. Our faithful friend Mr. Clark was immediately con-

cerned on our account. He told us afterwards, that his first

impressions concerning the occurrences of this day were, that

they had been concerted by the evil-minded, in order to effect

at once the ruin of our place. He therefore sent us in haste

the following letter, which was handed us by our friends Messrs.

John Kneisley and Itzkin, Major Vennatton and two Capt.

Johnsons who were noticed in New Philadelphia to gallop off

towards our settlement.

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.           235





The measures we agreed on for the protection of the

Goshen Indians appear not to be rightly understood by the peo-

ple. They think their only dependence is in the removal of the

Indians, although I fear a contrary effect. The alarm of other

murders and the rumor of Indians living in the woods, has so

agitated the minds of the people, that I really feel the conse-

quences. I pitty the Indians and I know not their best defence

but believe it prudent for them to remove somewhere.

I do assure you for my part, I do not wish the Indians

removed; but I believe it to be necessary to remove or conceal

them tonight. I wish my fears may be groundless.




This letter found the brn. Mortimer and Luckenbach as

usual in these days-at haymaking in our meadow. The gen-

tlemen strongly expressed their fears on our accounts, as well

as for the Indians, and urged us to consult our safety by flight.

They represented our daily increasing danger; for people would

not enter into the arrangement which we had made two days

before at Mr. Clark's house; as they scorned the idea of guard-

ing Indians, believed themselves not safe as long as our set-

tlement existed, and therefore insisted that the Indians should

be removed. Our friends, they said, had been branded with

the name of tories for endeavoring to set through our plan,

and apprehended a mob if they said anything further about it.

On questioning the gentlemen, whether there was, in their opin-

ion, reason to believe that an attempt would be made to mas-

sacre us all that night, as Mr. Clark apprehended might be the

case; we found they inclined to the opinion that no such plan

had as yet been agreed on; and that it was, they believed, only

Mr. Clark's own anxiety and concern on our account, that made

him express himself so strongly as he did. They promised in-

dividually to approve themselves further as our friends, and

apprize us immediately as soon as they might hear anything

236 Ohio Arch

236       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

further on the subject, that persons had, as some really thought

was the case, actual intentions of murdering us. After fur-

ther conversation we took a very friendly leave of each other.

As soon as the gentlemen were gone, Br. Mortimer com-

municated the object of their visit to our Indian brn., but pur-

posely in a calm manner, so that they might consult with their

safety, without being too much alarmed. To his surprize, the

impression made on them was that they were not disposed to

secret themselves for that night, believing that it would be a

means only of increasing their and especially the women's fears.

We earnestly pressed some of our friends as they returned

from the mustering in New Philadelphia to stay over night

with us, offering them the most liberal payment for so doing;

but no one could be prevailed on to do.so, alleging as a reason

the fears of their own families. In Br. & Sr. Mortimer's house

a few arrangements were made respecting what would be done

in case we were attacked in the night; but on these arrange-

ments we could place but very little reliance, as no hope existed

that their four children could be removed out of their beds in

the night without their making so much noise as would be the

means of detecting the whole family and preventing their es-

cape. Their smallest child but one was so afflicted too with

rheumatism, that she could not exercise her limbs, and the least

motion of them by another occasioned her excruciating pain.

The public feeling was at this time so strong against us, that

no magistrate, we had reason to believe, would have dared to

interfere in our behalf.

There was also every reason to believe, that if our place

was attacked the first object would be to dispatch the mission-

aries in order that if possible no witnesses, but the murderers

themselves, might remain of so vile and horrid a transaction.

After we had tried what was in our power for our safety,*

* Br. & Sr. Mortimer had in the preceding days been frequently

urged by their friends, to move to Gnadenhutten or elsewhere, out of

the apparently imminent danger; but found no freedom to do so; or

even send any of their property away; on account of the very great

alarm which such a step would have occasioned to the Indians; and the

no less encouragement which would have been afforded thereby to our

enemies, to persevere in their plans of mischief against us.

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            237


and being utterly without human help we laid ourselves quietly

down to rest, in reliance only upon the guardianship of our

Lord and his holy angels. Our Indn. Brn. & srs. also, agree-

able to their custom, sung verses together before they retired

to sleep. It was truly remarkable to us, that during this night

an uncommon stillness prevailed in our place, and not even a

dog was heard to bark. We learnt afterwards, that one of the

officers who had been with us from New Philadelphia on the

preceding afternoon, and who alternately appeared moved to

tears, and tired with anger, at the consideration of the unrea-

sonable treatment which we experienced, immediately on his

return to that town, began to fight the first man whom he heard

speaking against our place and people; the consequence of

which was, that many others entered into the dispute; and

there was so much boxing of each other, to give force to the

various sentiments entertained respecting the Indians, that we

at length were, for that evening quite forgotten, and some of

most outrageous had to be committed to jail. Thus the wrath

of man was in this instance overruled by a higher power; per-

haps expressly in order to give us a night of peace and quiet-


20th in the morning Br. Mortimer wrote the following

paper, designed for an advertisement, and sent it to Mr. Clark

for his opinion of it:-

"To the citizens of New Philadelphia, and of the County of

Tuscarawas generally:

"GENTLEMEN ! The following remarks are respectfully sub-

mitted to your candor and good sense. Would it be for your

advantage if the Goshen Indians were removed from their pres-

ent abode? We have the example before us of the Greentown

Inds. So soon as they were taken away from their town, In-

dians who were out in the woods began to commit murders in

that neighborhood. The tracks of Indians are also frequently

discovered in this county; but as yet they have done no mis-

chief any where among us. And they will, many people be-

lieve, do none in this country, for they fear that vengeance should

be taken upon the inhabitants of Goshen. But if the Goshen

238 Ohio Arch

238      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

Indians be moved away, and their town be burnt, they will, it

is feared by many, like the people near Greentown, be in great

danger of suffering from other Indians; for all other Indians

would be irritated by such treatment.

"The Goshen Indians, Gentlemen, it is said, are desirous to

give you every demonstration in their power, that they are faith-

ful to you, and to the country. They offer to accompany you

on scouting parties, to consider your enemies as theirs, and if

necessary, to fight by your side in time of danger. They wish

spies to be placed by you in the town, to watch their whole con-

duct, report every occurrence among them, and cause every In-

dian who offends against the laws, or acts suspiciously, to be

treated accordingly; and a generous reward has been offered to

such spies for their services.

"Dismiss, therefore, Gentlemen, your distrust of the Goshen

Indians! Consider them as your friends and neighbors and

believe them assuredly, that from the circumstance of these In-

dians residing among you, you are more safe from danger than

any other frontier inhabitants of Ohio. 21 Sept. 1812."

At the usual time Br. Luckenbach kept the Sunday's public

meeting here from Luke 13, 11-17.

In the afternoon Br. Mortimer went to New Philadelphia,

and agreed with Mr. Clark that the proposed advertisement,

which met his ideas as well as ours, should be put up in differ-

ent places as soon as possible. Hitherto it had been the pre-

vailing opinion in the country, even among those who were best

disposed towards us, that it would, in every view, be best if we

moved with our Indians out of this part of the country. And

the more violent-not to say savage-part of the community,

were ever ready to add, (as if highly desirable and advantageous

to them) "then we might without scruple kill every Indian whom

we saw"! The object of the advertisement was with the bless-

ing of God, to oppose this wicked principle; and endeavor to get

the general sentiment more in our favor, and in that of reason,

candor and humanity.

Br. Mortimer took the opportunity of his being in New

Philadelphia, to put himself in the way of hearing, and thus be-

ing better able to judge for himself than can be done by hearsay,

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            239


what the sentiments and disposition of the evil-minded against

us really were, and how they would express themselves in his

presence. On entering into conversation with this view in the

street, with some persons who were well-known to him, the

number of men who in consequence soon assembled, were about

twelve. At first concern was expressed about our Indians;

then a wish for their removal to another part of the country.

But it was soon after, without further ceremony, openly de-

clared that they were traitors to the country, and kept up a

secret correspondence with the British in Canada, to which the

missionaries were privy; and that all this could be proved. On

Br. Mortimer's expressing much doubt whether there could be

any ground whatever for such assertions, and stating it to be

the duty of those who believed themselves to be possessed of

these proofs, to come forward openly before some judge or

justice, and there make good their charges; he was answered

by one of the company, that the proofs they had to give, were

such as he should soon feel powerfully at his own house, as

well as hear; that many only waited for this, till the murders

of the Indians took place a little nearer; and that any guards

that we might have on our side to protect us would then be killed

too.*  On this part of the company set up a loud laugh and Br.

Mortimer took friendly leave of them all. The affect of this

conversation was that some who were present were afraid after-

wards of being summoned to appear before a magistrate. A

general surprise appeared to be excited too, that we did not, out

of fright, leave the country. Today we engaged Peter Ed-

monds junior of Beersheba as our first spy; through a mistake

in an application that we made, we had not been able to procure

one before, that would have answered our purpose.

21st we sent Mr. Edmonds with a line to New Philadelphia

to give an account of all that he had seen here, and receive or-

ders. We also engaged Daniel Warner as spy. We began to-

day to send copies of our advertisement to distant civil and

military officers in the county, accompanied with a few lines to

* The associates of the person who used these last threatening

words, said afterwards, that he was not in his right senses, and that

nobody minded what he said.

240 Ohio Arch

240       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


them, in which they were requested, if the same met their ap-

probation, to order it to be put in some public place; and recom-

mending out town, and the Indians here to their protection.

The effect everywhere answered our utmost wishes. It was

not up in New Philadelphia till after the lapse of a few days,

for fear it might immediately be torn down. Thus curiosity

was first excited to know its contents; it was read then with so

much the more avidity, and treated with respect. Truly a fear

from God accompanied it. Some of our greatest enemies were

overheard once to say to each other when reading it: "We

must let these people alone, for if we burn their town, perhaps

ours will be burnt too as a consequence." Br. Miller of Beer-

sheba was so kind as to translate the advertisement into Ger-

man, and to cause it to be put up in that language in several

places. The use that we made in the sequel of our spies, was

not only for the purpose mentioned above (see the 17th Sept.)

but to guard our Indians at their work, accompany them when

necessary to safe places in the settlements or on short hunting

excursions, and to spy for us at vendues, taverns, and other

places of public resort, to learn people's sentiments, and in par-

ticular how they were disposed towards us. As it was never

known exactly among the people generally, how many spies we

kept, or who they were, but only that we had a number of them

in pay; people were taught thus by degrees to be more cautious

than they had been before, in their expressions respecting us.

We heard today that some persons whose home was not far

from us, who had deserted from the army, as was generally be-

lieved merely out of fear of being killed by the Indian warriors,

were very loud in their threats against those Indians who live

with us. These men had probably however no intentions; their

only object was that it might, if possible, still be believed that

they had courage.

22d as we had learnt that Col. Bay (the acting General of

Brigade in this district in the absence of General Cass) re-

turned yesterday from the army on the frontiers, Br. Mortimer

addressed a letter to him today by one of our spies to give him

some account of our proceedings during his absence, enclose

him a copy of our advertisement, and request him if he ap-

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            241


proved of it, to dispose of it as he thought might best subserve

our interest. As the principal commanding officer in these parts,

he could at anytime have exercised the power that was dis-

played by another Colonel at Greentown, and ordered our In-

dians away from here; and we knew that many would now

strongly press him to take such a step. Our letter informed him

what was our present determination on the subject, namely that

we were resolved not to go of our own accord; and that we and

many of the most respectable persons in the county believed that

by adhering to the determination, we would consult the safety

and best interests of the whole neighborhood. We relied upon

Mr. Clark, who we knew possessed a strong sway over the

Colonel, to give force to this representation; which we also

found afterwards he had been very willing to do.

Br. Mortimer also wrote the following letter today to an

inhabitant of New Philadelphia, who last evening in the hear-

ing of one of our white brethren, as well as at other times, had

expressed himself in a very reprehensible manner:-

GOSHEN 22 Sept, 1812.

"SIR-I have been informed several times of late, that you

have spoken much to my disadvantage, and that in strong terms;

which I suppose can arise from no other cause, but because

false accounts respecting me have been communicated to you.

You have said, I have been told, that I was sent here from Eng-

land, and receive a salary from thence. This, Sir, is utterly

false. I was sent here from Bethlehem in Pennsylvania, after

a residence of 61/2 years in this country, and that without the

knowledge of any person whatever in England or in the British

dominions, who had no concern whatever in my appointment.

Neither do I receive any salary or emolument, whatever, from

England or from any person in the British service.  I have

lived now 21 years in this country. When I left England I

had two brothers there, who are since dead; and for some years

I have received no letter even from England or from any British

subject. In Germany I have two brothers, and from a most

respectable and well known society there it is that I derive my


Vol. XXII -16.

242 Ohio Arch

242      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

"I have written you the above, Sir, in order to inform you

of the truth, which I suppose you would wish to know. Please

to communicate the same to your friends, who may be under

the same error with yourself. What I here write can be con-

firmed by many respectable persons in this neighborhood, who

are well acquainted with me and my appointment here. In

addition I can say, that I am the oldest white inhabitant of

Tuscarawas county, and that no man can say that I have in-

tentionally deceived him, or swerved from truth and upright-

ness in any part of my conduct.

"I should be glad if you would soon pay me a friendly visit.

"I am etc.



This letter was received by the person to whom it was ad-

dressed as a compliment which he neither expected nor deserved,

and was read by him to all the inhabitants of New Philadelphia,

where it produced a good effect. The person here alluded to

took the first opportunity of visiting in Goshen, and making a

becoming apology for the improper words which he had used.

It may not be amiss to observe here, that the suspicions

expressed concerning Br. Mortimer, on account of his being an

Englishman; and of the Indians and missionaries generally,

because they had heretofore travelled much to and from Canada

to our settlement at Fairfield, or to Pettquoting and Sandusky,

and had taken bundles of paper with them; or because other

Indians had frequently visited our place: were all the mere pre-

tences, made use of by designing men to set the public against

us. Nothing of all this could be laid to our charge, as arguing

improper disposition or conduct on our part, as citizens of the

U. States, or as rendering us with ground liable to suspicion.

The only real causes, we had any reason to believe why we,

and our Indian brn. & srs. were at this time persecuted, were

antipathy against all Indians, enmity to the gospel and the prev-

alent wish to deprive our Society for the propagation of the

gospel among the heathen, of the possession of the three tracts

of land in this county, which have been given them in trust by

Congress for the use of our Christian Indians, which it was

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            243


thought by many would be easily effected, if only the Indians

and missionaries could all be driven or frightened from Goshen.

Colonel Bay, in answer of considerable length to the letter

that we had addressed to him today, expressed himself well

contented that our Indians should remain where they were

"till," as his words were, "some mark of treachery in them

was discovered," but added, that he thought it proper that they

should all deliver their guns for safe keeping to some person

whom he would appoint to receive them, for such time as they

continued at Goshen, or till the war with the Indians on the

frontiers had ceased.

This requisition of the guns of our Indians was alarming

to us. We had often heard it said-and that too by some of

our sincerest friends-that it would tend much to remove all

suspicions against them, if they voluntarily delivered up all

their arms. Many of those who urged this point strongly in all

occasions, coupled also therewith, the confining them all in

one of two houses, that they might be the more easily and better

guarded. We knew too that the men who belonged to Gen.

Hull's late army, had often said in New Philadelphia and else-

where, that were it not for the guns of the Indians here of

which they were much afraid, they would kill them all with their

knives. We were therefore-but secretly only in our repre-

sentations to our Indians-much against their delivering up

their arms, or moving from their separate dwellings into one or

two only; as we considered such treatment to be unworthy for

them as respected their characters; and as exposing them to be

murdered at any time, and without risk of present danger to

whoever would chose to be their assassins. Indeed had things

come so far, that they had been confined defenseless, in one or

two houses we should, in consequence, have every night ex-

pected that their bloodthirsty enemies (and bloodthirsty they

were!) and without doubt have murdered them all in cold blood.

Under these impressions Br. Mortimer addressed another letter

to Colonel Bay,

23d in which he informed him, that the Indians here had

intended some time since to deliver all their guns to Mr. David

Peter of Gnadenhutten; and explain the true reason why this

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244       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

had not been done. He let him know that an order from him

to deliver their guns now, would be complied with without the

least demur; but that if this sacrifice was required, he would

feel it his duty, as far at least as respected the three Indians

John, Charles and Christian Henry, to give immediate and full

information of the matter to the Governors and Assembly of

Pennsylvania, who by a special act, out of respect for the mem-

ory of their father's worth (the late William Henry) and their

own good characters as citizens of the U. States, had male

them a present of their guns, to use them, if occasion required,

for the defence of the country. The question was also put:

Whether an Indian inhabitant here, against whom there was

no charge of misconduct regularly proved, and who was not

under special and secure protection of the military ;* could now,

with right, and especially under the system of having spies upon

them that had been adopted, be required to give up his gun for

safekeeping; any more than the same could, under like cir-

cumstances, be demanded of the white inhabitants of the county?

The Colonel was requested to give the proposal of taking

the guns from the Indians here a second consideration, and

informed that Br. Mortimer would very much regret, on the

Colonel's own account merely, having to communicate his letter

of yesterday, which probably never was intended for publication,

to the Governor and Assembly of Pennsylvania, or to any other

public persons.** These representations were received by Colonel

Bay very kindly. He expressed himself thankful for all the in-

formation thus given him, and especially for being told how the

three sons of the late William Henry had become possessed of

their guns; and now entirely gave up the idea of requiring any

of the Indians who reside with us, to surrender up their arms.

It was his express request too, that his former letter might not

* See a note under this date, at the conclusion of this subject, in

reference to the "protection" here "of the military."

** The letter of the Colonel above referred to, which was written in

great haste, would, if made public, certainly have done him no credit

anywhere. It contained accusations against Indians in Goshen, taken

from the mouths of our enemies who then surrounded him to all of

which a full answer was given him today by Br. Mortimer.

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.                 245


be shown to any public characters; which is the reason why its

contents are here so slightly touched upon.

When it is considered, that the military commanders in

Ohio, in defense of their forcible removal of our nearest In-

dian neighbors, the innocent inhabitants of Greentown, declared

at this time, that they had power to take up, disarm, confine or

remove any person whatever (and were it the President of the

United States himself if within their reach) upon suspicion

only; will appear important, that the advantages acquired by

this correspondence in behalf of the 25 poor, and really-other-

wise than through the arm     of the Almighty-defenseless In-

dians in Goshen, were that we had now a promise in writing,

from the officer exercising the supreme command in our dis-

trict that our Indians should not be removed, "till some mark

of treachery in them was discovered;" and also a strong written

pledge that as innocent people he would give no order to dis-

arm them. Perhaps, as respects this matter, it was providential

too, that the Colonel did not return from the army somewhat

earlier. It may also be properly noticed here, that it belonged

to the system   of self-defense (if it deserved the name), to

which, under God, we looked, as means which he might make

use of to overawe our enemies, that all the spies whom we en-

gaged, should bring arms with them.*

*Sec. 1 Sam. 14, 6 and 2 Chron. 14, 11.--It gave us in truth great

advantages every way, that we had ourselves been necessitated to engage

a guard for our town under the name of spies, and just in the way

we did. Through this in particular, the military power, in his own

opinion, lost the right which he might otherwise, legally perhaps, have

exercised over us, to disarm and remove our Indians at his pleasure.

Yet he could not, if he would, (see 17 Sept.) have granted us any such

special protection as we had previously asked for, and which might

have given him this right; and at same time could not object to the

reasonableness of the special request that we had made to him on the

subject. When, namely, on the 31st ult., we first formally solicited

protection from him for our town, Br. Mortimer asked it in writing as a

favor, to be permitted to name to him such persons out of the draft

made in this county, as would be agreeable to us to compose a guard

of safety here, on account of their being known friends of our Indians.

On no other terms did, or could we desire to have any guard of him

at all, as our object was, and must necessarily have been, to be guarded

by friends, and not betrayed by enemies.

246 Ohio Arch

246       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.


It may assist to give an idea of our situation at this time,

to mention that the girl of 15 years of age who was now the

hired servant in the family of Br. & Sr. Mortimer, went home

yesterday to see her parents, and on her return today, declared,

that she could not longer stay with us, as she believed cer-

tainly, that we should soon be killed; for, said she, not only

some people, but everybody says so. Providentially for us,

considering especially our increased house-keeping through our

boarding the spies, and the great deal of labor which we had to

attend to at this time, her elder sister was very willing to come

to us in her place; alleging as the reason for this willingness,

that she had found by experience, that she might go where she

would, she felt everywhere more afraid than she did with us.

-We had made it a rule to tell every one whom we engaged in

our service during this time, that so soon as they were afraid to

stay with us, they should go away, and we would pay them

whatever was due them for all the time that they had spent

with us.

Today Br. Luckenbach went to Gnadenhutten and Beer-

sheba. Mr. Cadwallader Wallace of Chillicothe called at Br.

Mortimer's on his way home from New Philadelphia, to ask

for a copy of our advertisement, to have it inserted in one of

the Chillicothe newspapers; which was immediately furnished


An encouraging occurrence filled our hearts with thanks

and praises to our Lord. Our worthy and discreet friend Judge

Roth of Sugar creek, on receiving from Br. Mortimer a copy

of our advertisement, had taken a most effectual mode of making

it serviceable to us. He went from house to house among his

most respectable Christian neighbors, who are Methodists, Lu-

therans and Tunkers, and after showing it to them, a part

agreed to come in a body, to the number of about 9, and assure

us, and the Indians here, that they were our warm friends, who

very much wished, that for their own sakes as ours, we might

not move away from our present settlement. At New Phila-

delphia, on their way here, they first stopped at the principal

tavern, to make known, in the most public manner, the object

of their visit to us. They entreated us to give up every idea

The Ohio Frontier in 1812

The Ohio Frontier in 1812.             247

of leaving this part of the country; for if we did so, they said,

they saw plainly that the whole settlement, in every direction

around us, must be broken up and ruined, as was the case near

Greentown, when the Indians there were moved away. Not

one of them, they observed, would have the courage to remain

48 hours after us in the settlement, in case we should leave it;

for they would then expect nothing but murder and destruc-

tion to ensue. With tears in their eyes they expressed their

humane feelings for our Indians, and their regret on account

of the base usage which we had all experienced. As they had

understood that we found it difficult to engage trusty guards to

stay with us, they offered to assist us therein; and when they

were further advanced in their work, they would themselves,

some of them, if still necessary, come to stand guard here.

Judge Roth had heard of the threatening language that had

been used to Br. Mortimer on Sunday last, and particularly

requested that complaint might be made to him of such per-

sons, that he might commit them to jail. They observed further,

that as our Indians could not hunt now, and would therefore,

without extraordinary relief, suffer want; they promised on ap-

plication, always to be willing, as long as the present state of

things continued, to assist them with provisions; whereby they

justly noticed, without any inducement thereto from us, that

any expense they could be at, in order to relieve our Indians,

would be trifling compared with the far greater loss which they

themselves must sustain, if we deserted them in the present

time of danger. These humane sentiments were not only ex-

pressed privately to Br. Mortimer; but the whole company

went round to every Indian dwelling, and assured them all of

their sincere regard and friendship.

24th., Br. Luckenbach returned from his visit at Gnaden-

hutten and Beersheba. By every such opportunity, as well as

frequently by letter, we were anew assured of the sympathy

and prayers of our dear brn. & srs. in those places. We heard

through various channels that the fears of the people in the set-

tlements, on account of the hostile Indians, were still increas-

ing. How easily might all this distress, in this part of the coun-

try have been entirely avoided! Had only the Greentown In-

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dians not been moved away, and in the manner they were, it

would not have been known.

25th., Major Kribs of New Philadelphia, the next in com-

mand in the army from these parts under Col. Bay, came to

assure us that he was our friend. The same had been done a

few days before by Capt. Caples of Salem, who is also a judge

of the court. The fact was, every person in office in the county,

and every man of information and character with whom we

were acquainted, was, as far as we could learn, by this time

well disposed towards us; and the wish that had been so prev-

alent, that we might remove from here, became every day less


26th., Some of our Indian brn., by particular desire from

New Philadelphia, went a scouting along with our spies, on

the road towards Sandusky; but did not, as was expected would

be the case, find any tracks of persons who had lately come from


27th., Br. Mortimer kept the public meeting from John 3. 3.

28th., last night a particular use was derived from the cir-

cumstance of our spies watching through the night. About

two miles from us, some white men who were hunting rac-

coons, heard a noise frequently repeated resembling the calls of

Indians to each other. This was occasioned by other white men,

on purpose to alarm these very people, who were very well known

for their credulity; and had the desired effect: for they spread

a report the next day concerning Indians whom they had heard

in the woods during the dead of the night, but could not get a

sight of. Our spies could now aver, that none had come into, or

gone out of Goshen. The truth of the matter was also soon known.

In the evening Br. Hagen, who had spent a considerable time in

Gnadenhutten, returned to us again.

29th., it was intimated to us by our friends in New Phila-

delphia, that they conceived it to be no longer necessary for us

to keep spies to watch at nights; and that we might therefore,

with safety to ourselves, and perfect satisfaction to the neigh-

borhood, reduce the number from 4 to 2; which after some

further enquiries, took place then accordingly.

30th., there were sundry new alarms circulated among our

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neighbors today, as indeed the fears of the white people for

hostile Indians remained unabated. In the evening at twilight,

our Indian brn. & srs. also were put into an unusual fright, in

consequence of the relation of one of our srs., that she had seen

the hand of a strange man thrust into her house, who without

shewing himself, immediately afterwards went off, and could

no more be seen or heard of. In consequence of this relation,

our spies, and some of the Indian brn., watched throughout the

following night, but without making any further discovery.

It may serve to show the excessive terror which prevailed

at this time among the white people, to notice, that in a house

16 miles from here not far from Salem, and therefore further

from the Indian frontier than we were, 89 persons gathered to-

gether regularly every night, out of fear, in order to spend their

nights there. A traveller who had stopped at that place, re-

lated to us, that it was also his wish, if possible, to lodge there

one night; but one of the women, through fright merely as

he understood, was taken in labor, and thence so much con-

fusion and distress had ensued, that he was obliged at 1 o'clock

in the morning to leave the place, and make the best of his way

in the dark to some other house where people were assembled.

Another traveller informed us, that when coming up the river,

at the distance of 30 miles from us, he was told repeatedly, that

if he pursued his journey, he certainly would not arrive alive

at New Philadelphia. Many from different quarters who passed

through our place during this month, appeared surprized, that

the same fear which was visible almost everywhere else, they

said, in all directions around us, hardly seemed to be felt by

us at all; and yet, it was at same time often acknowledged, no

place appeared to them to be really in so much danger as ours


Oct. 1st., Judge Roth of Sugar creek came here with a pres-

ent of a waggon load of bread, wheat, flour, potatoes and

pumpkins for our Indian brn. & srs. At his desire we lent him

the history of the mission of our brethren among the Indians for

his perusal.

2nd., a Mr. Wolgemuth of Sugar creek brought a present

of 80 lb. flour for our Indian brn. & srs. Today we reduced the

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number of our spies to one. All those whom we had in pay,

we dismissed upon the terms, that if they heard at any time

that we were in trouble or danger, they should, if possible, im-

mediately come to our assistance, without our first sending for

them; for which we would then duly pay them. Other friends

also, especially civil and military officers, had kindly made us

the promise, that in any emergency here of which they were

aware, they would hasten to our relief.

3d., at about 8 o'clock in the morning, 10 armed men on

foot, under the command of a self-chosen captain of the name

of Wilson, came here from Guernsey and Belmont counties,

from a distance of about 50 miles from here; "on a tour", they

said, "to look for Indians in the woods and kill them." Their ap-

pearance and manner immediately arrested our particular atten-

tion, before we heard them speak; on which account our spy,

armed, with the brn. Mortimer and Luckenbach, went with them to

the first Indian whom they accosted. One of them told us soon,

that he believed Indians had lived here long enough; a sentiment

which we white br. of course instantly contraverted the propriety

of his entertaining. The conversation was however, generally car-

ried on in a friendly manner, our visitors commonly expressing

themselves unexceptionably. They were very particular in their

enquiries about the Indians here, going into all their houses,

speaking with them, and counting their number. Their captain

appeared to be anxious too, to enter into Br. Mortimer's house,

and see his family, (probably in order to know whether they

were all whites or not); and he, and the whole party, after re-

peated intimations from them to that effect, were willingly grati-

fied herein. On our part enquiry was made too, as occasion

conveniently offered, to learn the names, residences, and usual

occupations of some of them. By this time three of our spies

whom we had engaged to be ready to assist us at any supposed

emergency without our sending for them, (see diary 2 instant),

were arrived here from Beersheba on horseback, and were

soon followed by our nearest neighbor and friend Br. Christian

Blickensdorfer, senior, who lives only two miles from here. All

came, without mentioning to us their suspicions, straight with

their arms in their hands, into Br. & sr. Mortimer's house,

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purposely in order to mingle with and strictly watch the

strangers. The latter soon after took a friendly leave of us;

observing that where they lived, they had heard much evil of

our place; but now, after conversing with us and seeing the

Indians themselves, they were fully satisfied about everything.

On this, at the word of their captain, instead of keeping on the

road either up or down the river, as might have been expected

they would have done when they left us, if they intended to

cross the river on foot; they quickly descended the high ground

on which our town is built, and wading the Muskingum where

it has a considerable depth, went straight forward into the

thickest part of the forest, where there was no road. This

singular conduct, after we became better acquainted with the

circumstances attending their visit to us, seemed to us to be-

speak, that they were conscious that they had so conducted them-

selves, that there was no cause to pursue and apprehend them;

for they took the surest means, by a somewhat circuitous route

towards their homes, to elude their being successfully pursued in

order to apprehension.

There was in truth much reason to believe that these 10

men set off for our place with murderous designs against us;-

at least before they came to us, they expressed themselves to this

effect in the most suspicious terms. We were apprehensive,

taking all things together, that they might be spies, sent hither

by a greater number of persons, who were forming a plan of

mischief against us. At parting, their captain said, somewhat

significatively, that he expected to see us soon again. We

learnt that in the party were near relations of some of the

Guernsey militia who had lately been killed by the Indians near

Greentown (see diary 19 Sept). Some of them had said with

oaths to Br. Asa Walten in Beersheba, who happened to be near

the road as they passed by his house, that they were going to

Goshen to have revenge, and would kill all the Indians there.

Br. Asa Walten, in answer, expostulated sharply with them, on

the manifest impropriety of their coming so far to interfere, and

seek to disturb the Indians in Goshen, when every sensible man

in the neighborhood, who must know that if danger was to be

apprehended from them at all, they must be the first sufferers,

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was well satisfied that they should remain where they were, and

accounted them the very best safety that the country had, against

those Indians who were hostile. This he then further explained,

agreeable to the arguments used in our public advertisement;

(see diary 21 Sept.). In Gnadenhutten they were not quite so

bold and daring as Br. Asa Walten had found them; but how-

ever declared publickly, that they would kill two Indians who

lived with us, whom they named. Unfortunately, as they passed

through there, Br. Peter received no information of what per-

sons they were, or the language they used; as had he heard of

them they would probably in consequence received such an

impressive letter from him, as would have induced them to re-

turn home without delay. They were afterwards seen to stop

together on the road, as if undetermined what to do. They re-

mained over night at Br. Lewis Knauss's, which is only 41/2

miles from us; and here again they received none but favorable

accounts of our place. As they uttered no open threats against

us in Br. Knauss's house, and the family was ignorant of the

threats which they had before expressed, of course they were

not urged to desist from their intentions to come to us. Prob-

ably, if they really did intend to murder all, or some part of the

Indians who live with us-which is very likely-they gave up

their intention before they reached Br. Knauss's house, in con-

sequence merely of what they had heard among our white brn.

& srs., and especially from Br. Asa Walten.-It may appear al-

most unaccountable, that no one should have given us previous

notice of the approach of such very suspicious persons, who

travelled the high road avowedly in the character of murderers,

and publickly declared who they were going to destroy. But

the fact was, the general panic, even among our brn. & srs., and

some of our best friends, was so great, that almost every woman

was afraid to have her husband or near relative, appear to be

our friend, for fear that they in consequence might have to suf-

fer, perhaps for having merely given us humane information

with the view to save our lives. In this trying state of things,

Br. Peter Edmonds of Beersheba, whose wife is Sr. Mortimer's

sister, and his upgrown sons, and Sr. Mortimer's cousin the

single man Daniel Warner, were always our assured friends,

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who kindly regarded our case and circumstances precisely as if

they were their own, and rendered us the most essential serv-

ices. The Lord reward them for it!

As soon as the 10 men were gone, we warned our Indian

brn. & srs., and their children, not to go into their cornfields

to-day, not even to fetch anything to eat, and if our spies ac-

companied them. We also took every precaution to engage a

strong watch for the next night, in case it should be necessary;

and sent messages in different directions to give notice among

our friends of what had occurred, and to gain information where

the 10 men had gone to. Late in the evening we had the satis-

faction to learn, that they had been seen at such a distance from

here going homewards, that no doubt remained but they had,

for the present at least, left our neighborhood.-As Br. Morti-

mer happened to be well acquainted with Lieut. Col. Beatty of

Cambridge, who is the principal commanding officer in the

militia of Guernsey and Belmont counties, he addressed a letter

to him per post about the affairs; to which he received so satis-

factory an answer from that gentleman, concerning the enquiries

he had made, and the means he had taken to prevent our be-

ing troubled in the same manner again; that it was evident noth-

ing inimical to us, was to be apprehended again from that


Thus through the mercy of God, were we delivered in an-

other trouble, so that no evil had touched us. (Job. 5-19).

This affair of the ten men from Guernsey and Belmont counties,

naturally reminded us of the murder of 96 of our Indian brn.

& srs. and their children in the year 1782; which took place as

is known, (see Loskiel's mission history, part III chap. 10)

through an unauthorized association or murderers, who in that

case took upon themselves the name of militia; and like these

people, came too from a distance, to destroy peaceable Indians.

From the threats of unprincipled bandittis, who it was still to

be apprehended from various reports that we heard, might come

hither from a distance, we had now the most cause to expect

future alarms to our Indians; but we trusted firmly that our dear

Lord, who had hitherto so graciously protected us, would still

continue to be our help and our shield (Pi. 33. 20) in every trial.

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4th., Br. Luckenbach preached from   Mark 2. 3-12. Sev-

eral of our white brn. & srs. and other neighbors came to see us.

Mr. Itzkin, one of the commissaries for the army, applied to

the Indian Charles Henry to go for a short time with two of

his horses to the frontiers in the service of the United States.

In consequence of our interference, the horses only were en-

gaged; but Charles-much to his own satisfaction-pursued the

safer course, and remained at home.

5th., Br. Mortimer visited in Gnadhutten and Beersheba.

9th., Br. Hagen did the same. In the evening Br. Morti-

mer held a meeting to our cont. brn. & srs.

11th., he held the public meeting from the text of the day.

In the evening we enjoyed the h. communion blessedly with our

Indian brn. & srs.

13th., some of the inhabitants here, agreeable to the custom

of Indians when they are gathering in their corn, proposed stay-

ing out all night in their cornfields; but we earnestly advised

against the step, as being unsafe for them as yet; and they in

consequence relinquished their purpose.* At the commence-

ment of the present critical time here through the war, we

stipulated with all the Indians under our care, that they should

strictly follow all the advice which we should give them for their

safety. This they willingly promised to do; and also kept their

word. We reminded them on the occasion, as what was the cer-

tain from matter of fact, that had the Indian brn. & srs. who

went from  Sandusky to Gnadhutten in the year 1782 to gather

in their corn, followed the plain rules which were then given

them by their teachers, not to encamp over night in their corn

fields, but to secret themselves in small straggling parties in the

woods, and do as much as possible without fires; they could not

*On the 28th of the month the above mentioned lieut. Col. Beatty

of Cambridge wrote to Br. Mortimer: "In the mean time I think it would

be advisable for those Indians" (the Indians at Goshen) "to keep at

home as much as possible, and not venture out in the woods, or out of

the immediate neighborhood of their town, as there are many turbulent

and ill-disposed persons that would perhaps not stop to kill them,

should they see them in the woods, and would excuse themselves by say-

ing they took them to be hostile Indians." Some of the corn fields of

our Indians, are at a considerable distance from the town.

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have been seized upon as they were by the whites, and murdered

to the number of 96. We represented to them, that in the pres-

ent war, and as inhabitants of Goshen, their only hope of safety,

combined with their freedom, lay, under God, in their being as-

sociated with their teachers, letting them act for them, and then

implicity following their directions.

15th., the brn. Mortimer & Luckenbach went together to

pay a visit in Gnadenhutten and Beersheba.

18th., as on the 7th. ult. it was totally out of our power to

keep the festival of the married choir; but now everything ap-

peared to be peaceable round about us, we resolved to celebrate

it today; and the Lord made it to be to us a day of joy and

gladness. Br. Luckenbach kept the morning blessing, with a

fervent prayer to our Lord in the Delaware language. Br.

Mortimer held a discourse to the choir. Br. Luckenbach kept

the public meeting from John 4. 46 ve. At the lovefeast an

affectionate salutation from the general help. confe. in Bethle-

hem to the Ind. brn. & srs. here, which was delivered with par-

ticular reference to the late troubles which we had experienced,

was heard with great joy. The brn. & srs. were also assured

of the sympathizing love and fellow feeling that would be

awakened in the hearts of our dear brn. & srs. everywhere, when

they would hear of their late dangers & sufferings. They would,

with them, be thankful to our dear Lord for having so graciously

guarded them by his holy angels, and preserved them from all

harm; and would now, with renewed fervency, pray to our

Lord in their behalf, that they might show their thankfulness

to him for the deliverances which he had wrought for them

by living more to his praise than they had done hitherto. A

short address of encouragement was then made to them from

the words 1 Sam. 7. 12, "Hitherto hath the Lord helped us."-

Throughout the whole county in which we live, the dreadful

fears that had prevailed, of being attacked by hostile Indians,

were now fast subsiding.

19th., Br. & Sr. Oppelt and children, and sr. Peter and

children, of Gnadenhutten, made us the pleasure of a visit.

20th., Br. Mortimer visited our friends in New Phila-


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21st & 22d., we were gratified by agreeable visits from Br.

& Sr. Miller and daughter, on their way to and from New Phila-


25th., Br. Hagen went again to Gnadenhutten. In his very

infirm state of body, short rides proved salutary to him; and

at the recommendation of his physician, he took them frequently.

Br. Mortimer kept the public meeting from Luke 7. 41v.

28th & 29th., Br. & Sr. Mortimer and children made a most

pleasing visit among our brn. & srs. in Gnadenhutten and Beer-

sheba. In the latter place Br. Mortimer kept the funeral of a

child. In Gnadenhutten, on their return, they awaited the ar-

rival of the post, which brought a call to Br. Abraham Lucken-

bach, who is now here, to take upon himself the care of this

congn.; and as he forthwith accepted the same, Br. & Sr. Mor-

timer were thereby set at liberty to enter on the journey to

their destined station at New York, agreeable to the call which

they had received in March last.-Br. Hagen was also called

to return to Bethlehem.

30th, in the evening meeting, these proposed changes were

made known by Br. Mortimer to the brn. & srs., and recommended

to their prayers before our Lord; especially that they might

receive in love, and as from our Lord himself, their new, al-

ready well-known and much esteemed teacher, Br. Luckenbach,

and always love and obey him.

31st, Br. Mortimer went to Gnadenhutten and Beersheba

on business.

1 Nov., Br. Hagen visited in the same places. Br. Lucken-

bach kept the public meeting from Math. 22. 21.

During the week Br. & Sr. Mortimer and Br. Hagen were

busily employed in preparing for their proposed long journies

at this advanced season of the year.

8th, Br. Mortimer kept the public meeting from Math. 13-

16. In the afternoon Br. Luckenbach particularly and very

affectionately recommended Br. Hagen to the remembrance and

prayers of the cong. before our Lord; as he proposed setting

off this afternoon by way of New Philadelphia for Bethlehem.

He was desirous, on account of his weak state of health, to

commence the journey as soon as possible.

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13th, this solemn memorial-day in the Brethern's church

was celebrated in the usual manner here with a discourse and

prayer at 9 o'clock in the morning, in which Br. Luckenbach

treated very impressively of our Lord's being of a truth the

Head and Shepherd of his people. Afterwards Br. Mortimer

went once more to Gnadenhutten and Beersheba, to take leave,

in the name of himself and family, of our dear brn. & srs. there.

14th, Br. Hagen returned hither from New Philadelphia,

as he found that he could not set off from there on his journey, so

soon as he had expected. He and Br. & sr. Mortimer at a love-

feast, took leave in brotherly love and friendship of all the in-

habitants here, being assured also of their sincere love and re-

gard. At the conclusion Br. Mortimer expressed the very par-

ticular pleasure he felt, as he was now called elsewhere in the

service of our Lord, at surrendering the charge, under the Great

Shepherd himself, of the souls here, to a brother who is so well

known and beloved among our Indian brn. & srs., as Mr. Luck-

enbach is, and who speaks their language so well, Br. Mortimer

then held a separate meeting to the communicants.

15th, Br. Luckenbach preached from Luke 8. 43v. In the

evening all the comts. here enjoyed the h. comn., blessedly in

the nearness of our Lord, during which many tears were shed.

At the conclusion an Indian brother stood up quite unexpectedly

to us, and thanked Br. & sr.. Mortimer, in the name of the rest for

the love they had shewn them during the many (14) years past

that they had lived with them, and especially for having re-

mained with them during the late troublesome and dangerous

times; whereby, he observed, that Br. Mortimer, from know-

ing so many persons in the neighborhood, and all the circum-

stances here, had been enabled to judge better how to act, than

another teacher could have done, who was more a stranger here.

Every white man, the speaker noticed, had paid all respect to

what he said, & no one had ventured to oppose him. (Sister

Mortimer's situation was however at the same time extremely

difficult here; through frights and overexertion she was several

times taken seriously ill.) Also the great thankfulness of the

brn. & srs. for having received so very suitable a successor to

Vol. XXII- 17.

258 Ohio Arch

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him as Br. Luckenbach is, was simply and suitably expressed.

-This communion, and all that occurred thereat, especially

that we bound ourselves thereby to continued mutual love,

though far distant from each other, and to love and faithful-

ness to our Lord till death; were graciously owned by him.

In these days many of our white brn. & srs. and other

friends visited here, to take leave of Br. & sr. Mortimer, and

their four children, and Br. Hagen, and to praise our Lord

with us for his signal mercies to us all here, and especially for

the help that we, and our dear Indian brn. & srs., have always

in time of need richly experienced at his hands.

16th, all things were now in readiness for the journey of

our travellers; but they had not been able to enter on it as soon

as they had wished, on account of high water in the Muskingum,

which prevented their being able to cross it with their baggage.

17th, in the morning the waggons that were to convey Br.

& srs. Mortimer and their children, and Br. Hagen, to Pittsburg,

were got ready for the journey. Before starting Br. Lucken-

bach convened the Indian brn. & srs. and children in the church,

and most affectionately and emphatically, in their name took a

tender and solemn leave of them in a short discourse and prayer;

which was reciprocated with much emotion by Br. Mortimer.

Br. Miller and Br. Edmonds of Beersheba etc. were also pres-

ent. At about 1 o'clock p. m. the parting took place; which

was moving on both sides from long and close acquaintance;

and especially to the Indian sisters, from the consideration that

they had now no longer a white sr. living among them, to whom

they could freely unbosom themselves.

Letter from the Christian Indians at Goshen, Tuscarawas

County, Ohio, to the congregations of the United Brethern in

Pennsylvania and the adjacent States.

Dear brethern & sisters:

We heartily salute you all, particularly those who are per-

sonally known to us, as our dear brethern George H. Loskiel,

John Heckewelder, and John G. Cunow, and our dear sisters

Magdalene Loskiel, Susanna Zeisberger, Sarah Heckewelder,

Anna Senseman and Anna Rosina Gambold. We have not for-

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got them yet, but often think of them with much love and


We humbly salute you all: but we are quite unworthy to

call you our brn. & srs., because we still daily grieve our dear

Saviour so much. We are sensible that it is of his great mercy

only, that we remain still at this place, and have not as yet en-

tirely lost that feeling of his grace in our hearts, which we ex-

perienced when we first desired to receive the forgiveness of our

sins, and this blessing was conferred upon us.

Dear brethern & sisters: We wish to let you know, that

we feel ourselves sometimes in many respects, destitute and for-

saken, like poor orphans without father or mother, being only

few in numbers, and no one among us being duly capable of

taking charge of the whole.* Nevertheless we have great rea-

son to be thankful to our Saviour for having, of late especially,

safely conducted us through trying and difficult circumstances,

in these times of war; so that we are still alive and well.

Dear brethren and sisters: A principal reason why we

write to you is, to inform you, that we were very sorry last

spring when we first heard that the ministers at Bethlehem

had determined to call away from here our dear brother and

sister Mortimer. We were then so much grieved on this ac-

count, that we were utterly unable to reflect on the subject, in

order to give to you, or our brother Mortimer, an answer about

it. On consideration, we believed it to be our own fault that

we were to be deprived of him, as we were sensible that we

had justly deserved to be left without a teacher. Having de-

liberated together, and considered all our circumstances, we

said to each other that we could for the present say and do

nothing, but only recommend our situation to our Lord himself

in prayer, who we trusted would still be merciful to us.

Now dear brethern & sisters: We are again very much

rejoiced, and are thankful to our dear Lord, and also to you,

because another teacher is given to us, who will make known

to us the goodwill and words of God, namely our dear brother

*This alludes to the loss sustained by the death of brother William

Henry, since which time there is no Indian brother left in Goshen, who

can properly fill the station that he held as assistant to the missionary.

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Abraham Luckenbach. This is quite according to the wish of

our hearts; and we will love him, and obey all the good instruc-

tions and advice that he may think proper to give us.

Dear brethern and sisters: There is one thing more that

we wish to tell you, and to request your assistance about it.

During the late troublesome time here arising from the war,

many white people threatened to injure us, declaring that we

ought no longer to live on this land. We have reason to be-

lieve that it was for the sake of the land only, that they spoke

so hard against us, as they did not wish us to remain on it. We

beg therefore that you would let the great men in the city of

Washington know how we have been threatened, that our living

here may be made more safe and secure to us, and that bad

people may cease to threaten us about the land.

The Christian Indians living at Goshen, and in their name

(Signed) John Henry

Charles Henry

Goshen 16 Nov. 1812.                   Christn. G. Henry


[This ends the Rev. Benjamin Mortimer's entries in the

diary. The Rev. Abraham Luckenback here takes up the nar-

rative in German, of which the following is a translation.]

Nov. 17th, after they had besought in prayer upon their

knees in the morning meeting the gracious protection and care

of our dear Lord, and the Indian brethern and sisters had taken

the heartiest leave of them, whereby tears were shed on both

sides, brother and sister Mortimer and brother Hagen left here

by wagon for Bethlehem, and stayed over night in New Phila-

delphia, whence on the next day the wagon in which they had

laden their goods drove off in their company. Brother Miller

who had been visiting here from Beersheba returned today.

Nov. 18th, Brother Luckenbach betook himself to New

Philadelphia on business but did not see the brethern and sisters

any more.

But he visited Mr. Clark, county clerk, and requested him to

continue hereafter the promise which he had made Brother

Mortimer, and to acknowledge himself as a friend and patron

of the Goshen Indians, to support them in word and deed, and

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.           261


when dangerous times should occur, to send them news there-

of immediately, which he promised to do. In these days we

experienced very rough and cold weather, which reminded us

to sympathize with the circumstances which had fallen to the

lot of our sickly brethern and sisters upon their journey, and

awoke the sighs within us; may the Saviour graciously support

them in all experiences.

19th, a school was begun with 12 scholars, who showed the

greatest desire to learn, and in whom there appeared to be a

wish to go to school and learn verses. May the Saviour give

his blessing thereto and keep in their hearts the desire for learn-

ing and bless them therein.

21st, Brother Luckenbach went to Gnadenhutten on busi-

ness and returned home in the evening. The sisters Anna

Caritas and the elderly Christina were ill during these days and

were visited.

22d, service was held at the usual time at which the ex-

hortation was based upon Math. 25, 31-46.

26th & 28th, a considerable number of militia passed

through this neighborhood to New Philadelphia to appear at the

court-martial, since they had disobeyed the order to appear at

certain designated places. Little is heard of the usual cus-

tomary threats of the white people; also the alarms of danger

from wild Indians have as it were entirely disappeared; and we

thank the Saviour from our hearts for the quiet which we are

enjoying and hope that he will continue the same out of his

grace to us. The Indian brethern now dare to hunt again in

the neighborhood, and are so fortunate as to kill a deer almost

every time they go out, which is very encouraging for them

under the present circumstances, as they have been in great

need of meat for a long time, because they dared not allow

themselves to be seen in the neighborhood with weapons. An

especial care of God plainly appears to lie in this that in other

years the deer did not stop in such great numbers or so near

to these places as has now for some time been the case.

29th, preaching was held at the usual time; the weekly

meetings were kept up uninterruptedly as much as possible.

Tobias, an Indian who has now had permission to live for more

262 Ohio Arch

262      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

than two years, visited Brother Luckenbach and expressed

the desire to own a house of his own here, and to stay near the

congregation the rest of his life, and to abide by the word of

God as he heard it.

Dec. 3d, Charles Henry ventured out 8 miles from the set-

tlement alone in order to get a musket which he had hidden,

and toward evening returned safely home again without having

met any evilminded persons.

6th, the sermon in the service was based on Luke 21, 25-36.

8th, Brother Luckenbach went with Charles Henry to

Colonel Bay at New Philadelphia on business and had the op-

portunity to become acquainted with him, and to talk with him

about several things concerning the Indian congregation. In

these days we had very cold weather.

11th, Christian Henry was very kindly but earnestly spoken

with, as he had secretly indulged himself too much in brandy

at New Philadelphia, and was implored to guard himself, espe-

cially in the present dangerous times, against the misuse of

strong drink.

13th, in the meeting especial stress was laid upon the fact

that the word of God is a power of God to make all who be-

lieve on it happy, and which proves itself so up to this very

day to every faithful heart. The Indian Tobias together with

his wife Beade who had betaken themselves secretly to New

Philadelphia and had become intoxicated, were spoken to in the

presence of several Indian brethern very earnestly, and the

danger to body and soul which they could bring through such

a life was impressively shown them, and also the disgraceful

result which would come upon our place during the present war

time. They promised to repent and to keep from doing the

same in the future. Because of the present great cold and be-

cause several sisters were sick, the meeting was held from now

on in sister Zeisberger's former house, so that the meetings could

be held more regularly, because there was a stove there, and

school was held there, which was evident to the Indians sisters

and children.

20th, preaching was held at the usual time upon the text

for Sunday, John 1, 19-28. In the evening three white persons

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.            263


passed through here, who had stopped for some time about 9

miles from here on a hunting expedition, and who were bringing

several horse loads of deer meat home with them. They are

not near neighbors of ours, but they are people whose company

has always tended to harm for our Indian brethern and sisters,

and they were on this occasion the cause of several of our In-

dian brethern and sisters associating with them in the woods

against permission, and hunting with them. Brother Lucken-

back asked them to betake themselves no longer in the future

into the woods with our brethern when they were hunting, since

in the present dangerous times a great misfortune might arise

for the latter and new suspicions might be aroused.

24th, the weekly and monthly budgets arrived together with

a letter from Brother Cunow from the Helper's Conference and

formed a pleasant Christmas present. From the last letter it

was learned that at the writing brother and sister Mortimer

and brother Hagen had not arrived in Bethlehem which showed

us that it had occurred to them through the cold weather that

delays must be made. In the evening the Indian congregation

held a blessed lovefeast in which we considered, with blessing

for our hearts, the immeasurable love of our dear Saviour for

us poor fallen children of man, which he has made known to us

in such a remarkable and convincing manner, that he became

a man to our everlasting salvation, and clothed himself in our

poor flesh and blood, for which we, in our poor part, brought

him our weak thanks upon our knees, and prayed to the Christ

child in the manger as our Lord and Saviour and praised him

anew in our hearts. At the conclusion the school children, 12

in number, recited the Christmas verses, which gave the parents

and those present the greatest satisfaction, whereupon to their

great joy wax candles were given to the children, with which

as it was a calm night, they went home happily. An especial

blessed feeling of grace was awaked and perceptible in this

meeting, and the little brown number appeared to be rightly af-


25th, Christmas, preaching was held at the usual time, in

which the exhortation was based on the gospel of the day, Luke

2, 1-14, and especially on the joy which every child of God finds

264 Ohio Arch

264      Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

in his heart because a Saviour has been born for him. In the

evening a preparatory service was held for the communicant

brethern and sisters in preparation for the coming communion.

26th, in the individual interviews many of the communicants

bewailed their backsliding and said that the anxious thought

often occurred to them as to whether they would remain faith-

ful to the Saviour to the end, which awoke in them a desire to

come into a closer communion with the Saviour and forever

to put aside what made them so weary in their lives. In the

evening we enjoyed the flesh and blood of our Saviour in the

holy communion to the awakening of our poor souls, at which a

sister could not be present because of sickness. Her share was

given her the following evening on her sick bed, for which she

declared herself very thankful and said that nothing in the world

exceeded her joy in the Saviour and his word. So long as she

had improved she had willingly neglected no meeting, now,

however, she was so weak that she could no more go to the Holy

Communion and could think about nothing else, whereat she

began to weep. She was comforted by the fact that the Saviour

knew from experience all our weaknesses and had unbelievable

patience with them, and these should not separate us from him

but draw us so much the closer to him.

27th, the preaching was based upon Luke 2, 33-40 and

especially upon the benefits and blessings which lie for us in the

childhood of our Saviour and the weakness he took upon him-

self so graciously for us.

29th, Brother Luckenbach visited in Gnadenhutten and

Beersheba and returned in the evening.

31st, toward 12 o'clock we gathered at a lovefeast at the

close of the year, and remembered with thankfulness the many

benefits within and without, and especially the gracious and

mighty help of our faithful Lord in the danger which had ap-

proached so near to this place because of the restlessness of war,

and commended ourselves to him anew-in prayer upon our

knees to his gracious protection and guidance, in the knowledge

of our poverty, weakness and backsliding in that which we

should do for him-during the coming new year, in the lively

hope that he would continue to be gracious to this little flock of

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The Ohio Frontier in 1812.              265


souls taken from the heathen and would bring them to the end to

the glory and honor of his name. They are with all their

poverty within and without his once dearly bought property and

although their sins and backsliding are great yet his compassion

and faithfulness is greater and surmounts everything.

During the year one person has gone to her eternal home,

the late sister Anna Benigna.

There are living her [in Goshen]

3 married people ................................6 persons.

2  widows  .......................................  2  persons.

1 bachelor and 1 single man ... .................. 2 persons.

1   single      woman      ..................................                                                                1 person.

3  great    boys      ....................................                             3       persons.

1 great girl ...................................... 1 person.

4 boys ....................................... 4 persons.

7 girls ........................................  7 persons.


Total ....................................... 26 persons.

Of these 25 have been baptized; of whom 7 are communi




Abraham Luckenbach, born May 5, 1777, in Lehigh county,

Pa. Educated at Nazareth Hall, Nazareth, Pa. Became a

Moravian Missionary to the Indians in 1800 and so labored for

forty-three years. Died at Bethlehem, March 8, 1854. Edited

and translated some Moravian religious works into the Delaware


John Joachim Hagen, a Moravian Missionary, joined the

Goshen Mission about 1804. He had previously labored among

the Creeks and Cherokees of the South.

Simon Peter, David Peter and Dorcas Peter. David Peter

and John Heckewelder in October, 1799, reinterred the bones

of the Moravian Indians massacred at Gnadenhutten. Dorcas

Peter seems to have been one of the early settlers at the Salem

Mission, where he took charge of the society's store.

William  Henry   Gelelemend, grandson   of Netawatwes;

William was one of the most distinguished of the Moravian In-

dian converts. His father was chief of the Turtle tribe of the

266 Ohio Arch

266       Ohio Arch. and Hist. Society Publications.

Delawares. In succeeding his father as chief Gelelemend be-

came known as Killbuck, Jr., and under that name signed the

first Indian treaty ever concluded by a tribe with the United

States. It was made at Fort Pitt, September 17, 1778. He

joined the Moravians, at Salem, in 1788. In baptism he was

given the name William Henry. He was a great man, always

a firm friend of the whites. He died at Goshen in 1812.

Ska (Levi) was a Delaware convert of the Moravians and

acted as an assistant to the missionaries.

Oppelt, probably a German, a young missionary who led a

colony from Fairfield, Canada, and set up a station on the Pett-

quotting, near New Salem.

Beersheba, a small Moravian Mission situated on the west

side of the Tuscarawas, in what is now Clay township, Tus-

carawas county.

Brother Miller, same as George Godfrey Mueller, one of the

German Missionary founders of Beersheba.

John Henry, chief of a small band of the Mohawks, con-

verted by the Moravians.

Peter Edmonds, one of the first settlers on the Tuscarawas

reservation and a faithful missionary.